• Original article (Clinical research) • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Association of morning hypertension with heart rate and heart rate variability

GUO Qian-hui, WANG Fei, CHENG Yi-bang, ZHANG Dong-yan, LI Fei-ka, LI Yan   

  1. Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China
  • Online:2016-08-29 Published:2016-08-31
  • Supported by:

    National Key Technology Research and Development Program during the “12th Five-Year Plan”, 2011BAI11B04; Shanghai Municipal Education Commission—Gaofeng Clinical Medicine Grant Support, 20152503


Objective · To analyze the association of morning hypertension with heart rate and heart rate variability and explore the association between sympathetic activity and morning hypertension. Methods · We recruited outpatients who visited the Department of Hypertension from Nov. 2010 to Jun. 2015 and were suspected of hypertension with no anti-hypertensive treatment. The 24 h ambulatory blood pressure was monitored and time domain and frequency domain indexes of heart rate variability were measured. The morning hypertension was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure of at least 135 mmHg or a mean diastolic blood pressure of at least 85 mmHg within 2 hours after getting up in the morning. Results · Of 596 subjects, 354 (59.4%) had morning hypertension. The Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of morning hypertension increased with heart rates in sitting and supine positions, increased heart rate within 24 h and low frequency (LF) heart rate variability in supine position (P<0.01). After adjustments for sex, age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, fasting blood glucose, and serum total cholesterol, the associations of morning hypertension with 24 h heart rates and LF heart rate variability were still statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion · Morning hypertension is associated with increased heart rate and LF heart rate variability, indicating the association between morning hypertension and activated sympathetic system.

Key words: morning hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, heart rate, heart rate variability