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    Expert forum
    Mechanism of Wdpcp in regulating coronary artery development
    LIU Xiang-yang1, CAI Chen-leng2
    2018, 38 (4):  361.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.001
    Abstract ( 353 )   PDF (4118KB) ( 803 )  
    Wdpcp, a planar cell polarity (PCP) effector gene, plays essential roles in organogenesis during embryonic development through regulating collective cell movement and ciliogenesis. WDPCP mutations are associated with Bardet–Biedl syndrome and Meckel–Gruber syndrome in human. This study revealed a novel role of Wdpcp in regulating coronary artery development in mouse, demonstrating a new pathogenic phenotype associated with mutations of this gene in human. Results of this study may help us to understand the etiology of coronary artery disease.
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    Original article (Basic research)
    Propofol activates rat hippocampal astrocytes time-dependently viaERK signaling pathway
    YU Wen-juan1, FANG Hong-wei2, YE Le2, WO Yan3, ZHU Hao2
    2018, 38 (4):  364.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.002
    Abstract ( 413 )   PDF (6835KB) ( 814 )  
    Objective · To detect the effects of propofol on rat hippocampal astrocytes and clarify its mechanism. Methods · According to the time after propofol injection, twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. 0 min, 45 min and 90 min group. Rats were administrated intraperitoneally with propofol (10 mg/mL, 100 mg/ kg body weight). The levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100β mRNA in rat hippocampus were evaluatedrealtime PCR. And cell viabilities and levels of GFAP mRNA were examined in primary cultured hippocampal astrocytes induced10 μmol/L propofol with or without 10 μmol/L extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059 pretreatment. Results · The mRNA levels of GFAP in the hippocampal tissue were (1.32±0.12) times (P0.000) and (1.12±0.09) times (P0.012) that in 0 min group, respectively,45 min and 90 min after injection of propofol. The mRNA levels of S100βin the hippocampal tissue were (1.14±0.11) times (P0.005) and (1.05±0.10)times (P0.284) that in 0 min group, respectively, 45 min and 90 min after injection of propofol. The mRNA levels of GFAP and S100β were time-dependently altered, first increasing, and then decreasing. In vitro, the cell viabilities (P0.041) and levels of GFAP mRNA (P0.026) in primary cultured hippocampal astrocytes were significantly elevated after propofol treatment, and these effects of propofol were reversedERK inhibitor PD98059.Conclusion · Propofol time-dependently upregulated the of GFAP and S100βvia ERK signaling pathway in rat hippocampal astrocytes, so as to activate astrocytes.
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    Expression of transcription factor Bach2 in CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its effect
    LU Yi-wen1, 2, ZHENG Ying-xia2, PAN Xiu-jun2, NIE Hong1
    2018, 38 (4):  369.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.003
    Abstract ( 348 )   PDF (5928KB) ( 796 )  
    Objective · To study the of transcription factor BTB and CNC homology 2 (Bach2) in CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its effect on cell function. Methods · The CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells active SLE patients and healthy volunteers were sortedflow cytometry. The of Bach2 in CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells was detectedfluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blotting. The correlation between the median flourscence indensity (MFI) of Bach2 in CD4+CD25+CD45RA- T cells and the disease activity index of SLE (SLEDAI) was analyzed. The MFI of Bach2 in IL-17+CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells was compared with that inIL-17-CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cellsflow cytometry. In Bach2 over system, the of IL-17 in CD4+CD25+CD45RA- T cells was detectedflow cytometry and the concentration of IL-17 in the culture supernants was detectedELISA. Results · The mRNA and protein s of Bach2 in CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells SLE patients were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (P<0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between the MFI of Bach2 and SLEDAI (R20.433, P0.001) in patients with SLE. The of Bach2 in IL17+CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells was significantly lower than that in IL-17-CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells (P0.013). When Bach2 was overexpressed, the percentage of CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells SLE patients expressing inflammatory factor IL-17 decreased significantly (P0.032) and the IL-17concentration in cell culture supernatants markedly decreased (P0.008). Conclusion · The of Bach2 in CD4+CD25+CD45RA-T cells SLE patients decreases, and over of Bach2 in the cells leads to the falling of IL-17.
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    Effect of APS-Ⅱ-2 on intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolarization arrest in bronchopulmonary dysplasia model rats
    LI Wen1, TAN Zhen2, LIU Cheng-bo1, WANG Zheng-tao3, ZHANG Yong-jun1
    2018, 38 (4):  374.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.004
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (8040KB) ( 733 )  
    Objective &middot; To investigate the role of APS-Ⅱ-2 (a kind of plant-derived natural drug) on amelioration of chorioamnionitis-induced alveolarization arrest and the underlying mechanism. Methods &middot; Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) model was constructedintra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) in SD rats (E16.5). The SD rats were randomly divided into control group (Saline group)、LPS model group (LPS+Saline group) and APS-Ⅱ-2administration group (LPS+APS-Ⅱ-2 group). Then neonatal rats in LPS+APS-Ⅱ-2 group were given an intraperitoneal injection with APS-Ⅱ-2 (50 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days after birth, whereas rats in LPS+Saline group and Saline group were administrated with an equal amount of normal saline. To examine pathologic change of pulmonary in neonatal rats, hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) staining was performed at postnatal day1 and 3. Then bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) SD rats were detectedthe technology of RNA-sequence to research the immunomodulation of APS-Ⅱ-2.Results &middot; APS-Ⅱ-2 administration group had drastically higher terminal air spaces (P0.033 at postnatal day1) and secondary septa counts at postnatalday1 and 3, respectively (P0.002, P0.026) than LPS-induced model group, while mean linear intercept was the opposite situation at postnatal day1and 3, respectively (P0.006, P0.004). The detection of RNA-sequence indicated that APS-Ⅱ-2 suppressed the of inflammatory cytokines such as Tlr3, Tlr7 and Tlr8 in BMDMs. Meanwhile, it also promoted some pleiotropic cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects such as Alox15 and Cd74. Conclusion &middot; Administration of APS-Ⅱ-2 could improve the pathology of BPD, thereby supporting the ethno pharmacological uses of the plant. This effect may be directly causedmodulatory effects of APS-Ⅱ-2 on inflammation.
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    Comparison between two rat models of cardiac arrest: asphyxiation and ventricular fibrillation
    GUO Jian1, WANG Shi-wei1, YANG Zheng-fei2, LU Xiao-ye1, YANG Qian1, ZHU Chang-qing1
    2018, 38 (4):  380.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.005
    Abstract ( 340 )   PDF (7476KB) ( 698 )  
    Objective &middot; To compare the differences in cardiac function and neurological function between asphyxia and ventricular fibrillation (VF)induced cardiac arrest rat model. Methods &middot; Twenty healthy adult male SD rats were randomly divided into VF group (n8), asphyxial group (n8)and sham group (n4). Cardiac arrest models were established in VF group and asphyxial groupVF and asphyxia respectively. All animals were observed for 24 h and advanced life support was offered for the first 1 h after resuscitation. During the 24 h, ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac output (CO) were measured with the help of cardiac ultrasonography at 1, 3, 5 and 6 h post resuscitation. Electrocardiographic changes, 24 h survival analysis and neurological deficit score (NDS) were also recorded and analyzed at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h post resuscitation. Results &middot; Both EF and CO decreased dramatically after resuscitation compared with sham group at the same time point (P0.000). At 1 h post resuscitation, the CO decreased (98.84&plusmn;4.86)mL/min to (59.17&plusmn;22.99) mL/min in VF group and (99.86&plusmn;10.34) mL/min to (46.02&plusmn;22.32) mL/min in asphyxial group, but there was no difference between the two groups (P0.792). At 3, 5 and 6 h post resuscitation, the CO in VF group was higher than that in asphyxial group (P0.041, P0.007,P0.020). At 1 h post resuscitation, the EF decreased (82.67&plusmn;6.21)% to (70.23&plusmn;13.24)% in VF group and (83.24&plusmn;3.01)% to (65.46&plusmn;13.11)%in asphyxial group, but no difference was observed between the two groups (P0.877). Then a recovery tendency was observed in both groups, but more obvious in VF group at 3 and 5 h post resuscitation (P0.031, P0.024). No difference was found between the two groups in survival rate during 24 h and the NDS after resuscitation, although the neurological function was greatly impaired. Conclusion &middot; VF and asphyxia are most commonly used methods to induce cardiac arrest, but these models may differ in cardiac function post resuscitation. Researchers need to choose appropriate models according to their study objectives.
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    Fructose induces HK-2 cells to express monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 through uric acid andreactive oxygen species
    WANG Qiao-ling1*, CHEN Xiao-huan2*, NI Zhao-hui1, GU Le-yi1, XU Chen-qi1, DAI Hui-li1
    2018, 38 (4):  386.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.006
    Abstract ( 378 )   PDF (8986KB) ( 830 )  
    Objective &middot; To investigate the mechanism of fructose-induced monocyte chemoattratant protein-1(MCP-1) production in HK-2 cells.Methods &middot; The HK-2 cells were divided into fructose incubated (1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) group, fructose and ketohexo-kinase inhibitor (KHK-IN) coincubation(fructose 5 mmol/L, KHK-IN was 12, 100 and 1 000 nmol/L, respectively) group, uric acid incubation (5, 15 and 50 mg/dL) group, fructoseand allopurinol co-incubation (fructose 5 mmol/L, allopurinol were 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/L) group, uric acid and allopurinol co-incubation (uric acid 50mg/dL, allopurinol respectively 0.01, 0.1and 0.5 mmol/L) group, H2O2 incubation (0.1 and 0.3 mmol/L) group, fructose and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) coincubation(fructose 5 mmol/L, NAC respectively 5, 10 and 50 mmol/L) group, and uric acid and NAC co-incubation (uric acid 50 mg/dL, NAC was 5, 10and 50 mmol/L, respectively) group. The quantitative PCR method and Western blotting method were used to observe the of MCP-1 mRNA andprotein. The effects of fructose and uric acid on the production of ROS in HK-2 cells were observedusing a fluorescent probe. Results &middot; Fructose dose-and time-dependently induced MCP-1 gene transcription and protein production in HK-2 cells, which could be blockedthe ketohexo-kinase blockers. Exogenous uric acid induced MCP-1 production in HK-2 cells. Allopurinol inhibited fructose, but not exogenous uric acid-induced MCP-1 . Both fructose and uric acid induced ROS generation. Incubation with H2O2 promoted MCP-1 production in HK-2 cells. NAC completely inhibited MCP-1production inducedfructose and H2O2. Conclusion &middot; Catalyzedthe ketohexo-kinase, fructose resultes the production of MCP-1 through uric acid and reactive oxygen species.
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    Ribosomal protein 16 overexpresses in prostate cancer and promotes tumor progression
    PAN Yu-long1, QI Jun2, ZHOU Liang1, ZHANG Tong-tong1, LI Qiang1
    2018, 38 (4):  394.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.007
    Abstract ( 340 )   PDF (6894KB) ( 699 )  
    Objective &middot; To investigate the effects of ribosomal protein 16 (RPS16) on tumorigenesis and development of prostate cancer. Methods &middot; Western blotting (WB) was used to detect the differences of RPS16 levels in 25 cases of prostate cancer tissues and 33 prostate hyperplasia, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect RPS16 levels in 48 prostate cancer tissues and 42 benign tissues. The relationship betweenRPS16 level and clinical pathological parameters of the patients was analyzed. The RPS16 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transiently transfected into DU145 and LNCaP cellsliposome method, including RPS16-siRNA1, RPS16-siRNA2 and RPS16-siRNA3. Random disturbance RPS16-siRNA-NC was used as negative control, cells without transfection were blank control. The efficiency of RNA interference was detectedWB 48-72 h after transfection. RPS16-siRNA with highest efficiency was chosen for subsequent cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry (FCM) and transwell assay into detect the effects of RPS16 on cell proliferation, cell cycle and invasion ability of DU145 and LNCaP cells. Results &middot; WB results showed that the level of RPS16 protein in the tissues of prostate cancer was higher than that of the benign group (P0.008). IHC results showed RPS16 protein level was significantly higher in tumor tissues than benign tissues (P0.009). RPS16 was not correlated with age and metastasis, but significantly correlated with clinical stage (P0.044) and pathological grade of the tumor (P0.004). RPS16 siRNA can not only significantly reduce the ofRPS16 protein in DU145 and LNCaP cells, but also inhibit the proliferation and invasion of the cancer cells, so that the cell cycle arrested in G2/M phase. Conclusion &middot; The high of RPS16 protein could enhance the proliferation and invasive ability of prostate cancer cells.
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    Methodological research of RNA extraction and quantitative analysis of long non-coding RNA formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human brain specimens
    Lü Ye-hui1, 2, 3, LI Zhi-hong1, LIU Li1, LI Shi-ying1, LI Kun1, YANG Zhi-fang1, CHEN Yi-jiu2, 3
    2018, 38 (4):  400.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.008
    Abstract ( 333 )   PDF (9028KB) ( 767 )  
    Objective · To compare the quality of RNA extracted fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissues and to explore the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) level. Methods · FFPE samples stored under various conditions and paired frozen brain tissues were collected and total RNA qualities were then detected. Amplification efficiency (AE) and stability of each RNA marker were calculated and analyzed based on real-time quantitative PCR. After selecting reference biomarkers, normalized △Ct values of candidate makers within different amplicon size were measured to assess the possibility of lncRNA quantification in FFPE tissues. Results · The purity of RNA extracted FFPE was relatively high, but the RNA integrity was lower than fresh samples. All biomarkers were successfully amplified and amplification efficiencies of long-chain RNA markers were correlated with amplicon sizes, sample treatment and preservation conditions, namely temperature and storage time. 5S, miR-9 and miR-125bachieved optimal AE and showed quite s in all specimens, therefore they were chosen as control markers. Compared with fresh samples, the △Ct values of only 2 lncRNA (HAR1F and MALAT1-L, whose amplicon size were both higher than 200 bp, respectively) increased in the FFPE samples kept in 4 ℃, while in FFPE tissues kept in room temperature, increments of the △Ct values were significant for most target genes except for short amplicon markers (<60 bp), which showed consistently s in all brain specimens. Conclusion · RNA integrity is affectedsample treatment and preservation conditions, but lncRNA levels in FFPE tissues can be accurately quantificatedusing optimal amplicon sizes and considerable reference markers.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Correlation between mild cognitive impairment and bone metabolism level in the elderly
    JIANG Qian-wen, CUI Pei-jing
    2018, 38 (4):  407.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.009
    Abstract ( 305 )   PDF (4918KB) ( 902 )  
    Objective &middot; To investigate the correlation between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and bone metabolism level in the elderly. Methods &middot; Fifty patients with MCI and ninety controls with normal cognitive function were recruited Department of Gerontology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Plasma levels of calcium and phosphorus metabolism indicators, bone resorption markers and bone formation markers were measured. Cognitive function was assessedmini mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA).Results &middot; Plasma level of osteocalcin was elevated in patients with MCI (P0.001) compared with controls, while plasma level of calcium was decreased in the MCI group (P0.045). Among patients with MCI, the score of MMSE positively correlated with plasma level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (r0.290,P0.041), while negatively correlated with plasma level of parathyroid hormone (r-0.349, P0.025). Conclusion &middot; MCI may be correlated with bone metabolism level in the elderly.
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    Prevalence of pre-existing direct-acting antiviral agents resistance-associated variants in genotype 1HCV/HIV co-infected patients
    JIANG Ling-yu1*, LI Yu-nong1*, HU Peng2*, SHE Sha1, ZHANG Zhen-fang1
    2018, 38 (4):  411.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.010
    Abstract ( 323 )   PDF (6027KB) ( 843 )  
    Objective &middot; To investigate the prevalence of pre-existing direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) resistance associated variants (RAVs) in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV)/ human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. Methods &middot; All NS3 and NS5B HCV sequences in genotype 1 HCV/HIV co-infected patients were retrieved NCBI GenBank database. And sequences were aligned and analyzed using software MEGA 5.0. Results &middot; In total, the overall prevalence of DAAs RAVs in NS3 region was high (26.06% and 38.18%, respectively), no matter in genotype 1a or genotype 1b. In genotype 1a, the high prevalence of RAVs mainly presented in the position Q80 (8.45%). In genotype 1b, S122 RAV was most observed(36.36%). It is worth noting that, RAVs in NS5B region were rare observed (0.77%) in this study, especially as no RAV was detected in any sequence of genotype 1a patients. Conclusion &middot; The prevalence of pre-existing RAVs is high in NS3 region but rare in NS5B region in HCV/HIV co-infected patients, suggesting that NS5B inhibitors based combination regions are a better choice for HCV/HIV co-infected patients.
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    Impact of disease management of caregivers on self-management behaviors among patients with chronic heart failure
    YANG Bei-bei1, ZHENG Zhan-zhan1, XIN Xiao2, WU Sheng-jia3, LI Xian-hua4
    2018, 38 (4):  416.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.011
    Abstract ( 299 )   PDF (8083KB) ( 701 )  
    Objective · To explore the impact and mechanism of disease management of caregivers on self-management behaviors among patients with chronic heart failure. Methods · A total of 231 dyads of outpatient chronic heart failure patients and their caregivers were assessedcaregivers contribution to self-care of heart failure index (CC-SCHFI), self-care of heart failure index (SCHFI) and Atlanta heart failure knowledge test(AHFKT-V2). IBM SPSS 22.0 was used to conduct the paired t test and Pearson correlation analysis. LISREL 8.80 was used to conduct the path analysis. Results · There were significant differences between caregivers and patients in maintenance behavior (P0.015), management behavior (P0.023) and self-efficacy (P0.001). There was no correlation between caregiver self-efficacy and patient heart failure knowledge and skill, but other variables were positively correlated, and r value ranged 0.129 to 0.575 (P<0.05). Patient self-management behaviors were directly influencedcaregiver disease management, patient heart failure knowledge and skill and patient self-efficacy, and indirectly influenced in partcaregiver disease management through patient heart failure knowledge and skill and patient self-efficacy. Conclusion · Caregiver disease management not only can directly influence patient self-management behaviors, but also can indirectly influence patient self-management behaviors through patient heart failure knowledge and skill and self-efficacy. Health care workers should carry out family-centered health education, and help caregivers actively participate in disease management of patients with heart failure; for those patients whose caregivers cant change their disease management behaviors, health care workers should also improve their self-management behaviorsimproving patients′ heart failure knowledge and skill and self-efficacy.
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    Assessment of safety about therapeutic cardiac catheterization in congenital heart disease children with recent upper respiratory tract infection
    ZHANG Sen, CAI Mei-hua, HE Pan, ZHANG Rui-dong, HUANG Yue, ZHENG Ji-jian
    2018, 38 (4):  422.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.012
    Abstract ( 360 )   PDF (6075KB) ( 818 )  
    Objective · To explore the safety of elective therapeutic cardiac catheterization in congenital heart disease (CHD) children with recent upper respiratory tract infection (URI) (within two weeks), so as to provide guidance for clinical anesthesia management. Methods · A total of 140 CHD children of American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) II~III undergoing tracheal intubation general anesthesia for elective therapeutic cardiac catheterization, aged 3 months to 15 years, were divided into URI group and non-URI group according to history of recent URI. The incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAEs) [i.e. laryngospasm, bronchospasm, breath holding ≥15 s, pulse blood oxygen saturation (SpO2)<95%( ≥10 s),cough, and glossoptosis] and postoperative dysphoria, fever, copious sputum, and vomiting within 24 h after operation were observed and compared. Results · Compared with non-URI group, recent URI increased significantly the overall incidence of PRAEs (any complications of PRAEs) (P0.001),particularly the incidence of SpO2<95% (P0.014) and cough (P0.000). Compared with children aged 4-15 in URI group, the overall incidence of PRAEs (P0.003), SpO2<95% (P0.018), and cough (P0.027) of children younger than 3 years increased significantly. Besides, compared with non-URI group, recent URI increased significantly the incidence of postoperative copious sputum (P0.002). Conclusion · Recent URI increases significantly the incidence of perioperative complications in CHD children undergoing elective therapeutic cardiac catheterization. These complications are short and easily managed, and no serious adverse events occurred in CHD children.
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    Value of hypoxia-inducible factor 1&alpha; in diagnosis and prognosis of acute decompensated chronic heart failure
    SUN Ke-yuan1, HUANG Gao-zhong1, YUAN Fang2, CHEN Shi-hong3, FU Guo-xiang1
    2018, 38 (4):  426.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.013
    Abstract ( 432 )   PDF (5564KB) ( 812 )  
    Objective · To investigate the value of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in diagnosis and prognosis of acute decompensated chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods · 32 patients with acute decompensated CHF (Group A), 33 patients with sCHF (Group B) and 30 controls (Group C) were included. HIF-1α, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and other biochemical indicators in blood were detected. Length of stay and readmission frequency within 3 months of Group A were recorded. Correlations between HIF-1α and other indicators were analyzed. ROC curves of HIF-1α and BNP were developed to compare their diagnostic values. Results · The HIF-1α and BNP levels of Group A were both significantly higher than those of Group B and Group C (P<0.05). HIF-1α was positively correlated with serum creatinine, hemoglobin, BNP, length of stay and readmission frequency within 3 months(P<0.05). Areas under curves of HIF-1α and BNP showed no statistically difference (P>0.05). Conclusion · HIF-1α has a certain value in diagnosis and prognosis of acute decompensated CHF.
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    Clinical results of HCR compared with OPCABG on two-vessel coronary artery disease with proximal left anterior descending stenosis: a propensity-score-matched follow-up study
    ZHU Peng-xiong, QIU Jia-pei, XU Hong, XIE Bo-tao, LIU Jun
    2018, 38 (4):  430.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.014
    Abstract ( 286 )   PDF (6228KB) ( 883 )  
    Objective &middot; To explore the difference between hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting(OPCABG) on two-vessel coronary artery disease with proximal left anterior descending stenosis with propensity score matching. Methods &middot; The patients with two-vessel coronary artery disease with proximal left anterior descending stenosis who underwent isolated HCR or OPCABG were selected in Ruijin Hospital January 2009 to December 2016. The propensity score methodology was used to obtain risk-adjusted outcome. Kaplan-Meier analysis was applied to estimation of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE)-free survival rate and target vessel revascularization (TVR)-free survival rate. Results &middot; The average follow-up time was 59 months (13&ndash;104 months). The length of hospital stay of HCR group was significantly shorter than that of OPCABG group [(15.3&plusmn;4.5) d vs (17.6&plusmn;5.4) d, P0.027]. There was no statistical difference in other short-term clinical endpoints in hospital. In midterm, there was no statistical difference in the rate of MACCE (11.4% vs 13.3%, P0.968), death (2.3% vs 4.4%, P0.984), myocardial infarction(2.3% vs 2.2%, P0.485), stroke (4.5% vs 6.7%, P0.979) and TVR (4.5% vs 2.2%, P0.984) between two groups. And there was no statistical difference in MACCE-free survival rate (P0.906) and TVR-free survival rate (P0.541) between two groups. Conclusion &middot; HCR provides favorable midterm outcomes for selected patients with two-vessel coronary artery disease with proximal left anterior descending stenosis. It might provide a promising alternative to OPCABG.
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    Prognostic analysis and bilateral bleeding risk factor analysis of chronic subdural hematoma
    YAO Wen-yi, YIN Yu-hua
    2018, 38 (4):  435.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.015
    Abstract ( 313 )   PDF (5180KB) ( 758 )  
    Objective · To analyse the relating factors that influence the prognosis of chronic subdural hematoma(CSDH) after drilling drainage and to explore the bilateral bleeding risk factors of CSDH. Methods · Four hundred and forty patients with CSDH who underwent drilling drainage were retrospectively analysed. Clinical data, including medical history, signs, blood coagulation function and imaging examination were collected. Spearman correlation analysis and ordinal Logistic regression analysis were performed to assess the relationships between various variables and the prognosis, and univariate analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were performed to explore the risk factors that lead to the occurrence of bilateral bleeding. Results · Spearman correlation analysis indicated that age, medication history of anticoagulant drugs, bilateral hematoma or not, the thickness of the hematoma and volume of intracranial gas on the first post-surgery day and preoperative Markwalder grade were associated with postoperative Markwalder grade (P<0.05). Ordinal Logistic regression analysis showed that medication history of anticoagulant drugs and preoperative Markwalder grade were the independent risk factors (P0.028, P0.000). Univariate analysis of the bilateral bleeding indicated that age, medication history of anticoagulant drugs and thrombin time were statistically different between unilateral and bilateral CSDH (P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that thrombin time was the independent risk factor (OR1.147, 95%CI 1.005-1.309, P0.042). Conclusion · Age and medication history of anticoagulant drugs were closely related to the bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. The higher the preoperative Markwalder grade is, the higher the postoperative Markwalder grade is. The prognosis of patients without anticoagulant drugs is better than those users.
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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Validity and reliability of osteoporosis prevention and control behavior scale for health care workers in community
    SHI Yue1, WANG Ze-zhou1, SHEN Qiu-ming1, Lhakpa Tsamlag1, WAN He-ping2, YANG Ying-hua3, SHEN Tian1, CAI Yong1
    2018, 38 (4):  439.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.016
    Abstract ( 363 )   PDF (7594KB) ( 824 )  
    Objective &middot; To compile the osteoporosis prevention and control behavior scale for health care workers in community and evaluate its validity and reliability. Methods &middot; In 20 standardized diagnosis and treatment pilot community health service centers for osteoporosis in Shanghai,400 healthcare workers were conveniently sampled to conduct the survey and 20 of them who were randomly sampled underwent retest 2 weeks later. The validity of the scale was evaluatedcontent validity and structural validity. The reliability of the scale was testedCronbachs &alpha; coefficient, retest reliability and split-half reliability. Results &middot; A total of 19 items were retained after project analysis. Scale-level content validity index/universal agreement (S-CVI/UA) and scale-level CVI/average (S-CVI/Ave) were 0.944 and 0.992, respectively, after an entry with item-level CVI (I-CVI) less than 0.78 was deleted. Four common factors were extractedexploratory factor analysis, and the cumulative variance contribution rate was 85.94%. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the model was consistent with the theoretical assumption, and the fitness indexes &chi;2/df, CFI, GFI, and RMSEA were 3.323, 0.971,0.902, and 0.076, respectively. The overall Cronbachs &alpha; coefficient of this scale was 0.978 and the Cronbachs &alpha; coefficients of the four dimensions were all over 0.9. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of each item was greater than 0.7, and the ICC of the total scale was 0.654. The split-half reliability coefficient was 0.932. Conclusion &middot; The osteoporosis prevention and control behavior scale has good reliability and validity and can be used to evaluate the implementation of osteoporosis prevention and control behavior of health care workers in community.
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    Review
    Research progress in mechanisms of self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells
    LIN Nan-he, ZHU Zi-jue, LI Zheng
    2018, 38 (4):  445.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.017
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (7528KB) ( 690 )  
    Spermatogenesis originates spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). SSCs can continually renew and eventually differentiate into spermatozoa under control of various growth factors, microenvironments and self-signaling. The molecules involved in SSCs self-renewal include glial cell-derived nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and downstream signaling pathways, as well as the transcription factors and the epigenetic regulators. Molecules related to SSCs differentiation include retinoic acid, a variety of transcription factors and the eptigenetic regulatory factors. The research on the mechanism of SSCs self-renewal and differentiation is of great significance for the understanding of spermatogenesis and the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. This review summarized the exogenous factors, transcription factors, and epigenetic regulators that are involved in the regulation of SSCs self-renewal and differentiation in recent years.
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    Application of electrocardiogram-based cardiopulmonary coupling technique in sleep-related diseases
    FU Hao, ZHAO Ya-juan, WANG Yong
    2018, 38 (4):  450.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.018
    Abstract ( 550 )   PDF (6815KB) ( 982 )  
    Sleep problems have become a common health problem nowadays, and researches on sleep disorders have become a hot topic. Polysomnography (PSG) is the most commonly used method of sleep monitoring in sleep research, but its operation process is cumbersome and complicated, which is likely to ca"first night effect", affecting the compliance of the subjects and the reliability of the monitoring results. In 2005, the cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) technique based on electrocardiogram signals was used for sleep assessment for the first time, and now it has been widely used in sleep monitoring and analysis of patients with sleep apnea syndrome, sleep disorders, insomnia, depression or other sleep-related diseases and the healthy people, to some extent making up for the lack of traditional PSG technology. It has the advantages of simplifying the operation and improving the sensitivity of the information effectively. However, CPC technique also has the limitations in target crowd, function and use, which can be improvedthe developments of CPC algorithm and the cross-system integration of nerve in the future.
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    Roles of gut microbiota in the occurrence and development of polycystic ovary syndrome
    WANG Yin-yu1, LIU Ye1, HUANG He-feng1, 2
    2018, 38 (4):  454.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.019
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (6993KB) ( 508 )  
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a gynecologic endocrine disorder with complex etiology and pathogenesis. Many women of reproductive age are influencedthis disease due to infertility. The pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear despite increasing studies in recent years. It is generally accepted that insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and abnormal follicle development play a pivotal role in PCOS. Gut microbiota becomes a research hotspot in the aspect of infectious, immune and metabolic diseases recently. Previous studies have found that gut microbiota could modulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin, and affect metabolism of androgen and follicle development, providing us a new idea for unravelling the pathogenesis of PCOS. Based on these researches, fecal microbiota transplantation may be a promising treatment in rectifying intestinal microecology imbalance and improving metabolism. This paper reviewed recent research advances in the roles of gut microbiota in the occurrence and development of PCOS.
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    Development of vaccines for prevention of Klebsiella pneumoniae
    WU Guang-xi, SHI Xue-yin, HE Bin
    2018, 38 (4):  458.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.020
    Abstract ( 430 )   PDF (8952KB) ( 665 )  
    Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common caof nosocomial respiratory tract, and the second most frequent caof Gram-negative bacteraemia and urinary tract infections. Drug resistant isolates remain an important hospital-acquired bacterial pathogen, prolong hospital stays, and are especially problematic in high impact medical areas such as intensive care units. A variety of preventive measures were applied to reduce such incidences.The immune therapies for Klebsiella pneumoniae include active immunization and passive immunization. Many trials for constructing effective vaccines are followed, including inactivated vaccines, polysaccharide vaccine, conjugate vaccine, protein vaccine, and nano vaccine. This review was about the development of vaccines for the prevention of Klebsiella pneumoniae.
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    Role of phosphoglycerate mutase 1 in the occurence and development of tumor
    LIANG Qian1, 2, SHEN Ying1, 2
    2018, 38 (4):  463.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.021
    Abstract ( 422 )   PDF (6459KB) ( 685 )  
    Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) as one of the most important enzymes for glycolysis pathway, is highly expressed in multipletumor tissues and negatively correlated with the prognosis of cancer patients. PGAM1 catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) to2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG) in glycolysis pathway, then promoting anabolic pathways, energy generation, and maintaining redox balance during cancercell proliferation and metastasis. The small molecule PGAM1 inhibitors have emerged as a promising strategy for anti-tumor therapy. In this review, the significance of PGAM1 in tumor was reviewed and the research progress of PGAM1 inhibitors was also introduced.
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    Research progress of biological effects of deuterium-depleted water
    LUO An-ling, ZHENG You-li, CONG Feng-song
    2018, 38 (4):  467.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.022
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (9061KB) ( 587 )  
    When the deuterium concentration of water is lower than 0.015%, the water is known as deuterium-depleted water (DDW), deuterium-poorwater or super light water. Deuterium-depleted water may affect the biochemical and metabolic processes of living organisms, for it has some biologicaleffects such as anticancer effect, antioxidant effect, hypoglycemic effect, antidepressant effect and so on. Deuterium-depleted water appears to have littletoxic side effects and is convenient to administer, so it may act as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in clinical treatment of diseases. In this paper, advances inresearch on biological effects of deuterium-depleted water were reviewed.
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    Role of BV8 and its antibody in angiogenesis
    LIU Jin-quan1, XIE Bing2
    2018, 38 (4):  472.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.023
    Abstract ( 508 )   PDF (8412KB) ( 497 )  
    BV8, a lately defined secreted protein, is proved to play an important role in the angiogenesis process of endocrine, cardiovascular system, kidney and other organs. Moreover, it contributes to the CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cell-dependent tumor neo-vascularization. Meanwhile, anti-BV8 antibodytherapy has been shown to be against solid tumors via inhibition of angiogenesis in animal models. This review systematically introduced the currentknowledge on BV8 structure to function, mechanism to its role in diseases. Consequently, this review will probably provide new ideas anddirection to the new target of the current anti-vascular therapy for cancer and to the future investigation.
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    Effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in optic nerve protection
    SHI Dan-li,WANG Ruo-bing, LIU Lin
    2018, 38 (4):  477.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.024
    Abstract ( 307 )   PDF (6331KB) ( 504 )  
    Neuronal death is thought to be irreversible. In optic nerve-related diseases, the death and axonal loss of retinal ganglion cells could leadto irreversible visual impairment. A large number of studies support the hypothesis that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), onceactivatedparticular ligands, could have a potential neuroprotective effect on the peripheral organs and the central nervous system suffering acuteor chronic injury. Optic nerve belongs to the extension of white matter in the central nervous system and shares similar pathophysiological processes with the central nervous system, which makes PPARs a hot spot in the field of optic nerve protection. This paper reviewed the effect of PPARs in optic nerve protection and its possible mechanism.
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    Recent research progress in the field of translational medicine
    WU Hui1, ZHANG Xin-man2, DING Wen-jing1, QIU Xiao-chun1
    2018, 38 (4):  481.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.04.025
    Abstract ( 317 )   PDF (10219KB) ( 541 )  
    This article summarizes the research progress in the field of translational medicine in the recent months, and carries out an inventory of the frontier important journals(such as Nature, Science, Clin Invest, Diabetes)into provide references for scientists and doctors.
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