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Analysis of risk factors for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in pupils

LIU Xin1,2, JI Yi-ting1,2, LI Sheng-hui2, JIANG Fan1,2, Shen Xiao-ming2, MA Jun1, LI Fei1,2   

  1. 1. Department of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China; 2. MOE-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children’s Environmental Health, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Online:2016-08-29 Published:2016-08-31
  • Supported by:

    Shanghai Municipal Education Commission—Gaofeng Clinical Medicine Grant Support,20152234;Shanghai Children’s Medical Center—Abbott/Project HOPE


Objective · To explore the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in different grades of pupils and analyze the risk factors for ADHD in school-aged children. Methods · The diagnosis history of ADHD and general information of children in nine cities such as Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xi’an, etc. were collected from their parents by questionnaires with the use of cluster-stratified method. Six grades in primary schools were assigned to 3 groups, i.e. the grade 1 and 2 group, grade 3 and 4 group, and grade 5 and 6 group. Prevalence of ADHD in 3 groups and differences in study pressure between children with and without ADHD and in prevalence of ADHD between children with different enrollment ages were calculated. Risk factors related to the prevalence of ADHD were analyzed by Logistic regression model. Results · The difference in the prevalence of ADHD between three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The prevalence of ADHD in the grade 3 and 4 group was the highest (5.2%). Grade 3 and 4, earlier school enrollment, and study pressure were risk factors for the prevalence of ADHD after adjustment of sex, education of parents, delivery method, etc. Conclusion · Grade 3 and 4, earlier school enrollment (<6 years of age), and study pressure increase the risk of ADH in pupils.

Key words: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, prevalence, school enrollment, study pressure