›› 2012, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (4): 437-.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.04.015

• Monographic report (Urinary dysfunction and pelvic reconstruction) • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Research progress of etiology of female anorectal dysfunction based on the Integral Theory

ZHANG Rui, WU Qing-kai   

  1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200233, China
  • Online:2012-04-28 Published:2012-04-27


According to the Integral Theory, Peter Petros and Michael Swash from Australia presented the Musculo-Elastic Theory for anorectal function and dysfunction in females in 2008. The theory stated that anorectal dysfunction in females is mainly caused by lax suspensory ligaments that inactivate anorectal muscle forces. Vagina slings have been used to repair the damaged ligaments not only to treat the urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, but also fecal incontinence caused by delivery injury.

Key words: anal incontinence, Integral Theory, vagina sling