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    Editorial
    Commentary on Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Shanghai youth tobacco survey
    MA Jin
    2012, 32 (7):  823. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.001

    Abstract ( 1260 )   PDF (330KB) ( 1241 )  

    Tobacco hazard is one of the most serious preventable public health problems in the world today. At present, there are 1.1 billion smokers in the world, and about 5 million people die from smoking-related diseases every year. China has about 350 million smokers, with the number of smoking-attributable mortality of 1.2 million every year. It is estimated that by 2030 this number will increase to 2 million, accounting for 30% of the total mortality rate. For the sake of taking targeted prevention and control measures, the current smoking status and main influencing factors of population should be mastered. Therefore, World Health Organization, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Canadian Public Health Association cooperated in 1998 and developed Global Tobacco Surveillance System to help the countries all over the world study the current smoking status and influencing factors of population by the unified and comparable survey tools. Some cities of China have respectively participated in Global Youth Tobacco Survey twice. Shanghai took part in the second youth tobacco survey in 2004, and found that the attempting smoking rate of middle school students was 23.8% and the smoking rate was 5.5%. However, as a component city of Chinese sample, the actual sample size of Shanghai was small, only 1964 people. In order to overcome the disadvantages of small sample size and difficulty in deep sample analysis, a survey towards 9 347 students including junior middle school students, senior high school students and vocational school students was conducted in 2007, and it was found that the total smoking rate among adolescents of Shanghai was 19.5%. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, our research group conducted a large sample survey on youth tobacco use in Shanghai from November 2011 to March 2012 so as to learn the current situation of youth tobacco use and influencing factors. The preliminary research results have been assembled. This paper deals with the review of tobacco hazard, the methodology and brief contents of Global Youth Tobacco Survey, the summary of the survey on youth tobacco use in Shanghai and the characteristics and primary results of our survey on the current youth tobacco use in Shanghai.

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    Monographic report (Investigations on tobacco use among adolescents in Shanghai)
    Reliability and validity of questionnaire on tobacco control among adolescents in Shanghai
    CAI Yong, QIAO Yun, ZHU Jing-fen, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  827. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.002

    Abstract ( 1145 )   PDF (385KB) ( 1058 )  

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of the questionnaire on tobacco control among adolescents in Shanghai by evaluation of its validity and reliability. Methods Questionnaire survey on tobacco control among adolescents was conducted in 19 117 junior middle school students and senior high school students selected from 41 schools in 3 districts of Shanghai by cluster random sampling. The questionnaire included basic information of individuals, families and schools, condition of tobacco use, awareness of smoking hazard, inherent tendency of tobacco use, tobacco control educational environment of schools, external appeal of tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure, tobacco exposure in families, tobacco use of peers and risk of media exposure to tobacco use. Validity and internal reliability were evaluated by statistical software. And the testretest reliability was evaluated by the data of 287 students selected from 6 of these schools. Results Most Cronbach´s alpha coefficients ranged from 0.504 to 0.804, and the tobacco exposure in families and tobacco use tendency in the future were the two scales with highest internal reliability. All the Spearman correlation coefficients were larger than 0.7, which reflected the favorable test-retest reliability. Ten factors explained 61.17% of the questionnaire structure found by factor analysis, and all factors could be regarded as predisposing factors, reinforcing factors and enabling factors. Conclusion The questionnaire can be applied among adolescents in Shanghai to assess tobacco control programs with good reliability and validity.

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    Perceived environment system of tobacco experimentation among junior middle school students in Shanghai
    CAI Yong, LI Na, ZHU Jing-fen, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  832. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.003

    Abstract ( 1040 )   PDF (336KB) ( 1032 )  

    Objective To analyse the perceived environment system of tobacco experimentation among junior middle school students in Shanghai. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 413 students from 23 junior middle schools in Shanghai by stratified cluster sampling. The conditions of tobacco experimentation and perceived environment system of these students were surveyed. The potential factors in perceived environment system were assessed using Logistic regression analysis, and their impact on tobacco experimentation was analysed. Results The rate of tobacco experimentation in junior middle school students was 6.8%. The rate of tobacco experimentation of boy students was 9.3%, which was significantly higher than that of girl students (4.6%)(P<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that 7 factors in perceived environment system had impact on tobacco experimentation in junior middle school students, which included high smoking press from peers (OR=4.12, 95%CI: 3.50-4.84), more exposure to cigarette smoke in family (OR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.38-1.96), more exposure to smoking from media (OR=1.40, 95%CI:1.19-1.65) and high tobacco use acceptance (OR=1.37, 95%CI:1.17-1.60). Conclusion Factors in perceived environment system are closely related to tobacco experimentation in junior middle school students, which should be attached great importance in tobacco control among junior middle school students.

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    Status of passive smoking and its relationship with enviromental factors among middle school students in Shanghai
    ZHU Jing-fen, LI Na, HE Ya-ping, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  836. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.004

    Abstract ( 1190 )   PDF (342KB) ( 1141 )  

    Objective To investigate the status of passive smoking in middle school students in Shanghai, and explore its relationship with environmental factors. Methods Stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted, and 13 723 students were selected from 29 senior high schools, junior middle schools and vocational schools in Shanghai. On-the-spot questionnaire survey was conducted with selfdesigned questionnaire, which included conditions of smoking and smoking-quitting, knowledge and attitude, passive smoking exposure, media propaganda on smoking and school education on tobacco control, and the survey findings were statistically analysed. Results A total of 13 208 questionnaires were recovered. The prevalences of attempted smoking and current smoking in investigated students were 11.1% and 2.5% respectively, and the prevalences of males were significantly higher than those of females (14.7% vs 7.4%, P<0.001;3.7% vs 1.3%, P<0.001). The prevalence of passive smoking in all the investigated students was 67.0%, the prevalence of females was significantly higher than that of males (68.6% vs 65.4%, P<0.001), and the prevalences of vocational school students and junior middle school students were significantly higher than that of senior high school students (75.6% vs 63.2%, P<0.001; 67.0% vs 63.2%, P<0.001). Among the passive smokers, 34.5% suffered from passive smoking every day. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that females, junior middle school students and vocational school students, students whose parents and friends smoked, students who had less tobacco control education in schools and less contact of anti-smoking media messages, and those who frequently saw actor smoking on media were more likely to suffer from passive smoking. Conclusion The condition of passive smoking is severe in middle school students of Shanghai, and effective measures should be taken to reduce the harm of passive smoking to students with the cooperation of society, school and family.

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    Study of social identity of smoking-attempting behavior among female high school students in Shanghai
    HE Ya-ping, ZHU Jing-fen, LI Na, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  841. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.005

    Abstract ( 1223 )   PDF (416KB) ( 1046 )  

    Objective To investigate the social identity of smoking-attempting behavior among female high school students in Shanghai. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 6 535 female high school students (aged 12 to 18 years) selected from 29 full-time high schools in Shanghai through stratified random cluster sampling, which was concerned with demographic characteristics, attitude and behavior towards tobacco use, school education on tobacco control and environment of society and family. The social identity of smoking-attempting behavior was analysed by Logistic regression analysis. Results Though 95.9% of the female high school students who attempted to smoke were aware that smoking was bad for health, 11.4% and 8.7% of them thought smoking made male or female students more attractive. In terms of their attitude towards peer smoking, the percentages of “doesn´t matter” and “support” were 46.2% and 2.9% respectively. Regarding the reasons for smoking, those who attempted to smoke thought internal influences accounted for 55.5% and environmental influences for 31.2%, while non-smokers thought internal influences accounted for 61.5% and environmental influences for 24.8%. Conclusion Those who attempt to smoke have an obviously positive orientation towards the social identity of the smoking population, taking resistance identity to resist the pressure of the smoking "stigma".

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    Influence of school anti-smoking education and environment intervention on smoking behavior of middle school students
    HE Ya-ping, ZHU Jing-fen, LI Na, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  847. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.006

    Abstract ( 1335 )   PDF (424KB) ( 1128 )  

    Objective To investigate the influence of anti-smoking education and environment intervention on smoking behavior of middle school students. Methods Stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted, and 9 398 middle school students were selected from 20 schools in Minhang District of Shanghai. Questionnaire survey was conducted, which was concerned with demographic characteristics, attitude and behavior towards tobacco use, school anti-smoking education, and social and family environment. One by one interview with school anti-smoking education heads was conducted, along with the evaluation of 12 school anti-smoking items such as system construction, education content, markers and environment management (6 items of smoking-free school system construction and 6 items of evaluation of anti-smoking education and environment), and the evaluation results were scored and described as good, moderate and poor. The correlation of school anti-smoking effect with smoking behavior of students and tabacco information sensitivity was analysed, and the influence of age and smoking status of parents and peers on school antismoking eduction identity was explored. Results Compared with schools with poor school anti-smoking effect, the attempted smoking rate and actual smoking rate of schools with good school anti-smoking effect decreased by 3.1% and 1.2% respectively. The school anti-smoking effect had significant influence on tobacco information sensitivity of middle school students. The identity on school anti-smoking education decreased with age, the percents of junior middle school students and senior high school students holding negative attitude towards smoking were 86.6% and 58.2% respectively, and those holding positive attitude towards smoking were 0.9% and 1.5% respectively. The recognition on harms of smoking was related to school anti-smoking education, and the identity on school anti-smoking education was related to the status of parent and peer smoking for middle school students. Conclusion School anti-smoking and environment intervention can reduce the attempted smoking rate and actual smoking rate of middle school students to some extent. However, adolescent smoking is a complicated social behavior, which requires more efficient intervention.

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    Analysis of tobacco experimentation and influential factors among middle school students of Pudong New District in Shanghai
    QIAO Yun, TAO Jing-jing, CAI Yong, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  852. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.007

    Abstract ( 1265 )   PDF (336KB) ( 1210 )  

    Objective To investigate the current situation and influential factors of tobacco experimentation among middle school students of Pudong New District in Shanghai. Methods The modified questionnaire based on “WHO Global Adolescent Tobacco Questionnaire” was adopted, and a survey was conducted among 6 042 students selected from 7 middle schools, 4 senior high schools and one vocational school of Pudong New District in Shanghai by random stratified cluster sampling. The questionnaire included basic conditions, smoking behavior, tobacco use acceptance, parental education level and smoking behavior, peer smoking behavior and acceptance of exposure to tobacco on media. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were employed to explore the influential factors of tobacco experimentation among middle school students. Results A total of 5 909 effective questionnaires were recovered, with the recovery rate of 97.7%. Tobacco experimentation took place in 393 students, with the tobacco experimentation rate of 6.7%. Univariate analysis indicated that sex, age, pocket money, rank in class, parental smoking, parental education level, attitude towards peer smoking and condition of peer smoking had significant impact on tobacco experimentation (P<0.001 or P<0.05). The total scores of acceptance of exposure to tobacco on media and tobacco use acceptance in students with tobacco experimentation were significantly higher than those without tobacco experimentation (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that male, age more than 16 years, parental smoking, peer smoking, pocket money more than 800 yuan per month, higher scores of peer smoking acceptance and tobacco use acceptance were factors of more likelihood to be involved in tobacco experimentation (P<0.001 or P<0.05). Those whose fathers had higher education level and who had more experience in tobacco control education in school were less likely to be involved in tobacco experimentation (P<0.001 and P<0.05). Conclusion Peer smoking, high tobacco use acceptance and parental smoking are major risk factors of tobacco experimentation among middle school students, and the protection factors include higher education level of father and experience in tobacco control education in school.

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    Prevalence of smoking and tobacco control environment among middle school personnel in Shanghai
    ZHU Jing-fen, HE Ya-ping, LI Na, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  857. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.008

    Abstract ( 1012 )   PDF (306KB) ( 1031 )  

    Objective To investigate and analyse the prevalence of smoking and tobacco control environment among middle school personnel in Shanghai. Methods Stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted, and 2 696 personnel were selected from 38 middle schools (28 junior middle schools, 7 senior high schools and 3 vocational schools) in 4 districts of Shanghai. On-the-spot questionnaire survey was conducted, which was concerned with smoking condition, knowledge and attitude, tobacco control training and tobacco control environment in schools, and the survey findings were statistically analysed. Results The prevalence of smoking among school personnel was 13.2%. The prevalence of smoking in males was significantly higher than that in females (35.9% vs 1.6%, P<0.001). The prevalence of smoking increased with age, and the prevalence of smoking in males aged more than 40 was significantly higher than that in males aged less than 40 (P<0.001). For males, the prevalence of smoking in teachers (30.2%) was significantly lower than those in administrative staff (45.6%) and staff on other positions (50.0%)(P<0.001). Only 64.1% of respondents were aware of the harm of smoking such as addiction, lung cancer and cardiac diseases, and the percent of smokers was significantly lower than that of non-smokers (43.1% vs 67.3%, P<0.001). Only 54.5% of respondents believed that smoking ban was thoroughly implemented in their schools, and the smoking rate in schools with strict smoking ban was significantly lower than that in schools without strict smoking ban (9.8% vs 14.0%, P<0.05). About 41.7% of smokers reported that they had smoked in schools in the past year. Conclusion The smoking rate among middle school personnel in Shanghai is lower than that of adult population in China. Promotion should be implemented among school personnel to increase their awareness of harm of smoking and to improve their tobacco control skills, especially for males aged more than 40 and administrative staff.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Regulation of inflammatory response in monocytes by PPARgamma agonist
    WANG Jing, XU Ping, HOU Yan-qiang, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  861. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.009

    Abstract ( 1271 )   PDF (404KB) ( 1178 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist on inflammatory response in monocytes. Methods Human monocytes THP-1 cells were cultured in vitro, and were divided into control group, experiment group, pioglitazone group and GW9662 group. Cells in control group were treated with culture fluid, cells in experiment group were stimulated by pancreatitis associated ascetic fluid (PAAF), 20 μmol/L PPARγ agonist pioglitazone was used before treatment with PAAF in pioglitazone group, and cells were treated with PPARγ antagonist GW9662, pioglitazone and PAAF in order in GW9662 group. Cells in each group were collected 6 h after treatment, Real-Time PCR was employed to detect the expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA, and the expression of PPARγ mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Results After stimulation with PAAF, the relative expression of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA was significantly higher, and the relative expression of PPARγ mRNA was significantly lower in experiment group, pioglitazone group and GW9662 group than in control group (P<0.05). The relative expression of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA was significantly lower, and the relative expression of PPARγ mRNA was significantly higher in pioglitazone group and GW9662 group than in experiment group (P<0.05). The relative expression of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA was significantly higher, and the relative expression of PPARγ mRNA was significantly lower in GW9662 group than in pioglitazone group (P<0.05). The change of expression of PPARγ protein was in line with that of PPARγ mRNA in each group, and there was no significant difference in the expression of PPARγ protein between pioglitazone group and control group and between GW9662 group and pioglitazone group (P>0.05). Conclusion PPARγ agonist may up-regulate the expression of PPARγ mRNA, decrease the production of proinflammatory cytokines stimulated by PPAF, and inhibit the inflammation in monocytes.

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    Resistance phenotype in relation to distribution of active efflux system gene and NDM-1 gene in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates
    LI Yong-li, YING Chun-mei
    2012, 32 (7):  866. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.010

    Abstract ( 1315 )   PDF (404KB) ( 1063 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between resistance phenotype and distribution of active efflux system (efflux pump) genes as well as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) in Acinetobacter baumannii (A.baumannii). Methods The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobial agents against 81 A.baumannii clinical isolates were determined by agar dilution method. The phenotype of efflux pump was determined by the changes of MICs after treatment with efflux pump inhibitor PAβN. The distribution of efflux pump genes adeABC, adeIJK and adeFGH and NDM-1 gene blaNDM-1 in clinical isolates was detected by PCR, the clinical isolates were grouped according to the detection findings of efflux pump genes, and the resistance rates were compared among groups. Results Eighty-one A.baumannii clinical isolates were resistant to 13 common antimicrobial agents. There were active efflux pump in 43(53%) clinical isolated strains. The resistance rate was lowest (30.9%) to minocycline and second lowest to imipenem, and those to all the others were over 60%. The resstance rates to cefoxitin and co-trimoxazole were 97.5%and 93.8% respectively, which were relatively higher. In clinical isolates with positive AdeABC efflux pump genes, the detection rates of adeB, adeS and adeR were 78%, 78%, 74% respectively. In AdeJ and AdeFGH efflux pump genes, the detection rates of adeJ, adeL, adeF, adeG and adeH were all over 90%. The multi-drug resistance of the 60 isolates with positive efflux pump genes adeB, adeJ and adeG were most serious, and the resistance rates of gene-positive groups were significantly higher than gene-negative groups. In addition, 32 A.baumannii clinical isolates were detected to carry blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion The multi-drug resistance of A.baumannii clinical isolates in the region is serious, and there exists clonal spread of blaNDM-1 gene. The detection rates of efflux pump genes AdeABC, AdeIJK and AdeFGH in A.baumannii clinical isolates are relatively higher. Active efflux pump system and NDM-1 play an important role in the multi-drug resistance of A.baumannii.

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    Expression of neurotrophin-3 and its receptors in lung tissues of rats with asthma
    YIN Qi, LU Jing-jing, GUO Zhong-liang, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  871. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.011

    Abstract ( 1098 )   PDF (561KB) ( 891 )  

    Objective To determine the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its receptors tyrosine kinase C (TrkC) and p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor (P75NTR) in the lung tissues of rats with asthma. Methods Twenty-eight SD rats aged 4 to 6 weeks were randomized into asthma group (rat asthma model established by sensitization with ovalbumin and challenge, n=16) and normal control group (n=12). Lung tissues of rats in groups rats were obtained for pathological sections, and pathological characteristics of bronchus and lung tissues were observed with HE staining under light microscopy. The expression of NT-3, TrkC and p75NTR mRNA in the lung tissues of two groups of rats was detected by Real-Time PCR, and the correlation among them was analysed. Results Light microscopy revealed that the numbers of lymphocytes and eosinophils surrounding bronchial wall were increased, and there were bronchial airway epithelium shedding, goblet cell hyperplasia and increase of mucous suppository in asthma group, while there was no abnormal findings in the bronchial and alveolar structure in normal control group. The relative expression of NT-3, TrkC and p75NTR mRNA in lung tissues in asthma group was significantly higher than that in normal control group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that the expression of NT-3 mRNA was positively related to that of TrkC mRNA (r=0.89, P<0.01) and p75NTR mRNA (r=0.90, P<0.01), and the expression of TrkC mRNA was positively related to that of p75NTR mRNA (r=0.82, P<0.01). Conclusion The expression of NT-3 mRNA increases in lung tissues of rats with asthma induced by sensitization. NT-3 upregulates the expression of TrkC and P75NTR mRNA, enhances the function of NT-3, which may participate in the airway neuronal inflammation in asthma.

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    Effect of heme oxygenase-1 on protection of myocardial cells by resveratrol against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis
    GU Jun, HU Wei, SONG Zhi-ping, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  875. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.012

    Abstract ( 1136 )   PDF (1224KB) ( 1056 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on protection of myocardial cells by resveratrol (RES) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced apoptosis. Methods Sixty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, DOX group, DOX+RES group and DOX+RES+HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP group, with 15 mice in each group. Except for control group, model of myocardial damage was established in the other groups by intraperitoneal  injection of DOX (total dosage, 12 mg/kg). Histopathological changes of myocardial tissues were observed by light microscopy with HE staining. The activity of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was determined by chemiluminescent method, the activity of HO-1 and Caspase 3 in myocardial tissues was detected by spectrophotometry, the expression of HO-1 protein in myocardial tissues was determined by Western blotting, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in myocardial tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the apoptosis of myocardial cells was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Results Compared with control group, the activity of CK, LDH and Caspase-3, the expression of Bax protein and the apoptosis rate of myocardial cells were significantly higher (P<0.01), and the activity of HO-1 activity as well as the expression of HO-1 and Bcl-2 protein were significantly lower in DOX group (P<0.01). Compared with DOX group, the activity of CK, LDH and Caspase-3, the expression of Bax protein and the apoptosis rate of myocardial cells were significantly lower (P<0.01), and the activity of HO-1 and the expression of HO-1 and Bcl-2 protein were significantly higher in DOX+RES group (P<0.01). Compared with DOX-RES group, the activity of CK, LDH and Caspase-3, the expression of Bax protein and the apoptosis rate of myocardial cells were significantly higher (P<0.01), and the activity of HO-1 and the expression of HO-1 and Bcl-2 protein were significantly lower in DOX+RES+ ZnPP group (P<0.05). Conclusion HO-1 participates in the inhibition effect of RES on myocardial apoptosis induced by DOX.

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    Effects of intrathecal injection of exogenous BDNF-activated astrocytes on pain sensation of normal rats
    ZENG Lu-lu, WANG Jing, ZHANG Xin, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  881. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.013

    Abstract ( 1241 )   PDF (856KB) ( 1097 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the activation of astrocytes, and analyse the impact of intrathecal injection of activated astrocytes on pain hyperalgia in normal rats. Methods Primary astrocytes cultured in vitro were incubated with exogenous BDNF (100 ng/mL) for 0 min (baseline), 15 min, 60 min and 120 min, and the expression of glial filament acidic protein (GFAP) in cells was detected by Western blotting. Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into activated-astrocytes group (intrathecal injection of astrocytes incubated with BDNF for 15 min), negative control group (intrathecal injection of astrocytes without incubation with BDNF), placebo group (intrathecal injection of PBS) and blank control group after intrathecal catheterization, with 6 rats in each group. Before injection and 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h and 8 h after injection, values of 50% mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (50% PWT) were measured with von Frey filaments method. Results The expression of GFAP protein in astrocytes after incubation with BDNF for 15 min, 60 min and 120 min was significantly higher than that of the baseline (P<0.01). In activated-astrocytes group, 50%PWT at each time point after injection was significantly lower than that before injection (P<0.01). In negative control group, transient decrease of 50%PWT only occurred 30 min after injection, which was significantly different from that before injection (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between 50%PWT at each time point after injection and that before injection in placebo group and blank control group (P>0.05). Conclusion Exogenous BDNF can activate astrocytes cultured in vitro, and intrathecal injection of exogenous BDNF-activated astrocytes can directly induce pain hyperalgia in normal rats.

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    Application of REP-PCR in genotyping of Candida glabrata
    ZHANG Wei, ZHENG Bing, YING Chun-mei, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  886. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.014

    Abstract ( 1480 )   PDF (756KB) ( 1132 )  

    Objective To investigate the role of repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR) in the genotyping of Candida glabrata. Methods Thirty-four Candida glabrata isolates from patients with deep fungal infection were collected, and the biochemical phenotypes of isolates were identified by API 20C AUX yeast identification strip. Genotyping of 34 Candida glabrata isolates was performed with REP-PCR. Fungal genome DNA was extracted, primers for PCR was designed from Care-2 repetitive elements, the products of PCR were analysed by electrophoresis, and cluster analysis was conducted with NTSYS software. Isolates with the same genotype had a similarity index (SI) ≥97% and no significant band difference, and those with SI ≥97% and one band difference were characterized as subtypes. Indexes of discriminatory power (DP) were compared between REP-PCR genotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the REP-PCR genotyping of Candida glabrata with different biochemical phenotypes was analysed. Results REP-PCR genotyping revealed there were 17 genotypes for these 34 Candida glabrata isolates, including type A (8 isolates), type B (6 isolates), type C and D (3 isolates for each type), type E (2 isolates) and type F to Q (1 isolate for each type), and there was no subtype. DP (95% CI) of genotyping by REP-PCR and MLST were 0.911(0.770-0.980) and 0.369 (0.220-0.560) respectively, and there were significant differences between them (χ2=21.68, P<0.01). There were two biochemical phenotype codes for these 34 Candida glabrata isolates, which were 2000040 (32 isolates) and 6000040 (2 isolates), and the latter two isolates were classified into type D and type K in REP-PCR genotyping (SI=0.43). Conclusion REP-PCR is simple to operate and is powerful in genotyping of Candida glabrata, which is suitable for the epidemiological study of Candida glabrata in clinical laboratories.

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    Effects of UbcH10 gene silencing combined with paclitaxel treatment on proliferation and apoptosis of NCI-H226 cells
    ZHAO Li-ming, WANG Liang-zhe, LOU Li-rong, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  891. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.015

    Abstract ( 1363 )   PDF (404KB) ( 1004 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of small interfering RNA(siRNA)-mediated UbcH10 gene silencing combined with paclitaxel treatment on proliferation and apoptosis of human lung squamous carcinoma cell line NCI-H226. Methods siRNA-UbcH10 sequence targeting UbcH10 gene was synthesized chemically, and was transfected into NCI-H226 cells by lipofectin (siRNA transfection group). Twenty-four hours after transfection, the expression of UbcH10 mRNA and protein was detected by Real-Time PCR and Western blotting. Cells without transfection were served as blank controls, and those transfected with negative sequence as negative controls. NCI-H226 cells transfected with or without siRNA were treated with paclitaxel (1 μmol/L)(siRNA+ paclitaxel group or paclitaxel group), cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay 24 h and 48 h after transfection, and cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry 24 h after transfection. NCI-H226 cells without paclitaxel treatment while with siRNA transfection, negative sequence transfection and no transfection were served as siRNA transfection group, negative control group and blank control group respectively. Results Real-Time PCR and Western blotting revealed that the expression of UbcH10 mRNA and protein in siRNA transfection group was significantly lower than that in blank control group and negative control group (P<0.01). MTT assay indicated that the cell proliferation inhibition rate in siRNA transfection group was significantly higher than those in paclitaxel group and control group (P<0.05), while the cell proliferation inhibition rate in siRNA+paclitaxel group was significantly higher than that in siRNA transfection group (P<0.05). The cell apoptosis rate in siRNA transfection group was significantly higher than those in paclitaxel group and control group (P<0.05), and the cell apoptosis rate in siRNA+paclitaxel group was significantly higher than that in siRNA transfection group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the cell apoptosis rate between paclitaxel group and control group (P>0.05). Conclusion UbcH10 gene silencing can significantly increase the sensitivity of NCI-H226 cells to the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel.

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    Influence of depolarizing stimulus intensity on intrinsic properties and encoding of cerebral GABAergic neurons in mice
    WANG Qi-yi, SHEN Lin, NI Hong, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  896. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.016

    Abstract ( 1264 )   PDF (819KB) ( 956 )  

    Objective To investigate the dynamic changes of intrinsic properties and encoding at cortical GABAergic neurons with increase of depolarizing stimulus intensity in mice. Methods FVB-Tg (Gad GFP) 45704 Swn/J mice aged 15 to 22 d were sacrificed, and the cortical slices were obtained and cultured in vitro. The intrinsic properties and encoding parameters were recorded by using Axoclamp-2B amplifier. The changes of inter-spike intervals (ISI) and standard deviation of spike timing (SDST), as well as absolute refractory period (ARP) at cortical GABAergic neurons with increase of depolarizing stimulus intensity (threshold stimulus intensity ×0.7 group, ×0.85 group, ×1 group and ×1.25 group respectively) in mice were observed, and the association of ARP at cortical GABAergic neurons with ISI and SDST was analysed. Results With the increase of depolarizing stimulus intensity, the spike capacity of cortical GABAergic neurons was significantly increased, and ARP, ISI and SDST were significantly decreased (P<0.01) There was linear correlation between ARP and ISI in threshold stimulus intensity ×0.7 group, ×0.85 group, ×1 group and ×1.25 group (r2=0.9, 0.91, 0.82 and 0.84 respectively, P<0.05 for all), and there was also linear correlation between ARP and SDST in these groups (r2=0.97, 0.98, 0.93 and 0.89 respectively, P<0.05 for all). Conclusion With the increase of depolarizing stimulus intensity, the reduction of ARP at cortical GABAergic neurons improves spike capacity and capability of neural coding, which in turn enhances their ability in stabilizing the excitatory state of cerebral cortex.

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    Fabrication of canine rib prosthesis based on CT scan and stereo lithography apparatus technique
    RUAN Zheng, WANG Yong-wu, MAO Jian-qiang, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  902. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.017

    Abstract ( 1391 )   PDF (540KB) ( 1046 )  

    Objective To design and fabricate canine rib prosthesis with full geometric shape based on computed tomography (CT) scan and stereo lithography apparatus (SLA) rapid prototyping, and evaluate the precision. Methods DICOM format files of the canine right seventh rib were subject to three-dimensional reconstruction and were transformed to STL format files by OsiriX software, which were then modified by UG software for establishment of computer-aided design (CAD) model. Files with IGS format were formed and subject to rapid prototyping, and canine rib prosthesis was manufactured with photosensitive materials. The rib prosthesis and authentic rib were scanned by three-dimensional laser scanning system, and were analyzed by Geomagic Qualify software. With authentic rib as the template, the deviation of ±0.5 mm was set, and the precision was evaluated. Results The canine rib prosthesis with full geometric shape was obtained with CT scan and SLA technique. About 30 000 point cloud data were acquired after three-dimensional laser scan of rib prosthesis. The maximum positive deviation, maximum negative deviation, average deviation and standard deviation were 1.764 mm, -2.126 mm, 0.183/-0.253 mm and 0.346 mm respectively between the prosthesis and authentic rib. About 88.17% of point cloud data ranged from -0.5 mm to 0.5 mm. Conclusion It is feasible to design and fabricate rib prosthesis with full geometric shape based on CT scan combined with CAD and SLA technique, which is rapid, direct and accurate. Improvement can be made based on the deviation suggested by the scanning.

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    Study of antibiotic property of polyurethane based soft liner material
    ZHU Rui, KONG Fang-yuan, XIAO Jia-qi, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  907. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.018

    Abstract ( 1107 )   PDF (309KB) ( 1068 )  

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial property of polyurethane based material containing polyphosphazenes nanosphere. Methods Test specimens made of polyurethane (PU group), polyurethane containing 1% polyphosphazenes nanosphere (1% PSZ group), polyurethane containing 5% polyphosphazenes nanosphere (5% PSZ group), selfcuring silicon rubber material (negative group) and inner flat of sterilized plate (blank control group) were prepared (n=30). The antibacterial property for Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of test specimens in each group was tested. The colonies were counted by sticking membrane culture method, and the antibacterial rates were calculated. Material with antibacterial rate lower than 90% was regarded as having no antibacterial property. Results The antibacterial rates of test specimens in PU group, 1% PSZ group and 5% PSZ group for Candida albicans were 5.60%, 3.75% and 6.25% respectively, those for Staphylococcus aureus were -2.31%, 1.63% and 12.80% respectively, and those for Escherichia coli were 8.65%, 0.75% and 6.02% respectively. Conclusion Polyurethane based soft liner materials containing less than 5% polyphosphazenes nanosphere have no significant effect on oral microflora balance.

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    Effect of topical oxygen therapy combined with vacuum-assisted closure on wound healing of stage Ⅲ pressure ulcer in guinea pigs
    ZHENG Min, GAN Xiu-ni
    2012, 32 (7):  911. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.019

    Abstract ( 1240 )   PDF (564KB) ( 1046 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect of topical oxygen therapy combined with vacuum-assisted closure on the would healing of stage Ⅲ pressure ulcer in guinea pigs, and explore the mechanism. Methods Stage Ⅲ pressure ulcers in the left trochanter major of guinea pigs (n=20) were prepared, and were divided into sequential combined intervention group (-125 mmHg vacuum-assisted closure for 320 min and 5 L/min topical oxygen therapy for 160 min), alternate combined intervention group (-125 mmHg vacuum-assisted closure for 40 min and 5 L/min topical oxygen therapy for 20 min, alternation for 8 times), vacuum-assisted closure group (-125 mmHg vacuum-assisted closure for 40 min, then suspension for 20 min, and repeat for 8 times), topical oxygen therapy group (5 L/min topical oxygen therapy for 20 min, then suspension for 40 min, and repeat for 8 times) and blank control group (conventional treatment for wound, and no vacuum-assisted closure and topical oxygen therapy) according to different treatment for wound. Wound areas were measured and wound shrinkage rates were calculated before wound formation and on the first, third, seventh and eleventh day after wound formation. Skin tissue specimens were collected from the wound, and tissue edema and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed with HE staining under light microscopy. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvascular density (MVD) in wound tissues was detected with immunohistochemical staining. Results The wound shrinkage rates in sequential combined intervention group and alternate combined intervention group were significantly higher than those in the other groups at the given time point (P<0.01). Histological observation indicated that the tissue edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in wound in sequential combined intervention group and alternate combined intervention group were mild. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of VEGF and MVD in wound tissues in sequential combined intervention group and alternate combined intervention group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.01). The parameters in alternate combined intervention group were superior to those in sequential combined intervention group. Conclusion Topical oxygen therapy combined with vacuum-assisted closure can rapidly reduce wound inflammation, promote expression of VEGF and MVD in wound tissues, increase wound vascularization, and promote wound healing of stage Ⅲ pressure ulcer in guinea pigs.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Relationship between plasma homocysteine levels and structure and function of heart in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis
    LU Wei, SHAN Jian-ping, JI Gang, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  917. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.020

    Abstract ( 2141 )   PDF (344KB) ( 1012 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical application of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in evaluation of structure and function of heart in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Methods Sixty-nine patients with MHD for no less than six months were selected (MHD group). According to the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, patients were divided into MHD-CVD group (MHD complicated with CVD, n=26) and MHD-nCVD group (MHD without complication with CVD, n=43). The plasma Hcy levels before hemodialysis and immediately after hemodialysis were examined by ELISA, the parameters of left ventricular enddiastolic diameter (LVEDD), left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular posterior wall depth (LVPWD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured by cardiac color ultrasound, the left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated, and the relationship between plasma Hcy levels and parameters determined by cardiac color ultrasound was analysed. Another 42 healthy volunteers were served as normal control group. Results The plasma Hcy levels in MHD group were significantly higher than those in normal control group before hemodialysis and immediately after hemodialysis (P<0.01). The plasma Hcy level in MHD-CVD group was significantly higher than that in MHD-nCVD group before hemodialysis (P<0.05). The plasma Hcy level was positively related to LVEDD, LVPW, LVM and LAD (r=0.315, P=0.008; r=0.355, P=0.003; r=0.314, P=0.009; r=0.248, P=0.040), and was negatively related to LVEF (r=-0.262, P=0.030) in patients undergoing MHD. In patients whose plasma Hcy levels immediately after hemodialysis decreased by no less than 50% of those before hemodialysis, the decrease of plasma Hcy level immediately after hemodialysis was positively related to LVPWD (r=0.401, P=0.036), and the decrease of plasma Hcy level was negatively related to LVEDD and LVESD in MHD-CVD group (r=-0.419, P=0.031; r=-0.534, P=0.008). Conclusion Hyperhomocysteinemina extensively exists in patients undergoing MHD, especially in those complicated with CVD. Plasma Hcy level can reflect LVM and structure and function of left ventricle, which may play an important role in the evaluation of left ventricular hypertrophy and function of left ventricle.

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    Outcomes of modified Nuss procedure in treatment of recurrent pectus excavatum
    XIAO Hai-bo, MEI Ju, ZHANG Fu-xian, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  922. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.021

    Abstract ( 1297 )   PDF (678KB) ( 1285 )  

    Objective To investigate the outcomes of modified Nuss procedure with a subxiphoid incision in treatment of recurrent pectus excavatum. Methods From July 2007 to August 2010, 22 patients with recurrent pectus excavatum underwent a secondary repair using the modified Nuss procedure with a subxiphoid incision. Conditions of first repair, symptom, Haller index, operation course and complications before second repair, and follow up after second repair were retrospectively analysed. Besides, another 51 patients with pectus excavatum undergoing first Nuss procedure in the same period were served as control group. Results Among the 22 patients with recurrent pectus excavatum, there were 12 cases of Ravitch procedure, 7 cases of modified Ravitch procedure and 3 cases of sterno-turnover procedure in the first repair. The symptoms before the second repair included decreased endurance, dyspnea on exertion, chest pain, frequent respiratory infection and palpitation. The average Haller index was 4.81±0.8. The average duration of reoperation was significantly longer than that of control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in volume of blood loss, duration of postoperative hospitalization and prevalence of postoperative complications (pneumothorax, pleural effusion, persistent pain and wound infection in lateral incision) between two groups (P>0.05). There was no case of perioperative death or cardiac perforation in two groups. The patients were followed up for 1 to 4 years, the preoperative symptoms significantly alleviated or disappeared. The steel bars were demolished in 9 patients, and no steel bar malposition and stabilizer displacement was found. Conclusion Although recurrent pectus excavatum repair is technically challenging, the modified Nuss procedure with a subxiphoid incision can be performed safely, and may be an alternative approach in treatment of patients with recurrent pectus excavatum.

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    Study on fatigue in patients with Parkinson´s disease
    DONG Qing, WANG Zhi-ying, SHEN Fei, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  926. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.022

    Abstract ( 1274 )   PDF (310KB) ( 1018 )  

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of fatigue symptom with cross-sectional survey, and analyse its risk factors in patients with Parkinson´s disease (PD). Methods Fatigue symptom was measured by Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in 234 non-dementia patients with PD, who were divided into fatigue group and non-fatigue group. All patients were assessed by the Unified Parkinson´s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) stage, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression Scale (HDRS)-17, Parkinson´s Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) and Parkinson´s Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the independent risk factors of fatigue in patients with PD. Results One hundred patients (42.7%) had fatigue symptom (FSS>4), and 67 patients (34.9%) without major depression or sleep disturbance also reported fatigue. Patients in fatigue group had significantly higher score of the PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ-39SI) than those in non-fatigue group (Z=-8.066, P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated that HDRS score (OR=1.105, P=0.001) and PDSS score (OR=0.967, P=0.000) were independent risk factors of fatigue in patients with PD. Conclusion Fatigue is a common symptom and intrinsic characteristic of patients with PD, which is closely related to the impaired quality of life. Control of depression and sleep disturbance may decrease the fatigue in patients with PD.

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    Visual effects of laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia with different ablation centers
    CHENG Qiong, LIAN Jing-cai, ZHANG Jing, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  930. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.023

    Abstract ( 1050 )   PDF (383KB) ( 1044 )  

    Objective To compare the visual effects of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia with different ablation centers. Methods The clinical data of patients with myopia undergoing LASIK were collected. Among 190 patients (380 eyes), 90 patients (180 eyes) were treated with visual axis corneal reflex point (VACRP) as ablation center (VACRP group), and the other 100 patients (200 eyes) were treated with pupil center (PC) as ablation center (PC group). All patients were reexamined one month after operation, the vision-related parameters were measured, and the visual acuity, safety index, efficacy index, refraction, ablation center deviation, corneal higher order aberration and contrast sensitivity were compared between two groups. Results One month after operation, there was no significant difference in uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), safety index and efficacy index between VACRP group and PC group (P>0.05). BSCVA and safety index in patients with preoperative visual acuity >-6.00 D in VACRP group were significantly higher than those in patients with preoperative visual acuity >-6.00 D in PC group (P<0.01). The ablation center deviation in VACRP group was significantly shorter than that in PC group [(0.25±0.11) mm vs (0.51±0.19) mm, P<0.01]. The corneal high order aberration and coma in VACRP group were significantly lower than those in PC group (P<0.01). Postoperative contrast sensitivity visual acuity in VACRP group was significantly better than that in PC group on 18c/d spatial frequency with 85 cd/m2 intensity (P<0.01). Conclusion Compared with LASIK with PC as ablation center, LASIK with VACRP as ablation center may achieve better visual acuity, lower higher order aberrations and better contrast sensitivity in treatment of myopia.

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    Clinical analysis of 12 cases of giant germinoma in basal ganglia area
    LU Zhao-feng, QIU Yong-ming, CHENG Xiao-bing, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  935. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.024

    Abstract ( 1451 )   PDF (1161KB) ( 937 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of microneurosurgery combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of giant germinoma in basal ganglia area. Methods The clinical data of 12 patients with giant germinoma in basal ganglia area were collected. All patients underwent total resection of tumors under microscope. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examinations after operation, and the characteristic findings in immunohistochemical detection were retrospectively analysed. Radiotherapy was performed 5 to 7 d after operation, with whole brain irradiation 30 Gy+local irradiation 20 Gy+whole spine irradiation 30 Gy. The changes of clinical symptoms and imaging features after operation and the results of immunohistochemical detection for tumors were observed. Patients were followed up for one year, the  quality of life was evaluated with Karnofsky scoring method, and was compared with that before operation. Results Immunohistochemical staining after operation revealed that placental alk phosphatase was positively stained in cytoplasm, and CD117 was positively stained in cytomembrane and/or cytoplasm. After treatment, the symptoms of intracranial hypertension significantly relieved or disappeared, and the clinical signs and symptoms were significant improved in all the patients. CT and magnetic resonance imaging indicated that total resection of tumors was achieved, and the space-occupying effect was significantly relieved. The quality of life evaluated by Karnofsky scoring method was much better than that before operation. Conclusion Microneurosurgery combined with radiotherapy should be the first scheme in the treatment of giant germinoma in basal ganglia area.

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    Review
    Research progress of pleiomorphic adenoma gene zinc finger protein PLAGL2
    XUE Ming-ming, NING Ren-li, XU Hui-li, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  940. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.025

    Abstract ( 1504 )   PDF (381KB) ( 1128 )  

    Pleiomorphic adenoma genelike 2 (PLAGL2), together with pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) and pleiomorphic adenoma genelike 1 (PLAGL1), belong to the zinc finger protein gene family. They are highly homologous in structure, and the differences in function are mainly due to different DNAs they bind. In recent years, great progress has been made in the research of structure, function and mechanism of PLAG1, PLAGL1 and PLAGL2. PLAGL2 has been found to be related to cell metabolism and development of many systemic diseases, while there exists controversy on the role of PLAGL2 in tumors. The research progress of structure, transcription mechanism and biologic function of PLAGL2 and its relationship with systemic diseases and tumor are reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of heartbeat perception in patients with anxiety disorders
    LI Hui, LI Chun-bo, WANG Ji-jun, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  944. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.026

    Abstract ( 1021 )   PDF (383KB) ( 1132 )  

    The increased heartbeat perception has been suggested to play a key role in state anxiety, trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and clinical anxiety disorders. Heartbeat perception has become one of the main breakthrough points in the research of interoceptive awareness. The research progress of methods for the assessment of heartbeat perception, neural network and abnormal heartbeat perception associated with anxiety disorders is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of childhood obesity and precocious puberty
    YOU Xiao-meng, SHAN Chuan, SHEN Xiu-hua
    2012, 32 (7):  949. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.027

    Abstract ( 1340 )   PDF (246KB) ( 1487 )  

    Since 1960s, the prevalences of precocious puberty and childhood obesity have been rising, and it has been pointed out by many experts that childhood obesity may be relevant with precocious puberty. Some studies have revealed that the prevalence of precocious puberty in obese girls is significantly higher than that in girls with normal body weight. However, the results are complicated when it comes to boys. Leptin may be one of the links between childhood obesity and precocious puberty, and there have been many reports about its relationship with precocious puberty in children with obesity. The research progress of childhood obesity and precocious puberty is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of pathogenesis of microparticles in preeclampsia
    MAO Ya-jing, YANG Zu-jing
    2012, 32 (7):  952. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.028

    Abstract ( 1074 )   PDF (280KB) ( 1131 )  

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific multi-system dysfunction disease, which is one of the main causes of maternal and infant mortality. The pathogenesis of PE is not clear, inflammation, coagulation function changes, platelet activation and endothelial damage may have significant impact on the pathological process of PE, and studies have confirmed that microparticles (MP) play an important role in the above process. The research progress of generation and characteristics of MP, the changes of contents of MP in systemic circulation during pregnancy, and the pathogenesis of MP in PE is reviewed, and the prospect of MP in the diagnosis and treatment of PE is explored in this paper.

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    Technique and method
    Model establishment of transgenic mouse mammary epithelial cells for research of gene expression
    JIANG Shi-zhong, YAN Ya-bin, XIE Fei, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  955. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.029

    Abstract ( 1322 )   PDF (880KB) ( 1118 )  

    Objective To establish a cell model of transgenic mouse mammary epithelial cells for the research of foreign gene expression regulated by environment factors in the mammary gland as well as for the construction of mammary gland bioreactor. Methods The mammary epithelial cells of human transferrin (hTF) transgenic mouse were obtained by mechanical disruption and collagenase digestion, and followed by primary culture. After purification by trypsase, the growth curve of mammary epithelial cells was drafted. The expression of keratin 18 was detected by immunohistochemistry, the ultrastructure of mammary epithelial cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy, the distribution of cell cycles was determined by flow cytometry, and the karyotype of mammary epithelial cells was analysed under microscope. Eukaryotic expression vectors of bovine prolactin (pCMV-bPRL) were transfected into transgenic mammary epithelial cells, and the expression of exogenous bPRL was detected. Results The growth curve of mammary epithelial cells exhibited “S” shape. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that there was positive expression of keratin 18 in hTF transgenic mouse mammary epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nuclei were bigger in mammary epithelial cells, with abundant cytoplasm, vacuole, rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi body. Flow cytometry indicated that the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells was active, and cells in G2/M phase or S phase accounted for 15%. Cells in division stages had normal diploid and intact chromosome. Twenty-four hours after transfection of mammary epithelial cells by pCMV-bPRL, the expression of bPRL was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion The transgenic mouse mammary epithelial cells cultured in vitro have in vivo biological characteristics and capacity of expression of eukaryotic gene vectors, which may provide a good cell model for investigation of environment factors on the function of mammary gland and generation of mammary gland bioreactor.

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    Numerical simulation of therapeutic effect of carotid artery stenting on carotid artery stenosis
    QIU Xiao-ning, FEI Zhi-min, SHI Sheng-xian, et al
    2012, 32 (7):  961. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.07.030

    Abstract ( 1474 )   PDF (819KB) ( 1038 )  

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on carotid artery stenosis with computational fluid dynamics. Methods Three-dimensional reconstruction of CT images before and after operation was conducted with Mimics software in one patient with carotid artery stenosis. Individualized carotid artery bifurcation model was constructed, and computational fluid dynamics was employed to perform three-dimensional fluid numerical simulation calculation. The therapeutic effect of CAS was evaluated with hemodynamic parameters of wall shear stress, wall pressure, blood flow tract and blood volume. Results Numerical simulation calculation indicated that compared with those before operation, there were significant changes in carotid blood flow velocity, blood flow distribution between internal carotid artery and external carotid artery, wall shear stress and wall pressure, and the blood flow state was significantly improved. Conclusion Computational fluid dynamics numerical simulation is rational in evaluation of therapeutic effect of CAS, and can provide individualized optimal guidance before operation.

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