Loading...

Table of Content

    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Editorial
    Original article (Basic research)
    Autophagic changes in brain and spinal cord of mice with Alzheimer’s disease
    LI Li-xi, ZHANG Su-fang, ZHANG Xin, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  536. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.002

    Abstract ( 1828 )   PDF (945KB) ( 1459 )  

    Objective To investigate the autophagic changes in the brain and spinal cord of mice with Alzheimer's disease(AD). Methods The brain and spinal cord of AD mice aged 3 months, 8 months and 11 months and normal controls (n=6) of the corresponding ages were isolated. The left side of brain and the lumbar segment of spinal cord were used for histological sections, and the right side of brain and the remaining part of spinal cord were used for protein extraction. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the amyloid plaque in the brain and spinal cord, confocal microscopy was performed to observe the distribution of LC3-positive autophagic vesicles in the brain and motor neuron in the spinal cord, the expression of LC3-II and Beclin 1 protein in the brain and spinal cord of mice aged 8 months was determined by Western blotting, and Nissl staining was adopted to quantify the motor neuron in the spinal cord. Results The immunohistochemistry revealed that there was no amyloid plaque in the brain of AD mice aged 3 months, a large number of plaques emerged in the cortex and hippocampus in mice aged 8 months, and the quantity of plaques increased significantly in mice aged 11 months. There was intraneuronal amyloid in the lumbar spinal cord of AD mice, while no extracellular plaque was detected. The confocal microscopy revealed that the quantity of LC3-positive autophagic vesicles in the brain cortex of AD mice aged 8 months was significantly larger than that in control group, there were LC3-positive autophagic vesicles in motor neuron in the spinal cord of AD mice aged 3 months, and the quantities of autophagic vesicles significantly increased in mice aged 8 months and 11 months. Western blotting indicated that compared with the corresponding controls, the expression of LC3-II protein in brain tissues of AD mice aged 8 months was significantly higher (P<0.01), the expression of Beclin 1 protein in brain tissues was significantly lower (P<0.05), the expression of LC3-II protein in spinal cord was significantly higher (P<0.05), and the expression of Beclin 1 protein in spinal cord was not significantly changed (P>0.05). Nissl staining demonstrated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of motor neuron of lumbar segment of spinal cord between AD mice aged 8 months and corresponding controls (P>0.05). Conclusion There are significant autophagic changes in the brain and spinal cord of AD mice, and the change of autophagy may be associated with the change of intraneuronal amyloid levels.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Expression of urotensin Ⅱ and its relationship with pro-inflammatory cytokines of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in early stage of acute liver failure
    ZHAO Liang, LIANG Dong-yu, LIU Liang-ming, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  543. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.003

    Abstract ( 1632 )   PDF (1113KB) ( 1283 )  

    Objective To investigate the alteration of expression and secretion of urotensinⅡ(UⅡ) and its effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines in early stage of acute liver failure (ALF) in mice. Methods Sixty male BALB/c mice aged 6 weeks were randomly divided into model group and pre-treatment group, with 30 mice in each group. ALF animal models were established in model group by challenging with 50 μg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 800 mg/kg D-galactosamine (D-GalN)(LPS/D-GalN) via intraperitoneal injection, and mice in pre-treatment group were administered with 0.6 mg/kg urantide (UⅡ receptor antagonist) via caudal vein injection 0.5 h before injection of LPS/D-GalN. Mice in both groups were sacrificed 0 h, 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h (6 mice at each time point in each group) after injection of LPS/D-GalN, with those sacrificed 0 h after injection as controls (intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mL normal saline), and the samples of serum and liver tissues were taken. The expression of UⅡ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and ELISA respectively.ResultsThe expression and secretion of UⅡ in serum and liver tissues rapidly increased and reached the peak 0.5 h after injection of LPS/D-GalN, lasted till 2 h after injection, decreased 6 h after injection, while still higher than the normal levels 6 h after injection (P<0.05). The level of TNF-α did not significantly increase 0.5 h after injection of LPS/DGalN (P>0.05), reached the peak 1 h after injection (P<0.05), and began to decrease 6 h after injection (P<0.05). The expression and secretion of IL1β did not significantly increase until 6 h after injection of LPS/D-GalN (P<0.05). The application of urantide significantly inhibited the increased expression of UⅡ and expression and secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β induced by LPS/D-GalN challenge (P<0.05). Conclusion UⅡ can stimulate the expression of TNF-α, and may play a key role in the pathogenesis and priming of ALF as a trigger of inflammatory cascade.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of simvastatin on neural and electrical remodeling of atria in rats with myocardial infarction
    YU Tao, LI Jing-bo, ZHU Wei, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  550. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.004

    Abstract ( 1373 )   PDF (582KB) ( 1134 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of simvastatin on neural and electrical remodeling of atria in rats with myocardial infarction. Methods Twenty-two SD rats were randomly divided into myocardial infarction group (n=11) and simvastatin group (n=11) after successful establishment of model of myocardial infarction, and another 11 rats were served as sham operation group which were not ligated in the same part of the heart. Four weeks after operation, echocardiographic and electrophysiologic examinations were conducted, immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution and density of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive staining nerve fibers, and expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA was detected by Real-Time PCR. Results Compared with sham operation group, the expression of NGF mRNA and density of positive staining nerve fibers were significantly higher, the diameter of left atria was much longer, the ejection fraction was significantly lower, the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was much shorter, and the prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmia (AT) was significantly higher in myocardial infarction group (P<0.05 for all). Compared with myocardial infarction group, the expression of NGF mRNA and density of positive staining nerve fibers were significantly lower, the diameter of left atria was much shorter, the ejection fraction was significantly higher, AERP was much longer, and the prevalence of AT was significantly lower in simvastatin group (P<0.05 for all). However, there were still significant differences in these parameters between simvastatin group and sham operation group (P<0.05). Conclusion Simvastatin can effectively improve neural and electrical remodeling of atria in rats with myocardial infarction, and may play a potential role in the prevention of AT, the mechanism of which may be associated with the down-regulation of expression of NGF.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Role of JAK2/STAT5 pathway in adaptation of pancreatic islets to pregnancy
    CHEN Huan-zhen, WANG Xiao, LI Feng-ying, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  555. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.005

    Abstract ( 1469 )   PDF (374KB) ( 1186 )  

    Objective To explore the mechanism of enhanced pancreatic islet function in SD rats during middle to late pregnancy. Methods SD rats with pregnancy of 15 d were selected as experiment group (n=24), and another 24 rats of the same batch without pregnancy were served as controls (n=24). Single pancreatic islet was obtained by in situ perfusion and pancreatic islet isolation, pancreatic islet was digested by pancreatic enzyme, single cell was formed, isolated pancreatic islet was treated with DMEM culture medium containing 5.6 mmol/L glucose and 15% FBS. After culture with KRB buffer containing 2.8 mmol/L glucose (control) or 5.6 mmol/L glucose for 1 h, whole-cell patch-clamp was used to record pancreatic islet B cell membrane voltage-dependent potassium channel (Kv) current. Real-Time PCR was employed to detect the expression of prolactin receptor (PRLR), Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5A and STAT5B), glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucokinase (GK), ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC) mRNA. Results Under the condition of 10 mV to 60 mV membrane voltage, Kv current of pancreatic islet B cell membrane in experiment group stimulated by 5.6 mmol/L glucose was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). The relative expression of PRLR, JAK2, STAT5A, STAT5B, GLUT2, VDCC and KATP mRNA in tissues of pancreatic islet in experiment group was up-regulated, and the values were 2.50, 1.84, 1.54, 2.45, 1.41, 1.68 and 1.55 times of those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the relative expression of GK mRNA in tissues of pancreatic islet between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Lactogenic hormones play a primary role in pancreatic islet function enhancement during middle to late pregnancy in SD rats, which may be involved in the up-regulation of JAK2/STAT5 pathway, glucose metabolism and expression of insulin secretion-related molecules.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Experiment research on baculovirus-mediated sodium-iodine symporter gene radiotherapy for liver cancer
    WU Hai-fei, LIU Shuai, PAN Yu, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  560. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.006

    Abstract ( 1428 )   PDF (772KB) ( 1328 )  

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of baculovirus-mediated 131I radiotherapy by carrying sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods The recombinant baculoviruses carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP)or NIS gene (Bac-GFP and Bac-NIS) were prepared by Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The infection efficiency and fluorescence intensity of HepG2 cells were determined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of sodium butyrate, and the cytotoxic effect of baculovirus on HepG2 cells was also determined in the condition of high multiplicity of infection (MOI). Furthermore, HepG2 cells infected with Bac-NIS were examined with dynamic iodide uptake test and natrium perchloricum (NaClO4) iodide uptake inhibition test, and cell clone formation assay was adopted to evaluate the killing efficacy of 131I in HepG2 cells infected with Bac-NIS. Results The infection efficiency and fluorescence intensity of HepG2 cells increased along with the increase of Bac-GFP MOI. The infection efficiency of Bac-GFP was significantly higher in HepG2 cells (MOI=200, infection efficiency was 65%), and sodium butyrate could improve the infection efficiency of HepG2 cells. In the condition of high MOI (MOI=400), there was no cytotoxicity induced by Bac-GFP on HepG2 cells, and was not significantly different from that of control group (MOI=0)(P>0.05). HepG2 cells infected with Bac-NIS exhibited functional iodide uptake and the property of NaClO4 inhibition. Cell clone formation assay revealed that the clone formation rate of HepG2 cells infected with Bac-NIS was significantly lower than that of HepG2 cells infected with Bac-GFP (P<0.01). Conclusion Bac-NIS can effectively mediate iodine uptake and has high killing effects on hepatic carcinoma cells, which may provide experimental basis for cell targeted gene radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Influence of three digestive enzymes for islet isolation on survival of islet grafts
    LIU Ding-zhi, DU Cheng-you, LUO Shi-qiao, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  567. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.007

    Abstract ( 1472 )   PDF (914KB) ( 1254 )  

    Objective To compare the efficiency and quality in islet isolation and survival of islet grafts among three digestive enzymes for islet isolation so as to provide reference for enzyme selection in clinical islet transplantation. Methods Under the same conditions, digestive enzymes of Liberase TL (A1 group), Collagenase P (B1 group) and Collagenase Ⅴ(C1 group)   were used for pancreas digestion in mice, with 35 mice in each group. Ficoll-400 density gradient method was adopted for islet purification. The morphology of islet cells was observed by DTZ staining, and IEQ (islet cell cluster with diameter>150 μm) and purification of islet cells were calculated. The survival of islet cells was determined by trypan blue staining. C57BL/6 diabetic mice were served as receptors, and were randomly divided into A2 group, B2 group and C2 group, with 7 mice in each group. Syngenetic islet transplantation under renal capsule was performed, and changes of blood glucose were monitored after operation. The graft samples were obtained 15 d after transplantation, and histological changes were observed with HE staining. Results The quantity of IEQ, purity of pancreas and survival of islet cells in A1 group were the highest, those in C1 group were the lowest, and there were significant differences among groups (P<0.05). Each receptor mouse obtained (900±30) IEQ islets, and there was no significant difference in blood glucose among groups before transplantation (P>0.05). The blood glucose was the lowest 2 d after transplantation, increased on the third day, then maintained at a relatively stable state, and on the thirteenth day, the blood glucose in A2 group was lower than that in B2 group, while the blood glucose in C2 group was higher than that in B2 group, with significant differences among groups (P<0.05). HE staining revealed that the appearance of islet in A2 group was intact, the cytoplasm and nucleus were clearly discriminated, the survival status was favorable, and the inflammatory infiltration was not significant. The appearance of islet in B2 group was round or oval, the cells were multinuclear, with understained cytoplasm, and the inflammatory cell infiltration was more significant than that in A2 group. The inflammatory cell infiltration was significant in C2 group, with damaged islet and irregular morphology. Conclusion Compared with Collagenase P and Collagenase Ⅴ, Liberase TL can improve the quantity, activity and function of islet cell clusters in pancreas digestion in mice.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Mechanism of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in stimulation of insulin secretion in MIN6 cells
    SuBuDeGeRiLe, HUANG Rong, LIU Wei, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  572. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.008

    Abstract ( 1521 )   PDF (307KB) ( 1025 )  

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in stimulation of insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Methods Mouse pancreatic B cell line MIN6 was selected, and MIN6 cells were treated with 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 50 μmol/L DHEAS for 10 min and 24 h respectively under the conditions of 2.8 mmol/L and 16.7 mmol/L blood glucose. The insulin contents in the supernatant of culture fluid were determined by ELISA, the levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in cells were measured by relative reagent kits, ATP/ADP in cells was calculated, and the expression of glucokinase (GCK) mRNA in cells treated by different concentrations of DHEAS for 24 h was detected by Real-Time PCR. Results Under the conditions of two concentrations of blood glucose, the insulin contents in the supernatant of culture fluid and ATP/ADP in cells treated by 5 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L DHEAS for 10 min and 24 h were significantly higher than those in blank controls (P<0.05). Compared with blank controls, the expression of GCK mRNA in MIN6 cells treated by 1 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L DHEAS for 24 h was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion DHEAS may stimulate insulin secretion in MIN6 cells through increase of ATP/ADP. After treatment by DHEAS for 24 h, the stimulation of insulin secretion may be associated with the up-regulation of GCK mRNA expression and glycolysis.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Immunological mechanism of neuroprotection function of Copolymer 1 in elevated intraocular pressure in rats
    SUN Jing-fen, WANG Ling
    2012, 32 (5):  576. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.009

    Abstract ( 1433 )   PDF (289KB) ( 1197 )  

    Objective To explore the immunological mechanism of neuroprotection function of Copolymer 1 (Cop 1) in rat chronic elevated intraocular pressure model. Methods Elevated intraocular pressure model of both eyes were established in 27 rats by cauterization of episcleral veins. Three weeks after elevation of intraocular pressure, 12 rats were immunized by intracutaneous injection of mixture of Cop 1 (100 μg) emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)at two hind footpads (experiment group), another 12 rats were injected with the same volume of PBS emulsified in CFA (control group), and the other 3 rats received no treatment (blank control group). One week later, lymphocytes from spleen were isolated, T cell subset was detected by flow cytometry, cytokine secretion of T cells was determined by ELISA, and the proliferation of lymphocytes was examined by [3H]thymidine labeling. Results CD4+CD25+Treg/CD4+ in experiment group was significantly higher than those in control group and blank control group (P<0.05). The quantity and concentration of IL-10 secretion in experiment group were significantly higher than those in control group and blank control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the quantity and concentration of INF-γ secretion among groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in in vitro proliferation index of lymphocytes among three groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Cop 1 promotes transfer of CD4+CD25- to CD4+CD25+Treg, development of Th1 to Th2 and production of IL-10.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Expression and purification of GST-p43/AIMP1 fusion protein and its interaction with NF-L
    ZHANG Zhen-zhen, YIN Yan-qing, ZHOU Jia-wei, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  580. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.010

    Abstract ( 1546 )   PDF (490KB) ( 1310 )  

    Objective To construct and purify the prokaryotic expression vector of fusion protein of human p43/AIMP1 protein and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and verify its direct interaction with neurofilament light subunit (NF-L) in vitro through GST pull-down assay. Methods p43/AIMP1 gene was amplified from pcDNA3.1-p43, and was inserted into prokaryotic expression vector pGEX4T-1 to generate novel vector GST-p43/AIMP1. After identification of GST-p43/AIMP1, Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) was transfected, which was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and target protein was obtained after purification. HEK293T cells were transfected in vitro with myc-NF-L, and the interaction between GST-p43/AIMP1 and myc-NF-L was detected using GST pull-down assay. Results Restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing indicated that prokaryotic expression vector of GST-p43/AIMP1 fusion protein was successfully constructed. Coomassie brilliant blue staining and Western blotting revealed that GST-p43/AIMP1 fusion protein with bioactivity was successfully obtained. GST pull-down assay verified that there was direct interaction between p43/AIMP1 and NF-L. Conclusion The fusion protein of GST-p43/AIMP1 with bioactivity has been successfully obtained, and the direct interaction between p43/AIMP1 and NF-L has been verified in vitro through GST pull-down assay.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Rabbit focal cerebral ischemia model established by vascular interventional method
    CHEN Li, DAI Jiong, YAN Guo-feng, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  585. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.011

    Abstract ( 1338 )   PDF (849KB) ( 1318 )  

    Objective To establish a micro-invasive and well-controllable focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion model in rabbits. Methods Sixty-six New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into model group (n=34) and sham operation group (n=32). The microwire was put into the right middle cerebral artery via femoral artery by interventional technique and maintained 2 h in model group, while in sham operation group the microwire was only put into the right middle cerebral artery and then withdrawn. The response to pain stimulation of left limb was examined, and the squatting and standing gesture and the walking gait were observed. Twenty-four rabbits in model group and sham operation group were sacrificed 6 h, 12 h and 2 weeks after operation, brain tissues were stained with 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), and the conditions of infart lesions were observed. The left rabbits were sacrificed 2 weeks after operation, HE staining was performed for brain tissues, and the occlusion of middle cerebral artery and pathological changes of brain tissues were evaluated. Results Symptoms of hemiplegia emerged in rabbits of model group, and the success rate of model establishment was 94.12%. TTC staining of brain sections confirmed there were infart lesions 6 h after operation, and the extent of infarct lesions tended to be stable 12 h after operation. It was revealed by HE staining that there was obvious ischemic damage in the right territory of frontoparietal lobe. All the above changes were not observed in sham operation group. Conclusion The focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion model in rabbits established by vascular interventional method is micro-invasive, well-controllable, stable and reliable, which is a favorable experimental animal model for research of focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Isolation and biological characteristics of phages of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
    ZHANG Jie, LUO Yong-ai
    2012, 32 (5):  589. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.012

    Abstract ( 1456 )   PDF (460KB) ( 1374 )  

    Objective To investigate the biological characteristics of phages of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), and provide new strategy for controlling CRAB infection. Methods Phages of CRAB isolated from raw sewage of a hospital were identified using the plaque method. The morphology of phages was observed by electron microscopy. The genome of phages was extracted for electrophoresis. The structural proteins of phages were analysed by SDS-PAGE. The optimal multiplicity of infection, resistant mutation rate and one-step growth curve of phages were determined. Results One CRAB-specific and tailless phage with double-stranded DNA was isolated, and was named as phage AB3. The size of phage AB3 genome was about 35 kb, and the relative molecular mass of major coat protein was 35×103. The incubation and burst periods of phage AB3 were 20 min and 60 min respectively, the burst size was 350, and the mutation rate of phage resistance was 2.5×10-10. The phage AB3 was stable to a wide range of pH and temperature. Conclusion Phage AB3 has relatively broad host range, shorter incubation period, apparent burst size, lower resistant mutation rate and good stability to physical and chemical factors, which leads to its promising prospect in clinical application.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion to polyurethane composites
    LI Jing, KONG Fang-yuan, ZHENG Yuan-li
    2012, 32 (5):  594. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.013

    Abstract ( 1289 )   PDF (863KB) ( 1243 )  

    Objective To investigate the Streptococcus mutans adhesion to polyurethane composites containing polyphosphazene. Methods Polyurethane composites containing 1% polyphosphazene (PZS-1% group), polyurethane composites containing 5% polyphosphazene (PZS-5% group) and silicone rubber soft liner (control group) were solidified under room temperature. These specimens were incubated with Streptococcus mutans suspension. Forty-eight hours after anaerobic culture, Streptococcus mutans adhesion to specimens was observed by light microscopy with Gram staining. Suspension with bacteria detached from specimens after ultrasound and vortex vibration was collected, and colonies of Streptococcus mutans were counted. Results Light microscopy revealed that the morphology of Streptococcus mutans adhered to specimens in three groups was similar, and exhibited typical chain arrangement of Gram positive coccus. The numbers of colonies of Streptococcus mutans adhered to specimens in three groups were well in line with corresponding absorbance. The numbers of colonies of Streptococcus mutans adhered to specimens in PZS-1% group, PZS-5% group and control group were (405.000±60.046), (253.000±62.946) and (1 008.000±119.955)(×102 CFU/m) accordingly, and the number of PZS-5% group was significantly lower than those of PZS-1% group and control group (P<0.001). Conclusion Relatively less Streptococcus mutans is adhered to polyurethane composites containing 5% polyphosphazene, which may be related to the addition of polyphosphazene.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of three dental filling materials in wedge-shaped defect restorations on microbial colonization
    SHEN Yi-yin, LU Qun
    2012, 32 (5):  598. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.014

    Abstract ( 1234 )   PDF (284KB) ( 1154 )  

    Objective To evaluate the effects of different dental filling materials in wedge-shaped defect restorations on microbial colonization in supragingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid. Methods Fifty-seven patients with wedge-shaped defect of maxilla first premolars were selected, and were randomly filled with resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI group, n=19), polyacid-modified composite resin (PMCR group, n=20) and composite resin (CR group, n=18) for restorations. The numbers of colonies of Streptococci mutans and Actinomyces viscosus in supragingival plaque and anaerobic Gram-positive (G+)rod bacillus and anaerobic Gram-nagative (G-)rod bacillus in gingival crevicular fluid were recorded before restorations and 3 months and 6 months after restorations, respectively. The contralateral corresponding teeth were served as controls. Results There was no significant difference in the numbers of colonies among RMGI group, PMCR group, CR group and control groups before restorations (P>0.05). The number of colony of Actinomyces viscosus in supragingival plaque in RMGI group and that of anaerobic G+ rod bacillus in gingival crevicular fluid in CR group were significantly larger than those in control groups 3 months and 6 months after restorations (P<0.05). Conclusion RMGI and CR for wedge-shaped defect restorations may have adverse effects on microbial colonization in supragingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid, while PMCR has advantages in anti-caries and reducing periodontal tissue injury in wedge-shaped defect restorations.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Electrochemical-corrosion behavior of dental cobalt-chromium alloy fabricated by selective laser melting technique
    XIN Xian-zhen, XIANG Nan, CHEN Jie, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  602. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.015

    Abstract ( 1250 )   PDF (220KB) ( 1393 )  

    Objective To investigate the electrochemical-corrosion behavior of a dental cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) under conditions simulating the oral environment. Methods Co-Cr alloy specimens for dental use (cylinder, 10 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness) were obtained by fabrication with the same Co-Cr alloy using SLM technique (SLM group, n=5) or traditional cast technique (control group, n=5). The electrochemical-corrosion behavior of the specimens were analysed with the parameter of polarization resistance (Rp), which was examined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in an artificial saliva solution with two different pHs (before diet, 5.0; after diet, 2.5). Results At pH of 5.0, Rp values of SLM group and control group were 4.25±1.11 and 3.82±1.40 respectively, and there was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05). At pH of 2.5, Rp values of SLM group and control group were 5.83±0.88 and 3.49±0.83 respectively, and there were significant differences between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Compared with traditional cast technique, dental Co-Cr alloy fabricated by SLM has better anti-corrosion behavior in acid oral environment after diet.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Role of band-type chest compression device in pig model of cardiac arrest
    MA Xiao-wen, ZHAO Ying-ying, WEN Da-xiang, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  605. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.016

    Abstract ( 1403 )   PDF (358KB) ( 1040 )  

    Objective To observe the effect of band-type chest compression device on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pig model of cardiac arrest by comparison with manual chest compression. Methods Twenty-six pigs were randomly divided into mechanical chest compression group (n=13) and conventional manual chest compression group (n=13), and mechanical chest compression and manual chest compression were performed respectively 4 min after cardiac arrest induced by ventricular fibrillation. The survival rates after CPR were determined, the hemodynamic parameters, blood gas of aorta and lactate concentrations before ventricular fibrillation and 1 min, 5 min and 1 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were measured, and the injury of ribs after successful CRP was examined with X-ray radiography. Results There was no significant difference in survival rates at ROSC and 1 h after CPR between two groups (P>0.05). The aortic systolic pressure, aortic diastolic pressure and mean aortic pressure 1 min after ROSC in conventional manual chest compression group were significantly higher than those in mechanical chest compression group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in coronary perfusion pressure at different time points between two groups (P>0.05). The lactate concentrations 1 min, 15 min and 1 h after ROSC in mechanical chest compression group were significantly lower than those in conventional manual chest compression group (P<0.05). X-ray radiography revealed there was no significant difference in the injury rates of ribs between mechanical chest compression group and conventional manual chest compression group (33.3% vs 45.5%, P>0.05). Conclusion Band-type chest compression device may yield similar effect of CPR in pigs with conventional manual chest compression, and band-type chest compression device can be a substitute for manual compression in CPR.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Original article (Clinical research)
    Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT whole body scan in diagnosis of small bowel tumors
    HU Jia-jia, WANG Zheng-ting, ZHONG Jie, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  610. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.017

    Abstract ( 1310 )   PDF (602KB) ( 1126 )  

    Objective To investigate the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT whole body scan in the diagnosis of small bowel tumors. Methods The clinical data of 24 patients who had undergone 18F-FDG PET/CT whole body scan and were highly suspected with small bowel tumors were retrospectively analysed, and comparison analysis was conducted between results of PET/CT examinations and findings of double-balloon small bowel endoscopy, biopsy and surgical pathology. Results The data of 2 patients with extra-intestinal malignant tumors confirmed by pathology were excluded. Among the 22 patients with small bowel tumors, 16 patients were diagnosed as small bowel malignant tumors by 18F-FDG PET/CT whole body scan (17 small bowel malignant tumor lesions and 27 involved lymph nodes), 4 patients were diagnosed as small bowel benign tumors and benign lesions, 1 patient with intestinal tuberculosis had false positive PET/CT findings, and 1 patient with small intestinal signet ring cell carcinoma had false negative PET/CT findings. The sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis of small bowel malignant tumors were 94.12% and 80.00% respectively, and the positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy in diagnosis were 94.12%, 80.00% and 90.91% respectively. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT whole body scan is a feasible, safe, noninvasive and promising diagnostic tool for detecting small bowel malignancies, differentiating benign and malignant tumors, staging and guiding clinical treatment.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Change of left atrial diameter and its related clinical factors in patients with hypertension
    BI Xian-chu, ZHOU Yue, XU Fang, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  614. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.018

    Abstract ( 1215 )   PDF (447KB) ( 1255 )  

    Objective To investigate the change of left atrial diameter (LAD) and its related clinical factors in patients with hypertension. Methods Two thousand patients with hypertension and 500 people without hypertension were selected from Ouyang Community of Hongkou District in Shanghai. The body weight, height, blood pressure, duration of hypertension, duration of anti-hypertension treatment and conditions of diabetes mellitus and arrhythmia were measured or recorded. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was analysed with electrocardiogram, and the parameters of LAD, left ventricular enddiastolic diameter (LVEDD), interventricular septal thickness (IVS), left ventricular wall thickness (LVPW) and ejection fraction (EF) were analysed with echocardiography. The related clinical factors of LAD were explored by Spearman rank test. Results There were 1 605 patients in hypertension group, with 671 males and 934 females. There were 432 people in non-hypertension group, with 85 males and 347 females. There were significant differences in LAD, LVEDD and EF between hypertension group and non-hypertension group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in IVS and LVPW between two groups (P>0.05). In hypertension group, the increase of LAD was significantly associated with age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and conditions of diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation (P<0.05), while was not significantly associated with duration of hypertension and duration of anti-hypertension treatment (P>0.05), and the change of LAD was not significantly related to sex (P>0.05). Conclusion LAD is related to age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and conditions of diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension. Community intervention on risk factors may decrease the LAD increase and incidence of atrial fibrillation.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Perioperative circulatory changes in healthy pregnant women undergoing selective cesarean section with epidural anesthesia
    ZHANG Jie, WANG Shan-juan, WEN Da-xiang, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  620. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.019

    Abstract ( 1272 )   PDF (315KB) ( 1214 )  

    Objective To monitor the perioperative circulatory changes in healthy pregnant women undergoing selective cesarean with epidural anesthesia. Methods Fifty-three full-term healthy pregnant women with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)Ⅰ to Ⅱ undergoing selective cesarean with epidural anesthesia were enrolled. Blood pressure, heart rate and pulse oxygen saturation were routinely monitored, and the changes of parameters such as cardiac output were continuously monitored with noninvasive monitoring instrument. The parameters were compared among different time points of baseline (before anesthesia), from satisfactory block level to skin sanitization, gentle fundal massage, fetal disengagement, separation of placenta, 15 min after fetal disengagement, 30 min after fetal disengagement, the end of operation and 2 h after anesthesia. Results There was no significant change in thoracic fluid content during operation (P>0.05). The heart rate, left ventricular pumping indexes (stroke volume/stroke volume index, cardiac output/cardiac index)and left ventricular systolic indexes (velocity index, acceleration index, left ventricle ejection time and left cardiac work/left cardiac work index) before and after fetal disengagement were significantly higher than those of baseline and 2 h after anesthesia (P<0.05). However, the mean arterial pressure, preload and afterload parameters (systemic vascular resistance/systemic vascular resistance index) and left ventricular systolic parameters (pre-ejection period and systolic time ratio) before and after fetal disengagement were significantly lower than those of baseline and 2 h after anesthesia (P<0.05). Conclusion Healthy women undergoing selective cesarean with epidural anesthesia may adapt to circulatory changes by self-compensation and proper anesthetic management.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Application of high-frequency chest wall oscillation in elderly patients after cardiac surgery
    XIE Bo, XUE Song, HUANG Ri-tai, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  624. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.020

    Abstract ( 1525 )   PDF (378KB) ( 1237 )  

    Objective To evaluate the tolerability, safety and efficacy of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) in elderly patients after cardiac surgery. Methods Two hundred and one consecutive patients aged more than 70 undergoing cardiac surgery received HFCWO combined with manual chest physiotherapy 6 to 8 h after extubation (HFCWO group). The tolerability of patients to HFCWO therapy was assessed with Likert scale, and the changes of circulatory and respiratory parameters of heart rate, systolic blood pressure, central venous pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, breathing rate and pulse oxygen saturation were measured 10 min before, during and 10 min after initial HFCWO therapy. Besides, another 165 consecutive patients aged more than 70 undergoing cardiac surgery treated only with manual chest physiotherapy were served as controls, and the related clinical parameters of incidences of postoperative pneumonia, pleural effusion, atelectasis, re-endotracheal intubation, durations of ICU stay and antibiotics use and length of stay were compared between two groups. Results A total of 984 therapies of HFCWO were performed, of which 813 (82.62%) were well tolerated, while 66 (6.71%) were hardly tolerated. No HFCWO therapy-related adverse events were reported. There was no significant change in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, central venous pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, breathing rate and pulse oxygen saturation 10 min before, during and 10 min after initial HFCWO therapy (P>0.05). The incidences of postoperative pneumonia and pleural effusion in HFCWO group were significantly lower than those in control group (3.98% vs 9.09%, P<0.05; 6.47% vs 12.72%, P<0.05), and the duration of postoperative antibiotics use and length of stay in HFCWO group were significantly shorter than those in control group [(5.07±2.23) d vs (6.98±2.41) d, P<0.05; (9.58±4.10) d vs (11.79±5.06) d, P<0.05], while there was no significant difference in the incidences of postoperative atelectasis and re-endotracheal intubation and duration of postoperative ICU stay between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion HFCWO is a safe and well-tolerated adjunct after extubation following cardiac surgery in elderly patients. Combined with manual chest physiotherapy, HFCWO may help to reduce postoperative pneumonia, pleural effusion and use of antibiotics.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Macular appearance before and after silicon oil removal observed by spectral optical coherence tomography
    DING Wen-jing, CHEN Feng-e, CAI Wen-quan, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  628. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.021

    Abstract ( 1474 )   PDF (710KB) ( 1214 )  

    Objective To observe the macular appearance before and after silicon oil removal by spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT), and investigate the correlation of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with foveal thickness and diameter of macular hole. Methods Twenty patients (20 eyes) underwent vitrectomy with silicon oil tamponade for retinal detachment, including 9 patients with retinal detachment due to macular hole (group A) and 11 patients with retinal detachment without macular hole (group B). Before and after silicon oil removal, ophthalmic examinations including BCVA, SOCT and fundus photography were performed. Results There was no correlation of change of diameter of macular hole with change of BCVA after silicon oil removal in group A (r=-1.02, P=0.394). There was a significantly negative correlation of BCVA with foveal thickness before silicon oil removal in group B (r=-0.75,P=0.008), while there was no correlation of change of BCVA with change of foveal thickness after silicon oil removal in group B (r=-2.66, P=0.059). Conclusion SOCT is an important noninvasive technique to observe the macular appearance. There is a negative correlation of BCVA with foveal thickness in silicon oil tamponade of patients with retinal detachment without macular hole.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Bilobed latissimus dorsi flap for reconstruction of large deep tissue defects
    WANG Chao-yang, ZHANG Yi-xin, WANG Dan-ru, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  633. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.022

    Abstract ( 1426 )   PDF (655KB) ( 1172 )  

    Objective To introduce a new incision method for latissimus dorsi flap in reconstruction of large deep tissue defects. Methods Six patients with large deep tissue defects were selected, including 4 patients with wound defects in parietal region and 2 patients with wound defects in lower extremity, and the width of wound was more than 8 cm for each patient. The bilobed latissimus dorsi flap was designed, and two smaller skin paddles were lined up on one side of the back. The smaller skin paddles allowed primary closure of donor site, and were used to resurface a large defect when combined. Results The transplanted skin flaps survived in all the 6 patients, and the maximum area of skin flap was 18 cm×16 cm. The donor sites were closed primarily in all patients, with linear scar left only. Patients were followed up for 3 to 6 months, and all were satisfied with the aesthetic and functional outcomes of the donor sites. Conclusion The design of bilobed latissimus dorsi flap allows reconstruction of a large defect and primary closure of the donor site, with less invasion and favorable appearance.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Risk factors of epileptic seizures in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus
    SAI Fang-fang, DU Yun-lan, SONG Ye-ping, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  638. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.023

    Abstract ( 1361 )   PDF (276KB) ( 1090 )  

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of epileptic seizures in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). Methods The clinical characteristics of 86 patients with NPSLE were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into epileptic seizure group (n=37) and nonepileptic seizure group (n=49). Univariate analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the demographic characteristics and clinical indications between two groups. Results Univariate analysis revealed that there were significant differences between two groups in age, age of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) onset, history of immunosuppressant use, history of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine use and anticardiolipin antibodies (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that age of SLE onset and history of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine use were independent influencing factors for epileptic seizures of NPSLE (OR=0.361,P=0.047;OR=0.332,P=0.024). Conclusion SLE onset before adulthood is an independent predictor of epileptic seizures, and history of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine use is an independent protective factor.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Research on relationship between expression of inducible co-stimulator and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion
    WEI Jia, ZHAO Ai-min
    2012, 32 (5):  642. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.024

    Abstract ( 1248 )   PDF (434KB) ( 1097 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between expression of inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Methods The decidual tissues and peripheral blood samples were taken from 10 patients with URSA diagnosed as inevitable abortion (URSA group) and 10 women with normal early pregnancy (normal control group), the expression of ICOS CD3+T cells and ICOS CD4+ T cells in decidual tissues and peripheral blood was detected by flow cytometry, and the expression of ICOS mRNA in decidual tissues was determined by Real-Time PCR. Results The proportion of ICOS+CD3+ T lymphocyte subsets in decidual tissues of URSA group was significantly higher than that of control group [(0.612±0.693)% vs (0.056±0.103)%, P<0.001]. The proportion of ICOS+CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of URSA group was significantly higher than that of control group [(1.943±0.762)% vs (0.221±0.127)%, P<0.001]. The relative expression of ICOS mRNA in decidual tissues of URSA group was significantly higher than that of control group [(9.875±1.464) vs (2.701±1.737),P<0.05]. Conclusion Abnormal expression of ICOS in decidual tissues is closely related to the development of URSA.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Analysis of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection |and drug sensitivity in urinary tract
    YAN Fu-hong, CHEN Nan
    2012, 32 (5):  646. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.025

    Abstract ( 1285 )   PDF (301KB) ( 1128 )  

    Objective To investigate the incidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) infection in genitourinary tract and mid-stream urine, and analyse its sensitivity to drugs. Methods Three thousand three hundred and twenty-six urine samples of genitourinary tract and 701 mid-stream urine samples were collected. Culture of mycoplasma (Uu+Mycoplasma humenis) and drug sensitivity tests were performed, and quantity of mycoplasma ≥104 CFU was regarded as positive. Results Among the 701 mid-stream urine samples, 130 (18.5%)samples were positive for Uu, including 124 females (124/650, 19.1%) and 6 males (6/51, 11.8%), and all were negative for Mycoplasma humenis. Among the 3 326 urine samples of genitourinary tract, 851 (25.6%)samples were positive for Uu, including 783 females (783/2 790, 28.1%) and 67 males (67/536, 12.5%), and 3 samples were positive for Mycoplasma humenis. Drug sensitivity tests of Uu in mid-stream urine revealed that drugs with highest sensitivity were josamycin (98.5%), doxycycline (97.9%) and pristinamycin (97.7%). Uu infection in midstream urine was more sensitive to josamycin, doxycycline and pristinamycin with lower resistance than genital secretion (P<0.05). The sensitivity of Un to azithromycin was only 70.2% in urinary tract infection, and that was 77.7% in genital tract infection, which was significantly lower than that to josamycin (98.5%). Conclusion The positive detection rate of Uu infection is relatively higher in initial screening of urinary infection. The sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics may be different in different sites of Uu infection. Josamycin and doxycycline may serve as the first-line therapy for urinary Uu infection.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Neuromuscular blockade of mivacurium in pediatric anesthesia
    SHEN Xiao-fang, CHEN Xi-ming, ZHAO Xuan, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  650. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.026

    Abstract ( 1286 )   PDF (273KB) ( 1228 )  

    Objective To evaluate the neuromuscular blockade of different doses of mivacurium in pediatric anesthesia. Methods Sixty children with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class Ⅰor Ⅱ undergoing selective surgery were randomly allocated to groupⅠ(≤3 years old) and groupⅡ (>3 years old). Each group was subdivided according to the initial dosage of mivacurium (0.2 mg/kg or 0.25mg/kg)(groupⅠ0.2, group Ⅱ0.2, group Ⅰ0.25 and group Ⅱ0.25,n=15). At twitch recovery to 25%, neuromuscular blockade was maintained by intermittent intravenous injection of 0.1 mg/kg mivacurium. Response of ulnar nerve to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation was monitored with TOF-Watch SX muscle relaxation monitor, and the neuromuscular blockade indexes were recorded. Results The onset time in group Ⅰ0.25 was significantly shorter than that in group Ⅰ0.2 and group Ⅱ0.25(P<0.05), and the onset time in group Ⅱ0.25 was significantly shorter than that in group Ⅱ0.2 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the duration of clinical action of initial dose and repeated dose of mivacurium among groups (P>0.05). There was no difference in the recovery index and duration of TOF ratio (TOFR) recovery to 0.75 and 0.9 of the last dose of mivacurium among groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Children younger than 3 years old have shorter onset time than elder ones, and 0.25 mg/kg mivacurium may produce shorter onset time than 0.2 mg/kg mivacurium. Neuromuscular recovery is independent of age and times of additional doses.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Clinical observation on corneal endothelial cell density after Phakic 6H anterior chamber Phakic intraocular lens implantation for high myopia
    CHEN Xi, WAN Di-ling, KUANG Yi
    2012, 32 (5):  654. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.027

    Abstract ( 1703 )   PDF (231KB) ( 1214 )  

    Objective To observe the long-term changes of corneal endothelial cell density after Phakic 6H anterior chamber Phakic intraocular lens (ACP-IOL) implantation for the correction of high myopia, and evaluate the safety of the surgical procedure. Methods One hundred and seventy patients (283 eyes) undergoing Phakic 6H ACP-IOL implantation for the correction of high myopia between September 2001 and March 2006 were collected and followed up, and the data of 7 patients (7 eyes) with ACP-IOL removal ultimately were retrospectively analysed. The corneal endothelial cell density of central, upper, lower, temporal and nasal parts of cornea was measured by SP-2000P corneal endothelial endoscopy. Results These 7 patients were followed up for an average of 5 years, with an average corneal endothelium loss of 2 105 cells/mm2 and average loss rate of 73.71% in 6 eyes (measurement could not be performed in 1 eye due to corneal endothelium decompensation). The combined procedures of ACP-IOL removal, clear crystalline lens extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were performed in 4 eyes, ACP-IOL removal, phacoemulsification and posterior chamber IOL implantation in 1 eye, and ACP-IOL removal in 2 eyes. Conclusion Phakic 6H ACP-IOL can lead to critical corneal decompensation and even corneal decompensation in a long term. ACP-IOL must be removed as soon as the corneal endothelium function is in a state of critical decompensation or the endothelium is significantly damaged.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Original article (Public health administration)
    Pharmacoeconomic research on adverse drug reactions of chemotherapy for lung cancer
    WANG Xiao-hui, ZHU Jun, ZHAO Dong
    2012, 32 (5):  657. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.028

    Abstract ( 1367 )   PDF (286KB) ( 1222 )  

    Objective To analyse the constitution of direct medical costs of chemotherapy for lung cancer during hospital stay and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Methods The clinical data of 236 patients with lung cancer were selected. The direct medical cost of chemotherapy for lung cancer during hospital stay was investigated according to different treatment aims, and the direct medical cost of management of ADRs of hematological system and gastrointestinal tract was also analysed. Results The mean direct medical cost of chemotherapy for lung cancer during each hospital stay was (16 461.89±8 284.78) yuan per person, which included (13 648.16±906.52) yuan for drugs of chemotherapy. The expenditure of ADRs of 0 to Ⅳ degree bone marrow depression accounted for 1.93%, 8.43%, 18.37%, 40.09% and 46.62% of direct medical cost of chemotherapy respectively, and there were significant differences in the direct medical cost of ADRs and direct medical cost of chemotherapy between patients with severe bone marrow depression (Ⅲ to Ⅳ degree) and those without severe bone marrow depression (0 to Ⅱ degree)(P<0.05). The expenditure of 0 to Ⅳ degree ADRs of gastrointestinal tract accounted for 3.48%, 3.28%, 4.63%, 5.85% and 9.92% of direct medical cost of chemotherapy respectively, and there was no significant difference in the direct medical cost of ADRs and direct medical cost of chemotherapy between patients with severe ADRs of gastrointestinal tract (Ⅲ to Ⅳ degree) and those without severe ADRs of gastrointestinal tract (0 to Ⅱ degree)(P>0.05). Conclusion The cost of drugs occupies the major proportion of direct medical cost of chemotherapy for lung cancer. More severe bone marrow depression may lead to higher direct medical cost of chemotherapy. However, ADRs of gastrointestinal tract may have little effect on direct medical cost of chemotherapy.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Review
    Research progress of minimum inhibitory concentration detection technology and breakpoint setting for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    ZHANG Chao-bao, WANG Hong-hai, ZHANG Shu-lin
    2012, 32 (5):  661. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.029

    Abstract ( 1427 )   PDF (466KB) ( 1314 )  

    Tuberculosis is the most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The emergence of drug resistance and multidrug resistance is one of the important causes for the epidemics and widespreading of tuberculosis. It is of vital importance to develop the standard and effective detection approach of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and to set up the effective breakpoints in the fields of individualized treatment, detection of drug resistance and drug screening for tuberculosis. The research progress of MIC detection technology and breakpoints setting for Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed in this paper.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Research progress of induced pluripotent stem cells in liver diseases
    SUN Chao, FAN Jian-gao
    2012, 32 (5):  667. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.030

    Abstract ( 1331 )   PDF (250KB) ( 1410 )  

    Stem cells, especially induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), could differentiate into functional hepatocytes and avoid the ethical issues in the application of embryonic stem cells. Therefore, stem cells may serve as new seed cells for the replacement therapy for end-stage hepatic diseases. The experimental methods, research findings and clinical prospects of iPS cells in liver diseases are introduced in this paper, in hopes of providing references for the basic research and clinical practice of treatment of liver diseases.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Research progress of correlation of bisphenol A with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
    SUN Wan-wan, BI Yu-fang
    2012, 32 (5):  670. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.031

    Abstract ( 1463 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1374 )  

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical widely used in industrial manufacture, which is mainly applied for plastic utility production. People gain exposure to BPA via diet, breathing and skin contact in daily life. BPA has endocrine disrupting function, and is named as endocrine disrupting chemical. BPA may simulate estrogen function, which may influence pancreas islet B cells and estrogen-sensitive tissues such as adipocytes, hepatocytes and central nervous system, affect metabolism of glucose and fat, cause insulin resistance, influence differentiation of adipocytes and fat accumulation, and promote the development and progress of diabetes. Epidemiological studies have revealed that excessive exposure to BPA may promote the  development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The correlation of BPA with development and progress of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is reviewed in this paper.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Research progress of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and mTOR inhibitors in urologic malignancies
    SU Heng-chuan, SUN Fu-kang
    2012, 32 (5):  674. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.032

    Abstract ( 1479 )   PDF (372KB) ( 1592 )  

    PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway plays a vital role in the angiogenesis, protein synthesis, cell growth and metabolism, and dysregulation of this pathway has been found in many substantive malignant tumors. In recent years, the inhibitors of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway have been developed in succession, which have exhibited definite clinical effects on advanced renal cell carcinoma. As a result, further research on this pathway and its inhibitors, particularly their applications in urologic malignancies, has become one of the hot research areas. This paper focuses on the mechanism of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and its roles in the development of tumors, and the research progress of mTOR inhibitors in urologic malignancies is also reviewed.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Telomeres, mitochondria and stem cell aging
    HUANG Li-ya, CHEN Shu-yan
    2012, 32 (5):  679. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.033

    Abstract ( 1787 )   PDF (426KB) ( 1368 )  

    Stem cells are the special cells which play a key role in the whole life cycle. It is very important to maintain the activity of stem cells, slow down stem cell aging and prolong the life of stem cells. In this paper, the molecular mechanism of stem cell aging is reviewed from the aspects including genome maintenance, telomeres, cell cycle inhibitors and mitochondria. The relationship between telomere-p53 pathway and mitochondria-reactive oxygen species pathway is focused, and the impacts of the two pathways on stem cell aging are introduced.

    Related Articles | Metrics
    Technique and method
    Synthesis of novel substrate for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and its value in diagnosis of renal tubular lesions
    XU Lei, YAO Li-yun, LIU Hui-zhong, et al
    2012, 32 (5):  684. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.05.034

    Abstract ( 1437 )   PDF (368KB) ( 1162 )  

    Objective To optimize the synthesis approach of 6-methyl-2-pyridyl N-acetyl-1-thio-β-D-glucosaminide (MPT-NAG) as a novel substrate for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and explore its value in diagnosis of renal tubular lesions. Methods The substrate was prepared by the use of 1-chloro-1-deoxy-tetraacetyl-D-glucosamine and 2-mercato-6-methylpyridine in glycoside reaction, and urinary NAG activities of samples from patients with diabetic nephropathy, patients with nephrotic syndrome, patients with renal transplantation and normal controls were detected by automated analytical device with MPT-NAG as substrate. Results The structure of the substrate of MPT-NAG was identified by elemental analysis and 1HNMR, and the purity was 99.8% determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was revealed that the urinary NAG activities in patients with diabetic nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome and renal transplantation were significantly higher than those in the normal group (P<0.01). Conclusion The synthesized novel substrate of MPT-NAG obtained by optimized approach with low cost and high production can be used in the diagnosis of renal tubular lesions.

    Related Articles | Metrics