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    Original article (Basic research)
    Mechanism of lactogenic effect of Medulla Tetrapanacis in lactation
    ZHENG Tao, YANG Zu-jing, QIAN Lin-xi
    2012, 32 (6):  689. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.001

    Abstract ( 1314 )   PDF (377KB) ( 1275 )  

    Objective To explore the mechanism of lactogenic effect of Medulla Tetrapanacis in lactation, and investigate the effect of Medulla Tetrapanacis on the composition of latex. Methods Sixteen ICR dams were divided into negative control group (n=8) and Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group (n=8) after delivery. Intragastric administration of 0.25 mL Medulla Tetrapanacis extract of dams was conducted daily in Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group, and the same amount of normal saline was given in negative control group. The amount of latex and the contents of protein and lactose in latex were compared between two groups, and serum prolactin levels of mice were measured by ELISA. Mouse HC11 mammary epithelial cells were treated by different doses of Medulla Tetrapanacis extract (low dose Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group,high dose Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group and control group), fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR was employed to detect the expression of β-casein and lactalbumin mRNA in mammary epithelial cells,and the expression of β-casein, STAT5 protein and phosphorylated STAT5 protein was determined by Western blotting. Results The amount of latex on the 1st, 3rd,8th, 13th and 18th day of lactation in Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group was higher than that in negative control group. The mass concentration of protein in latex of mice in Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group (119.567 μg/mL) was significantly higher than that in negative control group (100.562 μg/mL)(P<0.05), while the concentration of lactose in Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group (53.072 mmol/L)was significantly lower than that in negative control group (63.290 mmol/L)(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in the prolactin levels on the 1st, 3rd,8th and 13th day of lactation between Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group and negative control group (P>0.05). The expression of β-casein and lactalbumin mRNA in mammary epithelial cells in low dose Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group and high dose Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group was higher than that in control group. The expression of phosphorylated STAT5 protein in mammary epithelial cells was the lowest in control group, and that was the highest in high dose Medulla Tetrapanacis treatment group. Conclusion Medulla Tetrapanacis can increase the phosphorylation of STAT5 protein and promote the prolactin signaling transduction in mammary epithelial cells, which results in the increase of latex amount and protein content.

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    Surface plasmon resonance technology combined with rolling circle amplification for detection of hepatitis C virus
    JI Ming-hui, HU Gui-fang, ZHENG Yi, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  693. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.002

    Abstract ( 1199 )   PDF (722KB) ( 1193 )  

    Objective To develop rolling circle amplification (RCA) method combined with specific surface plasmon resonance (SPR) nucleic acid gold-chip for the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods According to the specific test sequence of HCV x-tail region, probes and primers for detecting HCV with RCA method were designed and synthesized, and were divided into test group, negative sample group and positive sample group for RCA experiments to detect HCV. The template concentration was diluted into ten gradients, and the detection limit of SPR combined with RCA method was evaluated. Based on the ordinary gold chip, through the surface chemical processing, the nucleic acid chip with high specificity was obtained, and the anti-protein capacity of protein chip was verified by anti-protein experiment. Real-time detection of RCA reaction and signal magnification reaction was conducted with double channel SPR apparatus. Sixty-three blood samples collected from clinics were detected by SPR combined with RCA method, comparisons were made with Real-Time PCR, and the sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Results The minimum detection concentration of SPR combined with RCA method in HCV testing was 1 pmol/L, which was lower than the detection limit of Real-Time PCR (0.1 nmol/L). SPR chip had the favorable anti-protein absorptive capacity. The signal-to-noise ratio of double channel SPR apparatus in detection of RCA chip system was 100, which achieved the detection of HCV. The sensitivity of SPR combined with RCA method in detection of clinical samples was 90.0%(27/30), and the specificity was 84.8% (28/33)(χ2=8.10,P=0.004). Conclusion SPR combined with RCA method combines biological sensing technology with in situ amplification technology, which may detect HCV in a fast, label-free and real-time way.

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    miR-506 targets Slug to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of breast cancer
    LIANG Yong-jun, ZHOU Ci-xiang, YU Xiao-ting, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  699. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.003

    Abstract ( 1532 )   PDF (861KB) ( 1447 )  

    Objective To investigate the role of miR-506 targeting Slug in regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of breast cancer. Methods The expression of miR-506 in eight breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, BT474, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468, HCC1937, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) was determined by Real-Time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and human normal mammary epithelial cell MCF10A was served as control. miR-506 mimics were transiently overexpressed in MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells through liposome transfection(negative control). The mobility of cells was detected by wound healing assay and Transwell migration and invasion assay. The morphological change of cells after transfection with miR-506 was observed, and the expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin and Slug protein was determined by Western blotting. The effect of miR-506 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells on wild type luciferase was determined by luciferase reporter assay. Results The expression of miR-506 in breast cancer cells was significantly lower than that in MCF10A cells (P<0.01). The overexpression of miR-506 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion ability of MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells, which was significantly different from that of negative control (P<0.01). Obvious morphological change was observed in MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells 48 h after transient transfection with miR-506. Western blotting indicated that miR-506 overexpression increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expression of Vimentin in MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells. Western blotting revealed that the expression of Slug protein in MDA-MB-231 cells after transfection with miR-506 was significantly lower than that in negative control, and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-506 overexpression significantly inhibited the activity of wild type luciferase. Conclusion MiR-506 targets Slug to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibit metastasis of breast cancer, which may be one of the ways for miR-506 to participate in the development of breast cancer.

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    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein reduces macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by inhibiting expression of receptor MerTK
    HUANG Xiao-jing, JIANG Li-sheng, XU Jin, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  706. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.004

    Abstract ( 1486 )   PDF (917KB) ( 1244 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) treated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Methods RAW264.7 murine macrophages were randomly divided into control group (treated by serum-free DMEM culture medium), 10 μg/mL ox-LDL group (treated by 10 μg/mL ox-LDL serum-free DMEM culture medium) and 20 μg/mL ox-LDL group (treated by 20 μg/mL ox-LDL serum-free DMEM culture medium). RAW264.7 murine macrophage apoptosis was induced by ultraviolet radiation, phagocytic index of RAW264.7 macrophages of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry, and Western blotting and Real-Time PCR were employed to detect the expression of receptor MerTK protein and mRNA respectively. Results ①Twenty-four hours after treatment, the phagocytic indexes in 10 μg/mL ox-LDL group and 20 μg/mL ox-LDL group decreased by (4.7±2.8)% and (12.6±2.2)% respectively of that in control group, and the phagocytic index of 20 μg/mL ox-LDL group was significantly lower than that in control group and 10 μg/mL ox-LDL group (P<0.05). ②Twenty-four hours after treatment, the relative expression of MerTK protein in 10 μg/mL ox-LDL group and 20 μg/mL ox-LDL group decreased by (20.0±16.5)% and (47.0±15.4)% respectively of that in control group, and the relative expression of MerTK protein in 20 μg/mL ox-LDL group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). ③Twelve hours after treatment, the relative expression of MerTK mRNA in 10 μg/mL ox-LDL group and 20 μg/mL ox-LDL group decreased by (33.0±17.5)% and (60.0±10.0)% respectively of that in control group, and the relative expression of MerTK mRNA in 10 μg/mL ox-LDL group and 20 μg/mL ox-LDL group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion ox-LDL can reduce the macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the mechanism may be related to inhibiting the expression of receptor MerTK, which may also be one of the causes for the instability and progression of ox-LDL-induced atherosclerotic plaque.

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    Minocycline protects dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting production of proinflammatory factors
    WANG Xi-jin, YAN Zhi-qiang, GU Sheng-li, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  711. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.005

    Abstract ( 1124 )   PDF (322KB) ( 1110 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect of minocycline on inflammation-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Methods SD rat model of inflammation-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration was established in mesencephalic neuron/glia cultures by lipopolysaccharides. The culture system was treated by minocycline before or after the addition of lipopolysaccharides. The number of dopaminergic neurons was determined by immunocytochemistry and cell counting. Cell bioactivity was detected by liquid scintillation uptake assay. Besides, the changes of key proinflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)(by ELISA), interleukin-1β (IL-1β)(by ELISA), nitric oxide (NO)(by Griess method) and superoxide (by cytochrome C reduction method) were examined in the cultures. Results Minocycline (2-10 μmol/L) pretreatment dose-dependently attenuated the reduction in dopamine uptake and dopaminergic cell number in mesencephalic cultures treated with lipopolysaccharides (1-100 ng/mL). Minocycline (10 μmol/L) posttreatment also protected dopaminergic neurons from lipopolysaccharides (10 ng/mL)-induced neurodegeneration in neuron/glia cultures. Minocycline pretreatment and posttreatment significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, NO and superoxide in neuron/glia cultures. Conclusion Minocycline may protect mesencephalic dopaminergie neurons treated with lipopolysaccharides by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory factors.

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    Inhibition of pseudolaric acid B on growth of glioma C6 cells
    CHEN Zhen-jun, SUN Dong-tao, YUAN Yuan
    2012, 32 (6):  716. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.006

    Abstract ( 1014 )   PDF (465KB) ( 1226 )  

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) on the growth of glioma C6 cells, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. Methods The effects of different mass concentrations of PAB (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 8.0 and 16.0 μg/mL) on the growth of C6 cells were analysed by MTT assay. After treatment with 0 (control), 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 μg/mL PAB, the apoptosis of C6 cells was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, and the expression of Survivin (apoptosis inhibition protein), LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-β) and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (Cleaved-PARP) was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results MTT assay revealed PAB inhibited the growth of C6 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. The median lethal dosages (IC50) of PAB on C6 cells were 1.23, 1.05, 0.30 and 0.09 μg/mL after treatment with PAB for 12, 24, 36, and 72 h respectively. Flow cytometry indicated that apoptosis of C6 cells occurred 36 h after treatment with 0.15, 0.30 and 0.60 μg/mL PAB, and the apoptosis rates were (24.89±0.92)%, (31.38±0.36)% and (62.84±2.22)% respectively, which were significantly different from that of control group (P<0.05). RT-PCR and Western blotting demonstrated that the expression of Survivin in C6 cells decreased, and the expression of LC3 and Cleaved-PARP increased after treatment with PAB, which was significantly different from that of control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).With the concentration increase of PAB, the expression of Survivin, LC3 and Cleaved-PARP in cells changed in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion PAB can inhibit the growth of glioma C6 cells and induce cell apoptosis, which may be associated with the decreased expression of Survivin and increased expression of LC3 and Cleaved-PARP.

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    Experimental research of relationship between CXC chemokines and diabetic retinopathy
    LI Jing-jing, ZHU Hong, SHI Cai-hong
    2012, 32 (6):  720. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.007

    Abstract ( 1294 )   PDF (739KB) ( 1206 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of ELR+ and ELR-CXC chemokines in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Methods Thirty-four healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (CON group, n=10), diabetes mellitus 2 months group (DM2M group, n=12) and diabetes mellitus 4 months group (DM4M group, n=12). Rat diabetes model was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg). Left ventricular perfusion of Evens blue was performed, and microvascular proliferation was observed with retinal preparations. The expression of chemokines in the serum, retina and vitreous humor of each group was detected by ELISA, and statistical analysis was conducted. The expression of CXCR3 in retina was observed with immunofluorescence staining. Results The expression of ELR+ CXC chemokines of GRO, ENA-78, SDF-1 and that of ELR- CXC chemokines IP-10 and MIG in DM2M group and DM4M group was significantly higher than that in CON group (P<0.01). The expression of chemokines in DM4M group was significantly higher than that in DM2M group (P<0.05). The expression of chemokines in retina was significantly higher than that in vitreous humor and serum (P<0.05). The expression of CXCR3 in retina in DM4M group and DM2M group was relatively higher, especially for DM4M group, and the expression of CXCR3 was mainly found in the inner granular layer and nerve fiber layer. Conclusion ELR+ and ELR- CXC chemokines may participate in the development of diabetic retinopathy, which may play an important role in mediating vascular proliferation and fibration.

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    Effects of curcumin intervention on ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats
    LU Feng, ZHANG Shi-qing
    2012, 32 (6):  726. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.008

    Abstract ( 1134 )   PDF (742KB) ( 1343 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of curcumin intervention on ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats. Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into single nephrolithiasis induction group (calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis induced by 1% ethylene glycol drinking), nephrolithiasis induction+curcumin intervention group (1% ethylene glycol drinking+intragastric administration of 20 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin), single curcumin group (deionized water drinking+ intragastric administration of 20 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin) and blank control group (deionized water drinking), with 8 rats in each group. Before and after the experiment (4 weeks after treatment), serum and urine concentrations of ionized calcium and magnesium, urine oxalic acid, urine citric acid and serum concentration of creatinine were measured in rats. Rats were sacrificed, renal tissues were obtained, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) in renal tissues were determined, the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tissues was observed with HE staining, and the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL method. Results Compared with blank control group, the urine oxalic acid, apoptosis index of renal tubular epithelial cells, content of MDA in renal tissues and serum concentration of creatinine were moderately higher, and the urine concentration of ionized magnesium, urine content of citric acid and activity of T-SOD in renal tissues were moderately lower in single curcumin group. Compared with single nephrolithiasis induction group, the urine oxalic acid, apoptosis index of renal tubular epithelial cells and content of MDA in renal tissues were significantly decreased, and the urine concentration of ionized magnesium, urine content of citric acid and activity of T-SOD in renal tissues were significantly increased in nephrolithiasis induction+curcumin intervention group (P<0.05). Conclusion Curcumin can slightly induce calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats with normal diet, but it can effectively inhibit ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

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    Protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on injury of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by hyperoxaluria in rats
    TAN Gui-geng, ZHANG Shi-qing
    2012, 32 (6):  732. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.009

    Abstract ( 1169 )   PDF (315KB) ( 1190 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect of hyperoxaluria on apoptosis of rat renal tubular epithelial cells, and observe the interventional role of hydrogenrich water. Methods Fifty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank control group (drinking deionized water plus treating with deionized water), calculi-induced group (drinking 1% ethylene glycol plus treating with deionized water), hydrogen-rich water control group (drinking deionized water plus treating with hydrogen-rich water of -140 mV oxidation-reduction potential), magnesium hydroxide control group (drinking 1% ethylene glycol plus treating with magnesium hydroxide), and high, medium and low concentration hydrogen-rich water intervention groups (drinking 1% ethylene glycol plus treating with hydrogen-rich water of -140 mV, -110 mV and -60 mV oxidation-reduction potentials respectively), with 8 rats in each group. Four weeks after management, 24 h oxaluria concentrations were measured, the apoptosis indexes (AI) of renal tubular epithelial cells were detected with TUNEL method, and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in renal tissues were determined. Results Twenty-four hour oxaluria concentrations in calculi-induced group, magnesium hydroxide control group and high, medium and low concentration hydrogen-rich water intervention groups were significantly higher than those in blank control group and hydrogen-rich water control group (P<0.05). AI of renal tubular epithelial cells in calculi-induced group was significantly higher than that in blank control group (P<0.05). AI of renal tubular epithelial cells in high, medium and low concentration hydrogen-rich water intervention groups were 46.8%, 60.0% and 92.6% respectively of that in calculi-induced group, which exhibited a significant dose-effect relationship (r=-0.724, P<0.05). The concentration of hydrogen-rich water was significantly positively related to the activity of SOD (r=0.683, P<0.05), and was significantly negatively related to the content of MDA (r=-0.736, P<0.05). Conclusion Hyperoxaluria can increase the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells, and hydrogen-rich water can effectively protect renal tubular epithelial cells from hyperoxaluria-induced injury.

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    Isolation and characteristics of cancer stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CD133+A549 lung cancer cells
    REN Lian-ping, WANG Jia, GUO Xue-jun
    2012, 32 (6):  736. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.010

    Abstract ( 1812 )   PDF (360KB) ( 1160 )  

    Objective To isolate CD133+A549 cells, and investigate the characteristics of cancer stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods A549 cells were isolated by immunomagnetic beads method, and were identified by Real-Time PCR and Western blotting. The expression of cancer stem cell markers (CXCR4, Oct4, CD44, Bmi1 and EpCam) and EMT markers (E-Cadherin and Zeb1) mRNA in CD133+A549 cells and CD133-A549 cells was detected by Real-Time PCR. The isolated CD133+A549 cells and CD133-A549 cells were treated with different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL) of adriamycin for 72 h, and the relative survival rates of cells were determined by cell viability assay. Results After isolation through CD133 antibody conjugated microbeads, CD133+ A549 cells and CD133-A549 cells were successfully obtained, and the expression of CD133 in CD133+A549 cells was significantly higher than that in CD133-A549 cells. Real-Time PCR revealed that the relative expression of Oct4, CD44, Bmi1 and EpCam mRNA in CD133+A549 cells was significantly higher than that in CD133-A549 cells [ (1±0.16) vs(0.66±0.12),(1±0.07) vs (0.48±0.04),(1±0.03) vs (0.49±0.06), and (1±0.14) vs (0.38±0.12); P<0.05], while there was no significant difference in the relative expression of CXCR4 mRNA between them [(1±0.13) vs (0.73±0.14),P>0.05]. The relative expression of Zeb1 mRNA in CD133+A549 cells was significantly higher than that in CD133-A549 cells [(1±0.09) vs (0.39±0.05),P<0.05], while the relative expression of E-Cadherin mRNA in CD133+A549 cells was significantly lower than that in CD133-A549 cells [(1±0.02) vs (4.98±0.04),P<0.05]. Cell viability assay indicated that the relative survival rate of CD133+A549 cells was significantly higher than that in CD133-A549 cells after treatment with 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL adriamycin [(85±9.4)% vs (67±13.1)%,P<0.05;(80±14.9)% vs (56±6.3)%,P<0.01]. Conclusion CD133+ A549 cells and CD133-A549 cells can be successfully isolated by immunomagnetic beads method. There is expression of other cancer stem cell markers in CD133+A549 cells, which exhibit characteristics of EMT. CD133 may be a potential biomarker of cancer stemness and EMT in lung cancer.

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    Effects of Salvia Miltiorrhiza injection on expression of E-cadherin/α-smooth muscle actin and peroxidative injury of rat peritoneal mesothelial cells induced by high glucose
    LIU Yi-sheng, ZHU Chun, JIANG Geng-ru, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  741. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.011

    Abstract ( 1153 )   PDF (632KB) ( 1146 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of Salvia Miltiorrhiza injection on expression of E-cadherin/α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and peroxidative injury of rat peritoneal mesothelial cells induced by high glucose. Methods Rat primary peritoneal mesothelial cells were cultured in vitro. After synchronization for 24 h, primary peritoneal mesothelial cells of the third passage were divided into normal control group, high glucose group (treated with 25 mg/mL glucose), mannitol control group (treated with 25 mg/mL mannitol) and Salvia Miltiorrhiza group (treated with 15 mg/mL Salvia Miltiorrhiza+25 mg/mL glucose). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells were determined, and the expression of E-cadherin and α-SMA mRNA and protein in cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Results Compared with normal control group, the contents of ROS and MDA in cells significantly increased, the activity of SOD in cells significantly decreased, the expression of E-cadherin mRNA and protein in cells significantly decreased, and the expression of α-SMA mRNA and protein in cells significantly increased in high glucose group (P<0.05). Compared with high glucose group, the contents of ROS and MDA in cells significantly decreased, the activity of SOD in cells significantly increased, the expression of E-cadherin mRNA and protein in cells significantly increased, and the expression of α-SMA mRNA and protein in cells significantly decreased in Salvia Miltiorrhiza group (P<0.05). Conclusion Salvia Miltiorrhiza injection can significantly reduce the peroxidative injury of peritoneal mesothelial cells induced by high glucose, and its regulation on expression of E-cadherin and α-SMA in cells may be related to the decrease of peritoneal fibrosis.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Clinical effects of venlafaxine in treatment of depressive disorder associated with anxiety and its impact factors
    HUANG Jia, PENG Dai-hui, YUAN Cheng-mei, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  746. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.012

    Abstract ( 1655 )   PDF (406KB) ( 1389 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical effects of venlafaxine in the treatment of depressive disorder associated with anxiety, and explore its related factors. Methods Sixty patients with depressive disorder associated with anxiety were screened with Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17) and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), and were randomly treated with domestic venlafaxine sustained-release tablets (Bolexin group, n=31) or imported venlafaxine capsules (Effexor group, n=29). Patients were followed up for 8 weeks, the clinical outcomes of patients in two groups and those of patients with different levels of anxiety were observed, and the related factors for time of initial relief of depression and anxiety symptoms were analysed. Results Three weeks after treatment, the scores of depression and anxiety symptoms in both Bolexin group and Effexor group were significantly improved (P<0.05), and the response rates of two groups were 77.4% and 65.5% respectively 8 weeks after treatment. There were significant differences in baseline HAMD-17 score among patients with different levels of anxiety (P<0.05), while there had been no significant difference in HAMD-17 score ever since 3 weeks after treatment (P>0.05), and there was also no significant difference in response rate at each time point among them (P>0.05). Time of initial relief of depression symptoms was significantly negatively related to the existence of induced factors for first episode and HAMD-17 baseline score (P<0.05), and was significantly positively related to HAMA baseline score (P<0.05). Time of first relief of anxiety symptoms was significantly positively related to age (P<0.05), and was significantly negatively related to the existence of induced factors for first episode (P<0.01). Conclusion Venlafaxine has favorable therapeutic effects on depressive disorder associated with anxiety.

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    Association of interleukin-6 and angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 in dialysate with high peritoneal solute transport in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis
    HANG Ying, FANG Wei, LIN Ai-wu, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  751. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.013

    Abstract ( 1287 )   PDF (364KB) ( 1225 )  

    Objective To investigate the association of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and angiopoietin receptor Tie2 in dialysate with high peritoneal solute transport in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Methods Sixty patients undergoing stable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were included, and were divided into two groups according to the values of dialysis/plasma creatinine (D/Pcr) at 4 h in peritoneal equilibration test. D/Pcr was <0.65 in L/A group (n=39), while that was ≥0.65 in H/A group (n=21). The mass concentrations of IL-6 and Tie-2 in dialysate of two groups were measured by ELISA, and the association of IL-6 and Tie-2 with D/Pcr was explored. Results The mass concentrations of IL-6 and Tie-2 in dialysate of H/A group were (21.71±8.88) pg/mL and (1.23±0.43) ng/mL respectively, and were significantly higher than those of L/A group, which were (13.94±5.43) pg/mL and (0.95±0.43) ng/mL respectively (P<0.05). Univariate correlation analysis indicated that both IL-6 and Tie-2 in dialysate were positively related to D/Pcr (r=0.366, P=0.004; r=0.402, P=0.001), and multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that IL-6 and Tie-2 in dialysate were independent risk factors for D/Pcr (β=0.007, P=0.026; β=0.162, P=0.006). Conclusion Significant abdominal inflammation and angiogenesis may exist in patients undergoing CAPD with high peritoneal solute transport status. IL-6 and Tie-2 in dialysate are independent risk factors for peritoneal permeability, which indicates abdominal inflammation and angiogenesis may be related to the change of peritoneal permeability.

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    Association between gallbladder disease and coronary heart atherosclerotic disease and risk factors for gallbladder disease
    SUN Lu-ying, JIANG Zhao-yan, YANG Xiao-bo, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  756. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.014

    Abstract ( 1321 )   PDF (327KB) ( 1113 )  

    Objective To investigate the association between gallbladder disease (GBD) and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAD), and explore the related risk factors for GBD. Methods The clinical data of patients with CAD (CAD group, n=712) and those suspected of CAD without stenosis of coronary artery (control group, n=571) confirmed by coronary angiography were retrospectively analysed. The prevalence of GBD was compared between two groups, and the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hyperlipidemia and diabetes with GBD was explored by Logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of GBD in CAD group was significantly higher than that in control group (37.5% vs 25.6%, P<0.01). Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that CAD was significantly related to GBD for males (OR=1.32,95%CI:1.17-1.49,P<0.01), but not significantly related to GBD for females. BMI, history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes were risk factors for GBD. Conclusion GBD is significantly related to CAD for males.

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    18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis of invasive breast cancer and lymph node metastasis
    TANG Li-min, MA Chao
    2012, 32 (6):  761. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.015

    Abstract ( 1339 )   PDF (338KB) ( 1255 )  

    Objective To evaluate the value of fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the diagnosis of primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis. Methods The clinical data of 88 patients with invasive breast cancer were retrospectively analysed. All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning, mammography and ultrasonography examinations, and 40 patients received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The diagnostic results of 18F-FDG PET/CT were compared with postoperative pathological findings. Results In 88 patients with pathologically confirmed breast cancer, 18F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 75 (85%) patients and negative in 13 (15%) patients. The values of sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET/CT, mammography, ultrasonography, mammography combined with ultrasonography, and MRI were 85%(75/88), 85%(75/88), 92%(81/88), 97%(85/88) and 95%(38/40) respectively. The sensitivity of mammography combined with ultrasonography was significantly higher than that of 18F-FDG PET/CT (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between 18F-FDG PET/CT and mammography, ultrasonography and MRI (P>0.05). The sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis of primary breast cancer was significantly related to tumor staging and size (P<0.05). With maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) cutoff at 1.5, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis of ALN metastasis were 34.1%(8/21),84%(56/67),72%(64/88),42%(8/19) and 81%(56/69) respectively, and the false negative rate and false positive rate were 19%(13/69) and 57%(11/19) respectively. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT is not superior to mammography, ultrasonography and MRI in diagnosis of breast cancer, which has limited value in determination of ALN metastasis. Mammography combined with ultrasonography has higher sensitivity and is the first choice for diagnosis of breast cancer.

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    Impact of interaction between 5-HTT and ESR1 gene polymorphisms on depressive disorder in perimenopausal women
    TAO Jing, QIU Jian-yin, GU Hong-liang, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  766. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.016

    Abstract ( 1343 )   PDF (387KB) ( 1175 )  

    Objective To investigate the impact of interaction between 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HTT) and estrogen receptor α (ESR1) gene polymorphisms on first episode depressive disorder in perimenopausal women with multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. Methods The case-control study design was adopted. Through screening and diagnosis of depressive disorder among perimenopausal women of Han ethnics in gynecological outpatients, 63 patients with depressive disorder (case group) and 131 healthy women (control group) were included. Polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was employed for the genotyping of 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), variable number tandem repeats in 5-HTT gene intron 2 (Stin2) and the polymorphisms of PvuⅡ (rs11155815) and XbaⅠ(rs11155816) in ESR1 gene. MDR software was used to analyse the association of interaction between two genes with first episode depressive disorder in perimenopausal period. Results There were significant differences in genotype distribution of 5-HTTLPR between case group and control group (P=0.032), and the disease onset was positively related to L/L genotype (OR=3.52, 95%CI 1.36-9.09). However, there was no significant difference in genotype distribution of Stin2, PvuⅡ and XbaⅠbetween two groups (P>0.05). The gene interaction analysis indicated that the interaction between 5-HTT and ESR1 gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with the occurrence of depressive disorder, and the best gene-gene interaction model established by MDR software was 5-HTTLPR and XbaⅠpolymorphisms (χ2=9.24,P=0.010). Conclusion Interaction between 5-HTT and ESR1 gene polymorphisms may increase the risk of depressive disorder in perimenopausal women.

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    Study on passive hepatic arterial buffer response after liver transplantation
    QIAN Dao-hai, SHEN Bai-yong, PENG Cheng-hong, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  771. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.017

    Abstract ( 1203 )   PDF (268KB) ( 1142 )  

    Objective To investigate the association of passive hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR) with recovery of liver function and early biliary complications after liver transplantation. Methods The early hepatic arterial flow and portal venous flow were monitored in 60 patients subject to liver transplantation before operation and 1 d and 2 d after operation, and HABR was evaluated. According to HABR findings, patients were divided into HABR group (HABR existence) and No-HABR group (HABR impairment). Based on results of liver function tests, B ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), the association of HABR with recovery of liver function and early biliary complications after liver transplantation was analysed. Results There were 30 patients in HABR group and No-HABR group each. The time of recovery of liver function and duration of hospital stay in HABR group were significantly shorter than those in No-HABR group (P<0.05), and the liver function parameters of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) in HABR group were better recovered (P<0.05). The prevalence of early biliary complications in HABR group was significantly lower than that in No-HABR group (P<0.05). Conclusion HABR can be evaluated by monitoring of hepatic arterial flow and portal venous flow after liver transplantation, and the intact passive HABR may promote recovery of liver function and decrease the prevalence of early biliary complications.

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    Application of round-shape pin-hole marker measurement in irregular alginate dental impression deformation
    GONG Yao, LI Ye-kan, CHEN Jie, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  775. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.018

    Abstract ( 1027 )   PDF (560KB) ( 986 )  

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of round-shape pin-hole marker measurement of irregular alginate dental impression deformation. Methods The metal model simulating abutment preparations was obtained, which had triangle-formed circular needles on the surface. Two types of alginate impression (Alginoplast and Palgat Plus, n=10 for each material) made by the metal model had the corresponding pin-hole markers. The dimensional changes of the markers after model withdrawl were observed by stereomicroscopy. The data of coordinates 0 min, 2 min, 4 min, 6 min, 8 min, 10 min, 12 min, 15 min and 20 min after model withdrawl were output by the software which could simulate the center of a circle to measure the displacement and impression accuracy (additional time point of 30 min after model withdrawl for CG length recording), and the linear dimensional change rates of impression samples were calculated. Results The outline of the pin-hole marker was clear, and the values of center coordinates were well repeated. The linear dimensional change rate of Alginoplast impression samples was 0.38% 20 min after model withdrawl, and that was 0.45% for Palgat Plus impression samples. For Alginoplast impression samples, the coordinate increased by 0.040% (8.4 μm) 2 min after model withdrawl, and decreased by 0.237% (49.4 μm) 30 min after model withdrawl. For Palgat Plus impression samples, the coordinate increased by 0.068% (14.2 μm) 2 min after model withdrawl, and decreased by 0.189% (39.5 μm) 30 min after model withdrawl. Conclusion The roundshape pin-hole marker measurement of irregular alginate dental impression deformation is feasible.

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    Application of virtual reality technique based on three-dimensional CT angiography in treatment of cerebrovascular diseases
    WANG Jing-yu, XU Le-yi, GONG Li, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  779. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.019

    Abstract ( 1162 )   PDF (593KB) ( 1180 )  

    Objective To investigate the value of virtual reality based on three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) in treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Methods Twenty-one patients with cerebrovascular diseases were examined with 3D-CTA scanning. Operative approaches were simulated by virtual reality technique, operations were performed under the guidance of simulative approaches, and comparisons were made between surgical findings and simulative images. Results Operations were successfully performed under the guidance of simulative approaches in all the 21 patients, and no severe complications occurred. The surgical findings were highly consistent with preoperative rehearsal. Conclusion Virtual reality based on 3D-CTA in cerebrovascular diseases can well simulate operative approaches, clearly illustrate the size, shape and position of the lesion, and reflect the supply arteries and spatial relationship, which can guide the operation.

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    Expression and clinical significance of Twist, E-cadherin and N-cadherin in cervical squamous cell carcinoma
    FAN Qiong, BAO Wei, YANG Ting-ting, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  783. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.020

    Abstract ( 1310 )   PDF (643KB) ( 1262 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression and clinical significance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor of Twist and related adhesion molecules E-cadherin and N-cadherin in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and normal cervical tissues. Methods The expression of Twist, E-cadherin and N-cadherin protein in 61 samples of cervical cancer, 22 samples of CINⅠ, 44 samples of CINⅡ-Ⅲ and 22 samples of normal cervical tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and its relationship with clinical biological behaviors of cervical squamous cell carcinoma was explored. Results The positive expression rate of Twist protein in normal cervical tissues (0%) was significantly different from those of CINⅠ tissues (40.90%), CINⅡ-Ⅲ tissues (68.18%) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues (70.49%)(P<0.05 for all). The positive expression rate of E-cadherin protein in normal cervical tissues (90.91%) was significantly higher than those in CINⅡ-Ⅲ tissues (54.55%) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues (14.75%)(P<0.05 for both). The positive expression rate of N-cadherin protein in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues (90.16%) was significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissues (27.27%), CIN I tissues (50.00%) and CINⅡ-Ⅲ tissues (68.18%)(P<0.05 for all). In 61 samples of  cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues, the expression of Twist protein was negatively related to that of E-cadherin protein (r=-0.339, P<0.01), while the expression of Twist protein was positively related to that of N-cadherin protein (r=0.390,P<0.01). In 61 samples of cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues, there was no significant difference in the positive expression rates of Twist, E-cadherin and N-cadherin protein among different stages by International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)(P>0.05 for all), and there was also no significant difference in the positive expression rates of Twist, E-cadherin and N-cadherin protein between tissues with lymphovascular space invasion and those without lymphovascular space invasion (P>0.05 for all). The positive expression rate of Twist protein in well-differentiated and moderately-differentiated cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues (60.47%) was significantly lower than that in poorlydifferentiated and undifferentiated tissues (94.44%)(P<0.05), and the positive expression rate of Twist protein in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues without lymph node metastasis (62.22%) was significantly lower than that in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues with lymph node metastasis (93.75%)(P<0.05). Conclusion Twist is well expressed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma, and is related to tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis. The abnormal expression of Twist, E-cadherin and N-cadherin may participate in the invasion and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Relationship between mycophenolate mofetil dose and mycophenolate acid exposure in renal allograft recipients during maintenance immunosuppressive therapy
    AN Hui-min, ZHOU Pei-jun, XU Da, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  788. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.021

    Abstract ( 1330 )   PDF (283KB) ( 1087 )  

    Objective To investigate the level of mycophenolate acid (MPA) exposure in renal allograft recipients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Methods Sixty renal allograft recipients were treated with cyclosporine A (CsA), MMF and prednisone (Pred), peripheral vein blood samples were obtained 0.5 h, 2 h and 4 h after administration of MMF, the plasma concentrations of MPA were measured by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique. The values of area under the curve (AUC) of plasma MPA concentration (MPA AUC) of the renal allograft recipients were calculated by the simplified formula of limited sampling strategy. All recipients were divided into low dose MMF group (MMF<1.5 g/d,n=18), recommendation dose group (MMF=1.5 g/d,n=29) and high dose MMF group (MMF>1.5 g/d,n=13) according to doses of oral administration of MMF. Besides, all recipients were divided into low exposure to MPA group (MPA AUC<30 mg·h·L-1), target exposure to MPA group (MPA AUC= 30-60 mg·h·L-1) and high exposure to MPA group (MPA AUC>60 mg·h·L-1) according to values of MPA AUC. Results The mean MPA AUC of 60 renal transplant recipients was (59.83±19.42) mg·h·L-1. There were 3 cases (5.0%) in low exposure to MPA group, 31 cases (51.7%) in target exposure to MPA group and 26 cases (43.3%) in high exposure to MPA group. The mean doses of CsA in low exposure to MPA group, target exposure to MPA group and high exposure to MPA group were (166.67±14.43) mg/d, (137.10±41.27) mg/d and (128.85±37.88) mg/d respectively, exhibiting a decreasing tendency, while there was no significant difference among groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Under the condition of MMF dose adjustment based on clinical events without MPA AUC monitoring, MPA tends to be highly exposed in renal allograft recipients. There are significant inter-individual variations in MPA pharmacokinetics, and it is necessary to perform MMF monitoring in treatment for renal allograft recipients.

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    Influential factors of clopidogrel resistance in patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention
    ZHANG Chun-ying, HOU Xu-min, QIU Xing-biao
    2012, 32 (6):  792. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.022

    Abstract ( 1177 )   PDF (301KB) ( 1270 )  

    Objective To observe the influential factors of clopidogrel resistance in patients with coronary heart disease treated with aspirin and clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 181 patients with coronary heart disease treated with aspirin and clopidogrel after PCI were enrolled, and were examined with fasting thrombelastography 3 d after PCT. Patients were divided into clopidogrel resistance group and clopidogrel sensitive group according to adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation inhibition rate. The general clinical data, biochemical parameters and imaging characteristics were compared between two groups, and the independent risk factors of clopidogrel resistance were explored by Logistic regression analysis. Results The incidence of clopidogrel resistance after PCI was 33.1%(60/181) in these 181 patients. There were significant differences in gender ratio, history of smoking, history of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglyceride and cardiac troponin (cTnⅠ) between two groups (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in the imaging characteristics between two groups (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that female (P=0.004, OR= 3.411,95%CI=1.466-7.940), history of smoking (P=0.033, OR=4.930, 95%CI=1.137-21.371), history of diabetes (P=0.007, OR=3.226, 95%CI=1.378-7.551), higher fasting plasma glucose (P=0.028,OR=2.113, 95%CI=1.082-4.125), higher glycosylated hemoglobin (P=0.000, OR=3.744,95%CI=1.868-7.505), higher triglyceride (P=0.019, OR=2.639, 95%CI=1.173-5.937) and higher cTnⅠ(P=0.000, OR=5.631, 95%CI=2.942-10.777)were independent risk factors of clopidogrel resistance. Conclusion Female gender, diabetes, smoking, high blood lipids and myocardial enzyme elevation might be risk factors of clopidogrel resistance in patients with coronary heart disease after PCI.

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    Clinical application of optical coherence tomography in idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes
    ZHOU Zheng-shen, SUN Jing-fen
    2012, 32 (6):  796. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.023

    Abstract ( 1049 )   PDF (841KB) ( 1249 )  

    Objective To investigate the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes (IMEM), and explore its correlation with visual acuity. Methods The clinical data of 107 patients (121 eyes) with IMEM were retrospectively analysed. Macular epiretinal membranes were classified according to OCT images, and macular central fovea thickness (CFT), volume (V), average thickness (AT) and fovea thickness (FT) were measured. The correlation of OCT parameters and clinical findings with best corrected visual acuity of LogMAR was analysed. Results IMEM were visible on OCT as high reflective tissues, which were thin or thick, and were separated from or nestled up against the retinal surface. In most fovea, the depth decreased and the thickness increased. The average best corrected visual acuity of LogMAR of 121 eyes was 0.67 (0 to 2), CFT was (481.34±68.13) μm (206-572 μm), and FT was (311.57±124.76) μm (134-639 μm). Statistic analysis revealed that the average best corrected visual acuity of LogMAR was significantly related to CFT (r=0.761, P<0.05), while was not related to age, gender, V, AT, FT, retinal edema, lamellar macular hole, retinal nerve fiber layer schisis and damage of inner segment/outer segment of photosensory cells. Conclusion OCT has a high sensitivity in clinical diagnosis of IMEM, and can objectively display the morphological change of macular tissues. Increased central fovea thickness caused by IMEM is closely related to the impairment of visual acuity.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Role of problem-based learning in self-learning ability of medical students in extended-academic-year system
    DONG Liang, SU Yun, CHEN Yi-fan, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  801. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.024

    Abstract ( 1049 )   PDF (310KB) ( 1277 )  

    Objective To investigate the role of problem-based learning (PBL) in self-learning ability of medical students in extended-academic-year system. Methods Two hundred students of different grades in 8-year academic program were divided into control group (n=100) and test group (n=100), and were asked to complete the Students Self-learning Scale. The Scale was composed of 40 items, and were classified into 16 first-order factors and 4 second-order factors, which were self-regulation, motivation, content and environment, and learning strategy. The items were designed in the form of multiple choice questions, and five-scale scoring method was used. Students in test group were also asked to complete 2 subjective choice questions about the subjective evaluation of PBL after the Scale. Results The scores of second-order factors of self-regulation, learning strategy and content and environment in test group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in the score of factor of motivation (P>0.05). With respect to subjective choice questions, 70% of students in test group thought PBL played an important role in cultivation of self-learning ability, and 59% of students held the opinion that PBL was a good reform, which stimulated the self-learning ability. Conclusion PBL may promote the self-learning ability of medical students in extended-academic-year system, and stimulate the factors of self-regulation, learning strategy, and content and environment, while has no significant effect on the factor of motivation.

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    Review
    Application of metabonomics in tumor biomarker discovery
    PANG Yu-yang, WANG Ting, CHEN Fang-yuan
    2012, 32 (6):  805. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.025

    Abstract ( 1408 )   PDF (316KB) ( 1396 )  

    Metabonomics, an omic science in systems biology developed in 1990s, is the global qualitative and quantitative assessment of all the low relative molecular mass endogenous metabolites within an organism or cells. The conception, technology platform, technical route, data analysis and current application in tumor biomarker discovery of metabonomics are reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of chemokine receptor CCR5
    ZHU Chang-bin, JIANG Zi-kai, CHENG Feng, et al
    2012, 32 (6):  809. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.026

    Abstract ( 1561 )   PDF (465KB) ( 1273 )  

    CCR5, as the member of CC receptor family, with its ligands being CCL3 (MIP-1α), CCL4 (MIP-1β) and CCL5 (RANTES), is categorized as 7 transmembrane domain G-protein coupled receptor. CCR5 is expressed in monocytes/macrophages as well as lymphocytes inducing chemotaxis and recruitment in inflammatory response and is an important co-receptor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virus, leading to the multifunction of CCR5 in progression of various kind of immunological diseases and invasion of HIV-1. Moreover, the expression of CCR5 on the surface of tumor cells and stromal cells contributes to mediating multiple biological behaviors of cancers such as proliferation and invasion. Advanced technologies also lead to the revealing of structure, function, signal transduction and roles of CCR5 in the progression of related diseases.

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    Choice of antimicrobial agents for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in burns
    HUANG Xiao-qin, HUAN Jing-ning
    2012, 32 (6):  815. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.027

    Abstract ( 1359 )   PDF (392KB) ( 1204 )  

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection represents a growing problem in severe burns. The antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of Acinetobacter baumannii include an increasing arsenal of β-lactamases, altered expression of outer membrane protein, efflux pumps and biofilm formation. For Acinetobacter baumannii wound infection, silver sulfadiazine, sulfamylon and silver dressing are effective topical agents. The effective treatment with antibiotics in Acinetobacter baumannii sepsis involves polymyxins, sulbactam, minocycline and tigecycline, and the combination use of antibiotics is strongly recommended. Besides, some novel therapeutic agents for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are introduced in this paper.

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    Research progress of penicillin-binding proteins and Gram-negative bacterial resistance
    WANG Xin-hui, JIANG Yan-qun
    2012, 32 (6):  820. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.06.028

    Abstract ( 1142 )   PDF (287KB) ( 1402 )  

    It has been identified that the modification of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and the reduction of affinity for β-lactams are important mechanisms by which Gram-positive cocci acquire antibiotic resistance. However, among Gram-negative bacteria,the resistance caused by the modification of PBPs has been considered unusual, which neglects the role of PBPs in β-lactams resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.In this paper, the structure, function and research method of PBPs, and the relationship between PBPs and Gram-negative bacterial resistance are reviewed.

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