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    Original article (Basic research)
    Construction of cell lines with shRNA-FKBP12 and stable re-expression of FKBP12
    CHEN Si, CHEN Xin, ZHAO Yong-xu, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  301. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.001

    Abstract ( 831 )   PDF (784KB) ( 1102 )  

    Objective To construct cell lines with shRNA-FKBP12 (FK506 binding-protein 12, encoded by the gene FKBP1A) and stable re-expression of FKBP12 in lung cancer cell line A549 and explore the functions of FKBP12. Methods Three siRNAs with core sequences in FKBP1A 3′ UTR region were designed and only targeted endogenous FKBP12. The shFKBP12 in pLKO-1-puro vector was constructed with effective core sequences provided by siRNA. The shFKBP12 was packed in lentivirus and transfected into the A549 cell line, and the cell line with down-regulated expression of FKBP12 was obtained. The expression of FKBP12 was recovered by pcDNA3.1 vector with screening marker of neo gene and the cell line with recovered expression of FKBP12 that was not intervened by shRNA was screened. The outcome of down-regulation of expression and re-expression was evaluated by the real-time PCR and Western blotting and the phenotype of cell line was primary analyzed. Results Both mRNA and protein expressions of FKBP12 were inhibited and the interference efficiency were more than 75% (P<0.01). FKBP12 did not affect the morphology and proliferation of A549 cells, but down-regulated the expression of downstream transcription-regulation protein 4E-BP1 (eIF4E-binding protein 1) of mTORC1 (mammalian target of Rapamycin complex 1). Conclusion A549 cell lines with knockdown and stably re-expression of FKBP12 are successfully constructed which will be helpful for studying the functions of FKBP12.

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    Effects of distribution of AMPA receptors on incidence of Parkinson disease and dyskinesia
    GAN Jing, QI Chen, ZHANG Su-fang, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  308. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.002

    Abstract ( 533 )   PDF (720KB) ( 1226 )  

    Objective To observe changes of the subcellular distribution of subtypes of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors in the striatum of Parkinson disease (PD) and dyskinesia [levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID)] rat model. Methods Neurotoxin 6-hydroxydoapmine (6-OHDA) was used to establish the PD rat model. PD rats were intraperitoneally injected with levodopa to establish the LID rat model. The surface receptor cross-linking assay was adopted and changes of levels of AMPA receptor subtypes at different locations of surface pools and intracellular pools of striatal neurons were detected by the Western blotting. Results The subcellular distribution of subtypes of AMPA receptors in the striatum of PD rats showed no changes. AMPA total protein and the distribution of AMPA in surface pools and intracellular pools of the striatum of LID rats were not significantly affected by the chronic induction of levodopa. Conclusion Changes of the distribution of AMPA receptors have no significant effect on the incidence of PD or LID.

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    Expression of TET1 in endometrial lesions and its effects on proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells
    XIE Bing-ying, ZHANG Zhen-bo, YANG Yong-bin, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  316. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.003

    Abstract ( 652 )   PDF (1054KB) ( 1300 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) of different types of endometrial lesions and the effects of intervening the expression of TET1 on biological behaviors of endometrial cancer cell line Hec-1a and Ishikawa cells. Methods The expression of TET1 was detected by the immunohistochemistry. TET1-siRNA was designed, synthesized, and transfected to Hec-1a and Ishikawa cells. Cells with transfection reagent served as negative controls. The efficiency of transfection was detected by the Western blotting. Variations of proliferation, invasion, migration, and cycle of cells were detected by the SRB, Transwell assay, wound scratch assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. Results The expression of TET1 in endometrial tissues increased with the development of pathologic types. The expression of TET1 of the intervention group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The proliferation, invasion, and migration of endometrial cancer cells were more or less inhibited and cell cycle was arrested at G1/S phase after the expression of TET1 was intervened. Conclusion The expression of TET1 in tissue of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer is significantly higher than that in normal tissue. The proliferation, invasion, and migration of endometrial cancer cells are inhibited and cell cycle is arrested at G1/S phase after the expression of TET1 was intervened, which suggest that TET1 plays an important role in the proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells.

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    Effect of berberine on macrophage phenotypes of intestinal polyps using FAP animal models
    PIAO Mei-yu, CAO Hai-long, HE Na-na, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  323. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.004

    Abstract ( 656 )   PDF (486KB) ( 1158 )  

    Objective To observe the effect of berberine on the phenotype of macrophages in the intestinal polyp tissue of Apc(Min/+) mice of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) animal model and explore the mechanism of treating FAP. Methods Twenty 4-week-old SPF Apc(Min/+) mice were randomly divided into the control group and berberine group (administrated with berberine of 0.1% in drinking water). Mice were sacrificed after being continuously administrated for 12 weeks. Expressions of macrophage marker F4/80, M1 macrophage marker inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS), and M2 macrophage marker macrophage mannose receptor (MR) in the polyp tissue were detected by the immunohistochemistry method. The mRNA expressions of iNOS, MR, and IL-10 were detected by the real-time PCR. Results Compared with the control group, the total number of intestinal polyps of the berberine group was significantly smaller (t=16.727, P=0.001); the expression of F4/80 in stroma of intestinal polyps significantly decreased (t=5.327, P=0.043); the expression of iNOS significantly increased (t=7.335, P=0.004); the expression of MR significantly decreased (t=5.634, P=0.016); the mRNA expression of iNOS significantly increased (t=7.827, P=0.035); and the mRNA expressions of MR and IL-10 significantly decreased (t=6.923, P=0.039; t=8.135, P=0.026). Conclusion Berberine can inhibit the growth of intestinal polyps of Apc(Min/+) mice by altering the phenotype of macrophages in the intestinal polyp tissue.

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    Establishment of culture model of seminiferous tubules treated by ethane dimethanesulfonate in vitro
    ZHANG Lei, ZHANG Qi-hao, SU Zhi-jian, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  327. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.005

    Abstract ( 612 )   PDF (837KB) ( 1074 )  

    Objective To establish the culture model of seminiferous tubules treated by ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) in vitro. Methods Male SD rats were intraperitioneally injected with EDS 7 d before experiment. Seminiferous tubules of rats were removed and cultured in vitro, and divided into the basic treatment group [treated by insulin-transferin-selenium (ITS), i.e. the ITS group] and luteinizing hormone (LH) treatment group (treated by ITS and LH, i.e. the ITS+ LH group). EdU staining was adopted to detect the proliferation of stem Leydig cells. Radioimmunoassay and 3β-HSD staining were employed to detect the secretion of testosterone and differentiation of stem Leydig cells. Seminiferous tubules were isolated from testicles of adult male mouse and treated by EDS of different concentrations. Then seminiferous tubules were treated by ITS (ITS group) and ITS+LH (ITS+ LH group). The secretion of testosterone of culture supernatant was detected by the radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with the ITS group, the proliferation of stem Leydig cells of seminiferous tubules of the ITS+LH group was more significant. The secretion of testosterone was consistent with the development and differentiation of Leydig cells. The production of testosterone of the ITS+LH group was large and the duration was long after being treated by LH, which showed that the culture model of seminiferous tubules was sensitive to LH. EDS of 1.72 mmol/L effectively killed mature Leydig cells of seminiferous tubules. Testosterone was produced after the model was cultured and the testosterone level of culture supernatant of seminiferous tubules of the ITS+LH group was significantly higher than that of the ITS group (P<0.01), which indicated that EDS could kill mature Leydig cells and the model was also sensitive to LH. Conclusion The development and differentiation processes of stem Leydig cells of the male rat and mouse models and the culture model of seminiferous tubules in vitro are similar. The culture model is suitable for studying the development and differentiation of Leydig cells.

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    Expression of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.6 in dorsal root ganglions of rat model of bone cancer pain
    FAN Zhi-dan, MA Ke, JI Xiao-yan, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  333. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.006

    Abstract ( 620 )   PDF (506KB) ( 1089 )  

    Objective To establish a rat model of bone cancer pain and observe the expression of voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.6 in dorsal root ganglions (DRG). Methods Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e. the Walker256 group (n=15), sham group (n=10), and normal control group (n=10). The Walker256 group underwent intra-tibial injection of syngenetic Walker256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The sham group received intra-tibial injection of normal saline. The normal Wistar rats served as normal controls. Changes of body weight were observed and pain thresholds of mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 d after the rat pain model was established. Pathological sections of tibia that underwent the injection were prepared 20 d after the rat pain model was established. The development of the bone tumor was observed and the mRNA expression of Nav1.6 in L5-L6 DRG was detected by real-time PCR. Results The Walker256 group showed gradual development of both mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. The mRNA expression of Nav1.6 in DRG of the Walker256 group was significantly higher than those of the sham group and normal control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The rat model of bone cancer pain established by intra-tibial injection of syngenetic Walker256 mammary gland carcinoma cells is a reliable pain model of bone metastases. The mRNA expression of Nav1.6 in DRG increases, which suggests that Nav1.6 may involve in the cancer-induced bone pain.

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    Inhibition of the lipogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by miR-143 via suppressing FASN
    LI Wei-ping, LI Jin-ping, LI Yuan-hong, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  337. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.007

    Abstract ( 481 )   PDF (739KB) ( 1129 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of miR-143 on the lipogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and the molecular mechanism. Methods Expressions of miR-143 of the clinical hepatocarcinoma tissue, para cancer tissue, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, and normal liver cell line were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The effect of miR-143 on the lipogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells was detected by the oil red O staining assay. The effect of miR-143 on the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) of hepatocellular carcinoma cells was detected by the Western blotting. The effects of miR-143 and its inhibitor on the activity of reporter gene vector FASN-CDS were detected by the reporter gene assays. Results The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of miR-143 of the clinical hepatocarcinoma tissue and HepG2 cells significantly lower than that of the para cancer tissue and Chang liver cell line (P<0.01). The results of oil red O staining assay indicated that miR-143 significantly decreased the lipid formation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The results of qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that miR-143 significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of FASN. The results of reporter gene assays indicated that miR-143 in HepG2 cells significantly decreased the activity of FASN-CDS (P<0.01), while the inhibitor of miR-143 significantly increased the activity of FASN-CDS (P<0.01). The inhibitor of miR-143 in HepG2 cells was able to up-regulate the expression of FASN and enhance the lipogenesis. Conclusion MiR-143 can inhibit the lipogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing the expression of FASN.

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    Effects of neural stem cell transplantation on expressions of Caspase-3 and c-fos after injury of rat spinal cord
    LIU Chang, CHEN Xiao, LI Cheng, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  343. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.008

    Abstract ( 527 )   PDF (722KB) ( 1100 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of neural stem cell transplantation on Caspase-3 and c-fos expressions after injury of rat spinal cord. Methods A total of 45 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=15), i.e. the sham operation group, spinal cord injury model group (model group), and neural stem cell transplantation group. The cone plate of the sham group was opened without transecting the spinal cord. The cone plate of the model group was opened; the spinal cord was transected; and suture was conducted layer by layer after hemostasis. The cone plate of the neural stem cell transplantation group was opened; the spinal cord was transected; and suture was conducted layer by layer after hemostasis and injection of the neural stem cell suspension. BBB rating was performed for rats 1, 2, 3, and 14 d after surgery. Rats were sacrificed 14 d after surgery and spinal cord tissues were removed. TUNEL labeling was conducted for sections of spinal cord tissue and the neuronal apoptosis was detected. Protein extraction was performed for spinal cord tissues and the expressions of Caspase-3 and c-fos proteins were detected by the Western blotting. Results The scores of BBB rating of the model group and neural stem cell transplantation group were significantly lower than that of the sham operation group (P<0.05), while the improvement of neural function of neural stem cell transplantation group was better than that of the model group (P<0.05). The apoptotic rates of the model group and neural stem cell transplantation group were significantly higher than that of the sham operation group (P<0.05). The apoptotic rate of the neural stem cell transplantation group was significantly lower than that of the model group (P<0.05). The results of Westernblotting showed that the expressions of Caspase-3 and c-fos in the spinal cord tissue of the model group and neural stem cell transplantation group were significantly higher than those of the sham operation group (P<0.05), while the expressions of Caspase-3 and c-fos in the spinal cord tissue of the neural stem cell transplantation group were significantly lower than those of the model group (P<0.05). Conclusion Neural stem cell transplantation can accelerate the recovery; decrease the apoptotic rate; down-regulate the expressions of Caspase-3 and c-fos after the spinal cord of rat is injured; and has the therapeutic effect on spinal cord injury of rats.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Expression of circulating miR-4677 of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma
    GU Wen-li, WU Jing-jing
    2015, 35 (3):  348. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.009

    Abstract ( 515 )   PDF (596KB) ( 1062 )  

    Objective To observe the expression of circulating microRNA-4677 (miR-4677) of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explore the clinical significance. Methods The expression of plasma miR-4677 of 83 patients with OSCC (OSCC group) and 44 healthy controls (control group) were detected by the stem-loop RT and real-time PCR. The diagnostic performance of using the miR-4677 expression level as OSCC biomarker was evaluated. Results Stem-loop RT-PCR could specifically amplify miR-4677. Compared with the control group, the expression of plasma miR-4677 of the OSCC group was significantly lower (P<0.01). The results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the plasma miR-4677 level could efficiently distinguish patients with OSCC from healthy people and AUCROC was 0.882. When the optimal cutoff value of 0.625 (fold value) was chosen, the sensitivity and specificity of plasma miR-4677 for diagnosing the OSCC were 79.5% and 91.6%, respectively. Conclusion The circulating miR-4677 is satisfactory for diagnosing the OSCC and can be used as the biomarker for early diagnosis of OSCC. It is a novel idea of genetic diagnosis of cancer.

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    Ability of geometry deformity correction of different surgical procedures for middle-aged and old women with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures
    ZHOU Ze-zhu, CHEN Zhe, ZHENG Yue-huan, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  353. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.010

    Abstract ( 496 )   PDF (585KB) ( 1034 )  

    Objective To compare the ability of geometry deformity correction of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) for middle-aged and old women with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) and explore the correlation between the complete correction of geometry deformity and the relief of clinical symptoms. Methods A total of 99 middle-aged and old women with OVCF who underwent PVP or PKP were selected and divided into the PVP group (n=56) and PKP group (n=43) according to the surgical procedure. McCloskey-Black quantitative judgment of percutaneous morphometric shape was adopted to measure the height of compressed vertebra before and after surgery. The geometric types of vertebrae were classified into the morphometric normal shape and morphometric compressed shape. The variations of morphometric shapes of compressed vertebrae and the ability of geometry deformity correction of two surgical procedures were compared. The correlation between the complete correction of geometry deformity and the relief of clinical symptoms was compared by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results A total of 22 patients acquired complete morphometric correction after surgery and the overall correction rate was 22.22%. The correction rate of the PKP group (34.15%) was higher than that of the PVP group (14.81%) and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The VAS scores of patients after surgery were significantly lower than those before surgery (P<0.05). The VAS scores of patients with complete and incomplete morphometric correction after surgery were 2.31±0.93 and 2.60±0.92, respectively. The difference was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion Both minimally invasive PKP and PVP can significantly correct the morphometric deformity of compressed vertebrae. The ability of geometry deformity correction of PKP is better than PVP. There is no clear correlation between the complete correction of geometry deformity and the relief of clinical symptoms.

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    Correlation of malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis and prognosis of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis
    ZHANG Lin, FANG Wei, YUAN Jiang-zi, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  358. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.011

    Abstract ( 491 )   PDF (920KB) ( 1194 )  

    Objective To analyze the long-term prognosis of patients with malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis (MIA) syndrome who undergo the peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the effects of MIA syndrome on the all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who underwent PD between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 in the Center for Peritoneal Dialysis Research of Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were selected. The survival rate, technical survival rate, and survival time of patients without peritonitis were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors of all-cause mortality and CVD mortality were analyzed by the Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 256 patients were selected. There were 20 (7.8%) patients with MIA syndrome. The 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates of patients with MIA syndrome were significantly lower than those of patients without MIA syndrome (χ2=16.200,P<0.001). The differences of technical survival rate and survival time of patients without peritonitis of patients with and without MIA syndrome were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Two complications (HR=3.624; 95%CI: 1.376-9.543; P=0.009) or 3 complications (HR=5.012, 95%CI: 1.629-15.419, P=0.005) were independent risk factors that influenced the all-cause mortality. Two complications (HR=10.324; 95%CI: 1.332-80.032; P=0.025) or 3 complications (HR=11.821; 95%CI: 1.342-104.097; P=0.026) were independent risk factors that influenced the CVD mortality. Conclusion Any two of or all of malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are independent risk factors that influence the survival of patients undergoing the peritoneal dialysis and closely relevant to the CVD mortality.

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    Assessment of insulin resistance and insulin secretion function of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus
    WANG Feng-huan, LI Hua-ping
    2015, 35 (3):  364. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.012

    Abstract ( 548 )   PDF (317KB) ( 1121 )  

    Objective To explore the insulin resistance and variations of the secretory function of pancreas β-cells of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods A total of 1 825 pregnant women who underwent prenatal examinations and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during 24-28 weeks of gestation were selected. Indicators relevant to the insulin resistance and secretory function of pancreatic β-cells were detected. Results According to the results of 75 g OGTT, pregnant women were divided into the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group (n=1 291) and GDM group (n=534). Patients of the GDM group were further divided into the GDM1 group (n=322), GDM2 group (n=160), and GDM3 (n=52) group according to the severity of disease. The blood glucose level of the NGT group reached the peak 0.5-1 h after the 75 g OGTT and the blood glucose level of the GDM group reached the peak 1 h after the 75 g OGTT. The blood glucose level of the GDM group at each time point was higher than that of the NGT group and the blood glucose level of the GDM group increased with the severity of disease (P<0.05). The insulin level of the NGT group reached the peak 1 h after the 75 g OGTT. The insulin level of the GDM group reached the peak 2 h after the 75 g OGTT and was significantly higher than that of other time points. The insulin level of the GDM group increased with the severity of disease (P<0.05). Compared with the NGT group, HOMA-IR, AUCG after glucose load, and AUCI after glucose load of the GDM group were significantly higher and gradually increased with the severity of disease (P<0.05); ISIcomp was lower (P<0.05); function index of pancreas β-cells (HOMA-β), ratio of net increase of insulin to net increase of glucose 30 min after glucose load (ΔI30/ΔG30), and modified beta-cell function index (MBCI) decreased. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Stumvoll 1 phase and 2 phase insulin secretion indexes of the GDM group were lower than those of the NGT group and gradually decreased with the severity of disease. Conclusion The insulin resistant of pregnant women with GDM is severe and early phase insulin secretion is impaired, which are relevant to the severity of disease.

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    Effects of symptom experience on life quality of patients with lung cancer
    HE Ya-ping, ZHU Jing-fen, LI Na, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  369. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.013

    Abstract ( 608 )   PDF (395KB) ( 1073 )  

    Objective To explore the effects of symptom experience on life quality of patients with lung cancer. Methods The functional assessment of cancer therapy-lung cancer (FACT-L) scale was adopted to analyze the correlation of symptom experience and life quality for 178 inpatients with lung cancer. Results The effects of different scores of breath shortness, weight loss, unclear thinking, appetite loss, cough, chest tightness, and breathing difficulty on physiological status were statistically significant (P<0.01). The effects of different scores of unclear thinking on family/social status were statistically significant (P<0.01). The effects of different scores of breath shortness, unclear thinking, appetite loss, and chest tightness on emotional status were statistically significant (P<0.01). The effects of different scores of breath shortness, weight loss, unclear thinking, appetite loss, hair loss, and chest tightness on functional status were statistically significant (P<0.01). The effects of different scores of breath shortness, weight loss, unclear thinking, appetite loss, chest tightness, and breathing difficulty on the overall score of FACT-L scale were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion The symptom experience is the main basis for self-evaluating the life quality of patients. Subjective feelings of patients should be taken into consideration in selecting treatment plans.

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    Clinical and genetic analysis of two patients with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency
    HU Zi-ying, ZHAO Zhi-gang, WANG Yan-fang, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  375. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.014

    Abstract ( 466 )   PDF (683KB) ( 1114 )  

    Objective To analyze the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of 2 patients with 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency. Methods Clinical data and data of basal hormone determinations and imaging examinations of two patients who were treated at the Department of Endocrinology, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from September 2007 to July 2008 were collected and CYP17A1 gene of patients were detected. Results The 2 patients had typical clinical presentations of hypertension, hypokalemia, and sexual infantilism. Hormone determination revealed that the blood cortisol level was below the normal, the feedback effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increased, the activity of renin was inhibited, testosterone and estrogen levels were significantly lower than the normal, and the gonadotropin level increased. CT scan showed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.  Detection of CYP17A1 gene revealed that there was a compound mutation c.1 045del and c.1 047C>A in the exon 6 of CYP17A1 gene of the two patients, which resulted in a base deletion and a base transversion (TAC/AA) at codon 329, caused a missense mutation of Tyr-Lys and the open reading frame shift following this codon, and produced a termination codon 418TGA in advance. Conclusion For patients with hypertension, hypokalemia, and dysplasia, the possibility of 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency should be considered. The alternation of P450c17 structure caused by the mutation of CYP17A1 gene is the molecular basis of 17α-hydroxylase deficiency.

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    Effects of inactive pulmonary tuberculosis on patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema
    HU Feng-ying, TU Jing, ZHANG Yan, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  380. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.015

    Abstract ( 543 )   PDF (623KB) ( 1177 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of inactive tuberculosis on the clinical features of patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). Methods The high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) was adopted to screen the patients. Patients were divided into the observation group (CPFE patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis, n=42) and control group (CPFE patients, n=38). The visual semi-quantitative scoring system was employed to quantify fibrosis, emphysema, and inactive tuberculosis. According to scores of inactive pulmonary tuberculosis, the observation group was further divided into the ≥10 points group (n=18) and <10 points group (n=24). Indexes of arterial blood gas analysis, indexes of pulmonary function, and HRCT manifestation and scores of groups were compared. Results Compared with the control group, patients of the observation group whose ratios of forced expiratory volume in first second to forced vital capacity that were less than 70% were more (28/42), and the maximal expiratory flow of 25% vital capacity and maximal middle expiratory flow were lower. Furthermore, the maximal expiratory flow of 50% vital capacity of the ≥10 points group was even lower (P<0.05). The differences of the emphysema score, fibrosis score, and arterial oxygen pressure of groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Inactive tuberculosis can aggravate the airflow obstruction of patients with CPFE.

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    Study on noninvasive prediction indicators for incidence of esophageal varices of patients with liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B
    ZHAO Dan, MAO Hua, HUANG Chun-chi, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  386. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.016

    Abstract ( 489 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1063 )  

    Objective To investigate noninvasive indicators for the incidence of esophageal varices (EV) of patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods A total of 274 inpatients with liver cirrhosis were selected. The gender, age, etiology, platelet count (PLT), total bilirubin, albumin, coagulation time, international normalized ratio (INR), fecal occult blood (OB), spleen diameter (SD), spleen thickness, and width of portal vein of patients were recorded. The variance analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were conducted for indicators of 150 patients with liver cirrhosis. The prediction model was established. The prediction model, PLT, and PLT/SD were used to verify whether other 124 patients with liver cirrhosis developed EV. AUCROC, sensitivity, and specificity of patients were compared. Results The multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the model that was established by test results of PLT, SD, INR, and OB could be used to predict the incidence of EV of patients with liver cirrhosis (P<0.05). Computation results of AUCROC showed that the AUCROC (95%CI) of prediction model was 0.925 (0.881, 0.969), the model was correlated with PLT/SD (χ2=7.212, P=0.007) and PLT (χ2=9.412, P=0.002); and PLT/SD was correlated with PLT (χ2=0.186, P=0.666), which indicated that the prediction model was better for predicting the incidence of EV. Conclusion The prediction model that is established by test results of PLT, SD, INR, and OB is helpful for predicting the incidence of EV of patients with liver cirrhosis.

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    Value of ratios of biomarkers of celiac blood and venous blood for diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy
    ZHU Xiao-lu, TENG Yin-cheng
    2015, 35 (3):  391. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.017

    Abstract ( 528 )   PDF (368KB) ( 1123 )  

    Objective To analyze the levels and ratios of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), creatine kinase (CK), and progesterone (P) of both celiac blood and venous blood of patients with tubal pregnancy, explore the correlation of biomarkers and tubal pregnancy types, and identify biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy. Methods The levels of CA125, β-hCG, VEGF, CK, and P of both celiac blood and venous blood of 322 patients with tubal pregnancy were detected. Ratios (Rv/p) of biomarkers of celiac blood and venous blood were calculated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn. Best diagnostic thresholds for ruptured tubal pregnancy were determined and their sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy were evaluated. Results ①The areas under ROC curve (AUCROC) of CA125v, β-hCGv, Pv, CKv, and VEGFv for the diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy were 0.528, 0.674, 0.570, 0.643, and 0.542, respectively. ②AUCROC of CA125p, β-hCGp, Pp, CKp, and VEGFp for the diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy were 0.896, 0.595, 0.656, 0.586, and 0.682, respectively. ③AUCROC of Rv/p-CA125, Rv/p-(β-hCG), Rv/p-P, Rv/p-CK, and Rv/p-VEGF for the diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy were 0.883, 0.757, 0.607, 0.628, and 0.598, respectively. ④When CA125p<400.15 U/mL, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing ruptured tubal pregnancy were 73.68% and 92.83%. ⑤When Rv/p-CA125<15.20, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing ruptured tubal pregnancy were 73.68% and 89.81%. Conclusion When CA125p<400.15 U/mL or Rv/p-CA125<15.20, ruptured tubal pregnancy can be diagnosed and the specificity of CA125p<400.15 U/mL is higher.

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    Analysis of etiology of 1 101 cases of recurrent spontaneous abortion
    LIU Zhi-lan, KANG Xiao-min, ZHANG Xiao-xin, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  396. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.018

    Abstract ( 678 )   PDF (463KB) ( 1201 )  

    Objective To analyze the etiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion and provide evidences for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Data of 1 101 patients who were diagnosed as recurrent spontaneous abortion from January 2010 to October 2014 at the outpatient clinic of Department of Gynecology of Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of medicine were collected and the etiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion was analyzed. Results Among 1101 cases, analysis of maternal factors showed that the recurrent spontaneous abortion of 551 cases (50.05%), 148 cases (13.44%), and 402 cases (36.51%) were single cause, multi-causes, and unknown causes, respectively. Conclusion The etiology of recurrent spontaneous abortion is complicated, including maternal factors such as marital chromosomal abnormalities, reproductive tract anatomical abnormalities, autoimmune factors, endocrine abnormalities, and prothrombotic status, and embryonic factors such as embryonic chromosomal abnormalities, immune tolerance between maternal-fetal pregnancy imbalance, etc. Comprehensive and regular screening of causes for patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion before pregnancy and individualized treatment according to causes are vital for improving the rate of successful pregnancy.

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    Isolation and molecular epidemiology of ST571 NDM-1 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae
    LIU Jing-xian, YU Jing, LIU Ying
    2015, 35 (3):  402. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.019

    Abstract ( 579 )   PDF (718KB) ( 1049 )  

    Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiological significance of isolating a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strain. Methods The strain was a carbapenems resistant K. pneumoniae strain isolated from clinical samples. VITEK-2 Compact instrument was used for identification and antibiotic susceptibility test. Expressions of NDM-1 genes and carbapenemases genes were detected by the PCR. The transfer plasmid conjugation experiment and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. MLST data of NDM-1 producing K. pneumoniae from other areas was collected from PubMed and analyzed by eBURST V3 software and Tree drawing software. Results The isolated strain was highly resistant to many antibiotics including carbpenems and carried the NDM-1 gene. Plasmids that contained the NDM-1 gene were successfully transferred to recipient bacteria by conjugation and the MLST of K. pneumoniae strain was ST571. The MLST data of 283 NDM-1 producing K. pneumoniae strains from 28 countries were collected, including 42 ST strains. The major epidemic strain was CC258 strain (clone complex). Conclusion The ST571 NDM-1 producing K. pneumoniae strain is isolated in China for the first time. The drug resistant gene may be transmitted by plasmids. The molecular typing of NDM-1 producing K. pneumoniae is diverse. CC258 strain is the most epidemic strain. The isolated strain is genetically far from cloned CC258 strain.

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    Study on consistency of detecting HER-2 expressions of biopsy and surgical specimens of gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry method
    XIA Jun, CHEN Xiao-yu, LIU Qiang
    2015, 35 (3):  409. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.020

    Abstract ( 587 )   PDF (339KB) ( 1139 )  

    Objective To analyze the consistency of expressions of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) of gastroscopic biopsy and surgical specimens of gastric cancer by the immunohistochemistry method. Methods A total of 322 gastroscopic biopsy specimens and 390 surgical specimens of gastric cancer were selected (101 patients provided both two kinds of specimens). Expressions of HER-2 of all specimens were detected by the HER-2 immunohistochemistry staining and analyzed according to the ToGA standard. Results The 11.5% of the biopsy specimens were HER-2 positive and HER-2 expressions of 15.8% of the biopsy specimens were 2+, while 4.4% of surgical specimens were HER-2 positive and HER-2 expressions of 10.0% of surgical specimens were 2+. The general consistency rate of HER-2 expression of biopsy and surgical specimens was 75.2% (76/101). HER-2 expressions of 22 biopsy specimens were higher and HER-2 expressions of 3 biopsy specimens were lower. If HER-2 expressions of 2+ and 3+ were considered as HER-2 positive, the general consistency rate, negative consistency rate, positive consistency rate, sensitivity, and specificity were 77.2%, 95.9%, 39.4%, 88.5%, and 76.5%, respectively. Conclusion HER-2 immunohistochemistry detection for gastroscopic biopsy specimens is a feasible screening method for patients who are inoperable. However, the current ToGA standard still needs to be improved for practical applications.

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    Changes of blood supply to benign prostatic hyperplasia and its clinical significance
    SHEN Jia, CHENG Tao
    2015, 35 (3):  414. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.021

    Abstract ( 510 )   PDF (272KB) ( 1114 )  

    Objective To explore the changes of blood supply to the benign prostatic hyperplasia and its clinical significance. Methods A total of 130 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia underwent transrectal ultrasound prostate examination and the size of prostate was measured. Patients were divided into ≤25 g group, 26-50 g group, 51-75 g group, and ≥76 g group according to the estimated weight of prostate. The inner diameter of urethral artery of prostate, velocity of maximum flow (Vmax), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) of 4 groups were measured and statistically processed. Among 130 patients, 27 of them underwent the prostatic artery embolization. The variations of inner diameter of urethral artery of prostate, Vmax, PI, RI, and the weight of prostate before and after the prostatic artery embolization were compared. Results The differences of inner diameter of urethral artery of prostate, Vmax, PI, and RI of patients among 4 groups or in the same group were statistically significant (P<0.05). The inner diameter of urethral artery of prostate, Vmax, PI, and RI were positively correlated with the weight of prostate. Three months and one year after the prostate artery embolization, reexaminations showed that values of the inner diameter of urethral artery of prostate, Vmax, PI, RI, and the weight of prostate were significantly smaller and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion For benign prostatic hyperplasia, the blood supply is significantly increased. The values of velocity of blood flow, inner diameter, and resistance of the urethral artery of prostate are larger. Blocking the transurethral prostatic artery can significantly reduce the blood supply and the size of prostate, and is helpful for relieving the lower urinary tract obstruction.

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    Expression and clinical significance of Pokemon in gastric carcinoma tissue
    HUO Hua, CHEN Hong-xing, WANG Ping
    2015, 35 (3):  418. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.022

    Abstract ( 574 )   PDF (479KB) ( 1094 )  

    Objective To detect the expression of Pokemon gene in gastric carcinoma tissue and adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissue and analyze the relationship of the expression of Pokemon gene and cinlicopathologic features. Methods Immunohistochemical staining with Eli Vision method was adopted to detect the expression of Pokemon protein in gastric carcinoma tissue of 75 cases and adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissue of 35 cases. The mRNA expression of Pokemon in fresh gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissue of 30 cases was detected by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The results of immunohistochemical analysis showed that the positive expression rates of Pokemon protein in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissue were 78.7% (59/75) and 34.3% (12/35), respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The results of RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of Pokemon in fresh gastric cancer tissue of 30 cases were significantly higher than those of adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissue. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression of Pokemon in gastric carcinoma tissue was relevant to infiltration depth, clinical stages, and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of Pokemon plays an important role in the occurrence, development, invasion, and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. Pokemon may become an effective target for the theatment of gastric cancer.

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    Original article (Public health)
    Comparative analysis of service satisfaction of ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in Jiangsu province
    ZHANG Wen-jie, ZHANG Xiao
    2015, 35 (3):  423. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.023

    Abstract ( 569 )   PDF (323KB) ( 1093 )  

    Objective To compare the service satisfaction of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) and explore the factors that influence the service satisfaction. Methods A total of 800 patients from 10 cities of Jiangsu province were selected from March to May, 2013. A self-designed questionnaire of satisfaction was used. And 773 valid questionnaires were returned and the valid return rate was 96.6%. Results ①The differences of gender, primary disease, education level, and health insurance of the HD group and PD group were not statistically significant (P>0.05), while the difference of dialysis duration was statistically significant (P<0.05). ②The evaluation of propaganda and education before dialysis of the PD group was better than that of the HD group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The evaluation of propaganda and education during follow-up period of the PD group was better than that of the HD group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). ③The differences of effects of 6 influencing factors on the service satisfaction of patients were not statistically significant (P>0.05) according to the results of chi-square test. ④According to 6 influencing factors of service satisfaction, 3 factors were added for the PD group, i.e. the convenience of contacting medical workers by telephone, frequency of the follow-up, and handling of accidents during dialysis. The multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted for both groups and factors that influenced the overall service satisfaction were screened. The results showed that 2 factors of the HD group, i.e. interpretation of questions by doctors and professional competence of nurses, were statistically significant (P<0.05), while 3 factors of the PD group, i.e. interpretation of questions by doctors, professional competence of nurses, and handling of accidents during dialysis were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion ①The overall satisfaction of patients who undergo the PD is higher than that of patients who undergo the HD. ②The propaganda and education of peritoneal dialysis should be enhanced. ③The competence of nursing staff should be improved. ④The services for peritoneal dialysis should be enhanced and this will benefit the promotion of peritoneal dialysis.

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    Questionnaire survey of specific nursing knowledge of nurses from Department of Pediatric Oncology of 14 Chinese hospitals and analysis of influencing factors
    HE Meng-xue, LU Hong, SHEN Nan-ping, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  427. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.024

    Abstract ( 521 )   PDF (325KB) ( 1099 )  

    Objective To investigate the specific nursing knowledge of nurses of the Department of Pediatric Oncology and analyze the influencing factors. Methods The questionnaire of specific nursing knowledge of nurses of the Department of Pediatric Oncology was designed based on the literature review. A total of 182 nurses from 14 Chinese grade A tertiary hospitals with Department of Pediatric Oncology were surveyed. The data were collected through the SurveyMonkey online investigation system. Results For 63.6% of all items of specific knowledge, the average score of nurses of the Department of Pediatric Oncology was lower than 2.5. The differences of total score and scores of items relevant to the disease, symptom, operation skills, occupational protection, nursing education, and nursing management of nurses with different ages and titles were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The specific nursing knowledge of nurses of the Department of Pediatric Oncology is not satisfactory, especially for the palliative care knowledge. The specific nursing knowledge of nurses with different background was also different. Attention should be paid to the importance of specific nursing knowledge, so as to enrich the connotation of specific nursing and improve the nursing value.

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    Study on catastrophic health expenditure of families with old people and its influencing factors
    ZHANG Wei-wei, LI Guo-hong
    2015, 35 (3):  432. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.025

    Abstract ( 768 )   PDF (305KB) ( 1157 )  

    Objective To explore the impact of health expenditure of the elderly who are 60 or more years old on the family. Methods Data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was adopted. The household catastrophic health expenditure for the elderly who were 60 or more years old was calculated according to their health expenditures and household affordability. Factors that affected the catastrophic health expenditure were analyzed by the Logistic regression model. Results Among all families that at least one family member was 60 or more years old, 17.00% of them had paid for the catastrophic health expenditure. For factors that affected the catastrophic health expenditure, the number of family members (OR=0.765), socioeconomic status was wealthy (OR=0.576), and socioeconomic status was the wealthiest (OR=0.514) were protective factors, and age (OR=1.025), suffering from chronic diseases (OR=1.443), and hospitalization (OR=2.285) were risk factors. Conclusion The government should pay attention to the primary health care, increasing the medical security for the elderly, and improving the equity of income, so as to reduce the incidence of paying the catastrophic health expenditure.

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    Cost-effectiveness analysis of intensive treatments for in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Xinjiang
    DU Ya-ling, WANG Zhong
    2015, 35 (3):  437. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.026

    Abstract ( 644 )   PDF (273KB) ( 1216 )  

    Objective To analyze the cost-effectiveness of intensive treatments for inpatients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus of a grade A tertiary hospital in Xinjiang and explore the effectiveness and economy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily injections (MDI). Methods The prevalence survey was adopted and the cost-effectiveness of two intensive treatments was compared by the cost-effectiveness ratio and sensitivity analysis. Results The unit costs of CSII group and MDI group were 6 215.59 yuan and 5 809.14 yuan, respectively. For effectively treated cases, the costs of CSII group and MDI group for patients to achieve the normal blood glucose level 1 d earlier were 2 972.67 yuan and 4 224.83 yuan; the costs for effective rate to increase one percent were 227.36 yuan and 929.46 yuan; and the costs for average blood glucose level to decrease 1 mmol/L on the day that the normal blood glucose level was achieved were 1 246.40 yuan and 2 643.53 yuan. The results of sensitivity analysis were consistent with that of the cost-effectiveness ratio analysis, which showed that the results of cost-effectiveness analysis were stable and reliable. Conclusion The effects of CSII treatment are better than those of the MDI treatment. CSII treatment is an effective, reasonable, and economic treatment.

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    Review
    Advances of correlation between air pollution and childhood acute leukemia
    HAN Kai-yi, JI Xiao-fan, HU Shi-yao, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  441. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.027

    Abstract ( 658 )   PDF (346KB) ( 1227 )  

    For the causes of childhood acute leukemia (AL), recent studies have shown that childhood AL is resulted from the interaction of various internal and external factors and the correlation between the environmental pollution and childhood AL attracts more and more attention. This paper reviews research progresses of the correlation between the air pollution and incidence of childhood AL, including major sources of air pollutants and air pollutants relevant to the incidence of childhood AL.

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    Progresses of treatment of pancreatic cancer
    HU Bin, SONG Shao-li
    2015, 35 (3):  445. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.028

    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (368KB) ( 1216 )  

    The treatment of pancreatic carcinoma is still a challenge. Surgical removal is the only chance to cure pancreatic cancer. The risk of recurrence and metastasis remains high even for patients who have undergone radical dissection. Therefore, adjuvant therapy after surgery is crucial. For patients whose tumors are considered borderline resectable, neoadjuvant therapy before surgery maybe a good choice. Chemotherapy, alone or in combination with radiation, is the major treatment for patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma, but the outcome is not ideal. The targeted therapy shows promising future, but the therapeutic effect is unsatisfactory by far. This paper reviews clinical studies on the treatment of pancreatic cancer, so as to explore better therapy models.

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    Advances of pseudohypertension
    DAI Xi-xi, WANG Hai-ya
    2015, 35 (3):  450. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.029

    Abstract ( 640 )   PDF (253KB) ( 1227 )  

    Non-invasive blood pressure measurement based on Korotkoff sounds is the most common method for screening the hypertension. But due to reasons such as atherosclerosis, the intra-arterial pressure may be lower than the non-invasive blood pressure, which is called pseudohypertension (PHT). PHT may lead to inappropriate, even harmful treatments if unrecognized. For the elderly, PHT frequently causes hypoxia and ischemia. This paper reviews research progresses of the definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and non-invasive identification methods (pulse wave velocity, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, pulse pressure, etc.) of PHT.

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    Role of chemokine CCL19 in immune cell mediated antitumor effect
    GUAN Shao-pei, LU Ai-guo
    2015, 35 (3):  454. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.030

    Abstract ( 1497 )   PDF (416KB) ( 1480 )  

    Chemokines are a family of small cytokines secreted by immune cells, which act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of immune cells. It has been reported that CCL19 (chemokine C-C motif ligand 19) and its receptor CCR7 (a seven transmembrane protein) are expressed in dendritic cells, CD4+ and CD8+T cells and variety of tumor cells. Recently, more attention has been focused on the antitumor effect of CCL19 and its receptor CCR7, which has been well-documented in the literature and was vital to attracting dendritic cells, infiltration of tumors by CD4+ and CD8+T cells, mediating immune cells to release cytokines, inhibiting the proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumors, and assisting the treatment of tumors. Further studies on CCL19 and CCR7 are helpful for developing new treatments of tumors and gene vaccines. This paper reviews the role of CCL19 the immune cell mediated antitumor therapy.

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    Technique and method
    Study on reliability and validity of Chinese version of Ottawa self-injury inventory
    ZHANG Fang, CHENG Wen-hong, XIAO Ze-ping, et al
    2015, 35 (3):  460. 
    doi: 11.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.03.031

    Abstract ( 1051 )   PDF (325KB) ( 1543 )  

    Objective To evaluate the test-retest reliability and validity of Chinese version of the Ottawa self-injury inventory. Methods The test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability of Chinese version of the Ottawa self-injury inventory were evaluated by a questionnaire survey of 163 students and 20 clinical patients in Shanghai. Results The test-retest reliability coefficient of all items was above 0.400, except for the item of “do anything to keep hands busy” for the best way to resist the non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The overall test-retest reliability was satisfactory. The internal consistency Cronbach's α coefficient of function subscales was 0.952 and the internal consistency Cronbach's α coefficients of its 4 factors ranged from 0.637 to 0.896. Factor analysis revealed 6 factors, which accounted for 75.0% of the variance. Conclusion The test-retest reliability and construct validity of Chinese version of Ottawa self-injury inventory are satisfactory and construct can be used for investigating the behavioral characteristics and causes of NSSI.

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