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    Translational medicine
    2017, 37 (02):  133. 
    Abstract ( 461 )   PDF (3916KB) ( 725 )  
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    Monographic Report· Tabacco control
    Effects of strict control of tobacco advertisement after implementation of the Advertising Law
    WEI Xiao-xia, LI Ming, CHEN De, CAI Yu-yang, GAO Jing-rong
    2017, 37 (02):  137. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.001

    Abstract ( 650 )   PDF (5465KB) ( 914 )  
    Objective · To compare the prevalence of tobacco advertisement before and after implementation of the new edition of Advertising Law of the People’s Republic of China and evaluate the effects of implementation of the new Advertising Law. Methods · Tobacco sales places, public places, and streets in Shanghai were randomly selected to observe tobacco advertisement and complete the survey. The survey was carried out in 10 districts of Shanghai in June 2015 with 10 tobacco sales places selected in each district, and in 4 districts of Shanghai in June 2016 with 25 tobacco sales places selected in each district. Sales places included convenient stores, tobacco stores, supermarkets, and kiosks. In addition, public transport waiting points, public transport vehicles, hospitals, shopping centers, restaurants, bars, and Internet cafes were selected into survey in 2016. Results · In 2016, the proportion of tobacco sales places having tobacco advertisement was lower than that in 2015, but the proportion of tobacco promotion behaviors was higher. In 2016, 128 public places and streets were investigated and only 1 had outdoor tobacco advertisement. Conclusion · The new edition of Advertising Law has significant effect on controlling tobacco advertisement, but tobacco sales places still have tobacco advertisement with various disguised promotion forms. Tobacco sales places have diversified business styles and minors often enter these places. It is recommended that a clear definition of disguised forms of tobacco advertisement should be made, tobacco advertisement at tobacco sales places needs to be supervised, the release of tobacco advertisement should be strictly reviewed, and existing tobacco advertisement should be severely punished, so as to prevent minors from exposing to tobacco advertisement and information luring smoking.
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    Passive smoking status and its influencing factors among pregnant women in Shanghai
    SHI Li-li, DONG Yi-lei, PEI Sheng, CAI Yu-yang, HUANG Hong
    2017, 37 (02):  141. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.002

    Abstract ( 677 )   PDF (6707KB) ( 828 )  
    Objective · To investigate the prevalence of passive smoking among pregnant women in Shanghai and to analyze its influencing factors and to provide the basis and suggestion for making related intervention measures to reduce the harm of secondhand smoke on the health of pregnant women. Methods ·From July to October 2014, pregnant women and their spouses were recruited for a questionnaire investigation at the antenatal care clinics of 3 maternity hospitals and 3 community hospitals in Shanghai. The questionnaire included demographic information, family basic situation and cognitive status of passive smoking. Results · The passive smoking rate before pregnancy in the 2 831 pregnant women, who were involved in the investigation, was 17.1%. The passive rate during pregnancy was 7.8%. The difference between these two rates was statistically significant (P<0.05). 71.0% of the pregnant women have passive smoking for 15~59 min each day. Relative to home and work place, the passive smoking rate of pregnant women in public place was the highest (P<0.05). The passive smoking rate of pregnant women was significantly associated with the educational level of smoking spouses and the attitude of pregnant women when they faced the smokers. Conclusion · The passive smoking rate of pregnant women is influenced by the educational level of their spouses and the pregnant women’s feedback to the smokers face to face. Public places are the most important exposure places to secondhand smoke for pregnant women. In order to reduce the harm from passive smoking to pregnant women and their fetuses, the related measures of smoking control at home education and smoking ban in public place should be made.
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    Intention of quitting smoking and influencing factors among the husbands in gestational households in Shanghai
    TAN Tian-yu, CAI Yu-yang, SHI Li-li
    2017, 37 (02):  146. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.003

    Abstract ( 624 )   PDF (6331KB) ( 771 )  
    Objective · To investigate the intention of quitting smoking and influencing factors among husbands in gestational households in Shanghai and provide a scientific basis for establishing smoking cessation strategies. Methods · Pregnant women and their spouses who received antenatal examination in 5 hospitals in Shanghai were asked to finish two versions of questionnaires respectively. Basic demographic information, smoking history, history of smoking cessation and intention of quitting smoking were investigated. The database was set up by EpiData 3.1, and data were analyzed by SPSS 22.0, such as descriptive analysis, χ2 test (univariate), and Logistic regression analysis (multivariate). Results · A total of 282 questionnaires were sent to smoking husbands and 266 effective questionnaires got back with the effective rate of 94.3%. Among them 34.2% smoking husbands had intention of quitting smoking, 18.4% were trying to quit, and 22.9% had tried to quit before. Single-factor analysis showed that influencing factors for intention of quitting smoking among smoking husbands in gestational households included the daily cigarette consumption, overall opinion for smoking, the knowledge about the harm of passive smoking to pregnant women and fetuses, having smoking cessation experience or not, how many people smoking among five intimate friends except family members (P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that intention of quitting smoking had relationship with the daily cigarette consumption (OR = 0.456, 95% CI: 0.245~0.852), overall opinion for smoking(OR=2.443, 95% CI: 1.008~5.921), having smoking cessation experience or not (OR =0.316, 95% CI: 0.162~0.616). Conclusion · Intention of quitting smoking is relatively strong in gestational households. It is recommended to strengthen the education of tobacco control for smoking husband in gestational households, and encourage smokers who had smoking cessation experience before to quit smoking again.
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    Investigation on smoking status of hypertensive elderly in Waigang Town of Shanghai: a cross-sectional study
    SHI Li-li, PEI Sheng, CAI Yu-yang, HUANG Hong
    2017, 37 (02):  151. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.004

    Abstract ( 650 )   PDF (5169KB) ( 663 )  

    Objective · To investigate the smoking hypertensive elderly, find out the status of smoking in this population, and explore effective system intervention. Methods · The smoking hypertensive elderly in Waigang Town of Shanghai who received free antihypertensive drugs were recruited to investigate and descriptively analyze the smoking status of them with questionnaires. Results · There were 77.6% of the smoking hypertensive elderly who began to smoke in the age of 13 to 25, and nearly 70% smoking for more than 40 years. There were 59.5% of these people smoking 11 to 29 cigarettes daily in recent 3 years, and 41.6% spending 200-299 yuan on smoking monthly. Conclusion · Currently almost 70% of the smoking hypertensive elderly, who receives free antihypertensive drugs, have been smoking for more than 40 years, and the average number of cigarettes smoked daily is big. It is clear that the health education attached to the policy of providing free antihypertensive drugs has not changed the behavior. Therefore, medical personnel still needs to contact the illness and smoking hazards to help the elderly reduce smoking. Besides, it proves that tobacco control should be implemented in the young population to control epidemic at the early stage.

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    Current smoking prevalence and influencing factors among university students in Shanghai
    ZHU Zi-yan, ZHENG Pin-pin
    2017, 37 (02):  155. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.005

    Abstract ( 637 )   PDF (6742KB) ( 814 )  

    Objective · To understand current smoking status and analyze its influencing factors among university students in Shanghai, and provide reference and
    guidance for further efforts of tobacco control in campus. Methods · A total of 4 816 students from 19 colleges in Shanghai were selected by stratified multi-stage cluster sampling and the sample size in each part was decided by proportion of colleges and types of specialities. Self-administered questionnaire was conducted to understand the current tobacco use and its influencing factors were analyzed. Results · The overall smoking prevalence of college students in Shanghai was 5.80%. Generally, smoking prevalence of junior college students was higher than that of undergraduates (11.27% vs 3.68%, P<0.05) and smoking prevalence of male students was higher than that of females (11.10% vs 0.95%, P<0.05). Nonsmokers endorsed higher awareness on the harm of smoking and secondhand smoking than smokers(P<0.01). Besides, nonsmokers had a more positive attitude towards tobacco control policy than smokers (P<0.01). Students who studied in the junior college, males, in the senior grade, majored in liberal arts, with higher monthly living expenses, held negative attitude in raising cigarette prices and supporting of establishing smoke-free campuses were more likely to be smokers. Conclusion · Tobacco use among university students in Shanghai deserves attention. It is necessary to carry out systematic and in-depth education to prevent and reduce smoking among the university students.

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    Research progress of smoking cessation intervention through smartphone applications
    WEI Yan-xia, ZHENG Pin-pin
    2017, 37 (02):  161. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.006

    Abstract ( 619 )   PDF (8655KB) ( 596 )  

    The harm of tobacco is one of the most serious public health issues nowadays, and the social cost produced by smoking is increasing year by year. There are about 6 million people dying from smoking-related diseases each year, and the number of death will surpass 8 million by 2030. Helping smokers quit is the most direct and effective method to reduce the burden of disease caused by tobacco. M-health based on smartphone shows huge potential in prompting health behavior. Progress of studies on smartphone applications (APP), a new way of tobacco control, is reviewed to provide reference for future tobacco control practice and exploration.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Preparation and preliminary application of loading PTX nanoparticles
    MA Jing, SHEN Ming, DUAN You-rong, DU Lian-fang
    2017, 37 (02):  166. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.007

    Abstract ( 721 )   PDF (7950KB) ( 528 )  
    Objective · To prepare the nanoparticles encapsulating PTX with organic biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-monomethoxypoly (ethylene glycol) (PLGA-mPEG) as skeleton, and then to verify its ultrasound contrast enhanced imaging in superficial implantation tumor of pancreatic cancer and its antitumor effect in vitro. Methods · PTX-PLGA-mPEG (PTX-NPs) were prepared by double emulsion method. The preparation conditions were optimized through the design of four factors three levels orthogonal test with entrapment efficiency and loading drug efficiency as examining indexes in order to obtain optimum process parameters. Average particle size and electrical potential of the prepared PTX-NPs were examined by nano particle size and zeta potential analyzer. Size, morphology, distribution, and reunion were detected by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Ultrasound contrast enhanced imaging of PTX-NPs was observed in vitro and in superficial implantation tumor of pancreatic cancer in nude mice. Antitumor effect in vitro of PTX-NPs was detected by CCK-8 test. Results · PTX-NPs were prepared successfully. Entrapment efficiency and loading drug efficiency were (91.32±3.25)% and (2.666±0.092)%, respectively. The average size was (80.6±3.8) nm and the potential was (-13.4±1.5) mv. The morphology of PTX-NPs under TEM was spherical with excellent dispersion and no aggregation. The particles also showed a good image in vitro and in vivo. The result of CCK-8 test demonstrated that PTX-NPs significantly reduced survival rate of pancreatic carcinoma cells, and ultrasound (US) or targeted ultrasound microbubble (UTMD) given at the same time could further decrease the cell survival rate. Conclusion · PTX-NPs are good at ultrasound contrast enhanced imaging in superficial implantation tumor of pancreatic cancer. In vitro PTX-NPs have certain anti-tumor effect, which can be enhanced by US and UTMD.
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    Effects of SB203580 on biological functions of human extravillous trophoblast cells under oxidative stress
    MU Hua-qiao, QI Hong-bo, LIU Xi-ru
    2017, 37 (02):  172. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.008

    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (6422KB) ( 547 )  

    Objective · To investigate the effects of a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor SB203580 on biological function changes of human extravillous trophoblast cells induced by hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R). Methods · In-vitro cultured early pregnancy villus explants and human extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo were assigned to 4 groups according to different interventions, i.e. control group, SB203580 group (p38 MAPK inhibition), H/R group (simulation of preeclampsia by the oxidative stress model), and SB203580+H/R group. The effects of SB203580 on biological functions of human extravillous trophoblast cells under oxidative stress in early pregnancy villus explants were observed. Protein expression and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in HTR8/SVneo cells were measured with Western blotting. Cell migration and invasion were observed with Transwell migration and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. Gelatin zymography was used to measure the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2/9 in supernatant. ELISA was used to detect the levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng). Results · SB203580 could promote the exogenous migration of human extravillous trophoblast cells in early pregnancy villus explants under oxidative stress. H/R could decrease the migration and invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells , and increase the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK in HTR8/SVneo cells and the secretion of sFlt-1 and sEng. SB203580 could increase the activity of MMP2/9 in supernatant and cell migration and invasion, decrease the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK in HTR8/SVneo cells under oxidative stress and the secretion of sFlt-1 and sEng. Conclusion · SB203580 can protect biological functions of human extravillous trophobalst cells under oxidative stress.

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    Cardiac electrophysiological effect of (S)-OTS·HCl, a derivative of Baogongteng A
    WANG Hong-wei, ZHANG Ying, LI Ci-zhen, LIU Yuan-mou, YANG Zhi-fang
    2017, 37 (02):  177. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.009

    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (8950KB) ( 689 )  

    Objective · To study the electrophysiological effect of (S)-OTS·HCl on the heart. Methods · The conventional intracellular recording, electrocardiograph (ECG) and Langendorff cardiac perfusion technique were employed to investigate the effect of (S)-OTS·HCl on in-vivo and in-vitro hearts of guinea pigs and rabbits. Results · (S)-OTS·HCl could bind to M2 muscarinic receptors and dose-dependently prolong the RR intervals significantly in vivo. It had no effect on resting potential (RP), action potential amplitude (APA), and maximum upstroke velocity of phase 0 (Vmax) of ventricular myocytes. Instead, 1×10-5 mol/L (S)-OTS·HCl could shorten the action potential duration at 50 percent repolarization (APD50) and APD90 to 91.6% and 90.9%, respectively. And the spontaneous depolarization rate of phase 4 (SDR) of sinus nodes was reduced to its 13.7% when rabbit sinus nodes were exposed to 1×10-7 mol/L (S)-OTS·HCl. (S)-OTS·HCl could inhibit Ca2+channel effectively. It decreased APA and Vmax of sinus nodes and attenuated the cardiac contractility in vitro. Conclusion · (S)-OTS·HCl is a potent cholinergic agonist and has negative chronotropic, dromotropic, and inotropic effects on hearts via binding to M2 muscarinic receptors.

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    Analysis of variants located in 3’UTR regions of NOTCH1 and JAG1 genes for children with conotruncal heart defects
    XU Li-juan, LIU Hui-dong, XU Rang, LI Fen, CHEN Sun
    2017, 37 (02):  184. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.010

    Abstract ( 774 )   PDF (7846KB) ( 513 )  
    Objective · To explore the correlation between variants located in 3’ untranslated regions (3’UTR) of NOTCH1 and JAG1 genes and conotruncal heart defects (CTD). Methods · Six hundred CTD children without 22q11 deletion and three hundred healthy children were enrolled in this hospital-based case-control study. Variants located in the 3'UTR regions of NOTCH1 and JAG1 genes were detected by high-throughput sequencing. The accuracy of the variants were verified by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Online software PicTar, TargetScan and microRNA.org were used to make functional predictions. Results · One mutation and three SNPs were found in the 3’UTR of NOTCH1. Three mutations and six SNPs were found in the 3’UTR of JAG1. The genotypic distributions of two SNPs (rs3840074 and rs8708) located in JAG1 3’UTR between CTD group and the controls were statistically significant (both P<0.05). Results of prediction showed that all the four mutations and two meaningful SNPs could bind to microRNA. Conclusion · The variants located in 3’UTR regions of NOTCH1 and JAG1 genes may be related to the occurrence of CTD.
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    Preparation of liposomal pemetrexed and its effects on breast cancer
    BAI Fang, CHEN Ting, LIU Yan, WU Ke-jin, CHEN Qing, LU Yun-shu, GE Mei-xin
    2017, 37 (02):  190. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.011

    Abstract ( 727 )   PDF (3945KB) ( 751 )  
    Objective · To prepare the liposomal pemetrexed and investigate its effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro and nude mice bearing MCF-7
    xenograft tumors. Methods · Liposomal pemetrexed was prepared by film dispersion method. Inhibition of MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines was evaluated
    by CCK-8 method, and anti-tumor effects were investigated on Balb/c nude mice bearing MCF-7 xenograft tumors. Results · Liposomal pemetrexed
    inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells. When the concentrations of pemetrexed were 0.20, 0.40 and 10.00 μg/mL, the cell viability in experiment group
    (liposomal pemetrexed) was significantly lower than that in control group (pemetrexed of same concentration gradient), with P values of 0.013, 0.035 and
    0.041, respectively. Compared with blank group (same volume of PBS), the volumes and weights of tumors of nude mice in experiment group(liposomal
    pemetrexed) and control group (same volume of pemetrexed) were significantly lower, and the volume and weight of tumor in experiment group were
    also significantly lower than those in control group (P=0.000). Conclusion · Compared to bulk drug of pemetrexed, liposomal pemetrexed can inhibit the
    growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the Balb/c nude mice bearing MCF-7 xenograft tumors.
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    Micro-structure changes in rat tooth movement process through micro-computed tomography dynamic observation
    CHEN Peng, YANG Feng-xue, ZHOU Jian-ping, DAI Hong-wei
    2017, 37 (02):  193. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.012

    Abstract ( 590 )   PDF (8478KB) ( 643 )  
    Objective · To observe the micro-structure changes in rat tooth movement process under different force values through Micro-CT dynamic observation. Methods · Fifteen SD adult male rats at the age of 8 weeks were divided into three groups randomly (n=5), with the left maxillary as the experimental side and the nickel titanium coil springs, fixed between the first molar and incisor where thrust augmentation was conducted respectively by 20, 50 and 100 gf (1gf=0.009 8 N) for continuous 14 d to it. Rat scanning in vivo through Micro-CT was carried out at day 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after force values were loaded on. The root resorption crater volumes and structure parameters for bone trabecula at different time points were measured. Results · Three days after thrust augmentation was conducted, root resorption crater volume for each group had a slight increase and an obvious increase occurred from the 3rd day to the 10th day, and then a slow increase happened 10 d later; from the 7th day to the 14th day, root resorption crater volume for 100 gf stress group was obviously greater than those of the other groups with statistical differences (P<0.05). With time for thrust augmentation passing by, bone volume fraction at the pressure side of alveolar bone decreased gradually and bone trabecula morphology became tiny and exiguous; besides, bone trabecula gap became narrow first and broad afterwards, and trabeculae trended to change from clintheriform to rhabditiform. Furthermore, alveolar bone resorption occurred in each stress group with consistent tendency. Conclusion · Different orthodontic force values all can cause root resorption, which experiences lag phase, rapid phase and stationary phase. Over-loaded orthodontic force induces more root resorption. During the process of the tooth movement, the pressure side of alveolar bones appears reconstruction and absorption, whose variation is not related with force degree.
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    Expression, purification and characterization of human inhibitory receptor TIGIT in E.coli
    CHEN Xiao-yun, ZHOU Ai-wu, YE Wei
    2017, 37 (02):  199. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.013

    Abstract ( 617 )   PDF (6064KB) ( 768 )  

    Objective · To prepare recombinant human TIGIT protein in E.coli and characterize its ability in binding Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Methods · The gene of immunomodulatory protein of human TIGIT was amplified and cloned into pGEX4T2, and recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli BL21 (DE3) for GST-TIGIT fusion proteins were purified by the GST affinity chromatography and the interaction between GST-TIGIT fusion protein and Fn was tested by a pulldown assay. Results · Recombinant GST-TIGIT fusion protein expressed successfully in E.coli and was purified to homogeneity by GST affinity column. This protein could specifically bind to Fn, but not Lactobacillus acidophilus. Conclusion · High purify and activity of human GST-TIGIT fusion protein can be achieved by the prokaryotic expression system, and the adhesion between this protein and Fn has been preliminarily explored, which provides basis for further characterize interaction between them.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Changes of cerebral gray matter pre- and post-treatment in patients with schizophrenia
    XIANG Qiong, WANG Ying-chan*, ZHU Dian-ming, ZHUO Kai-ming, WANG Zheng, XU Yi-feng, LIU Deng-tang
    2017, 37 (02):  203. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.014

    Abstract ( 862 )   PDF (6168KB) ( 1149 )  

    Objective · To observe the changes of cerebral gray matter pre- and post-treatment with short term drugs in patients with schizophrenia. Methods · T1-weighted brain MRIs were obtained on a 3T scanner in 21 controls and 27 subjects with schizophrenia who were not given antipsychotic medication. The controls and 21 schizophrenia patients received the second scan after 8 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to investigate the differences in gray matter (GM), mainly about the regional GM volumes. Results · GM volumes were significantly smaller in the patient group than those of healthy controls in left cerebellum posterior lobe , left and right parahippocampalgyrus, left middle temporal gyrus(P=0.000, voxels>50). GM volumes extensively decreased after 8 weeks of antipsychotic-treatment compared with pre-treatment in the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, superior,middle and inferior frontal gyri, parahippocampa gyri, cingulate gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, right cerebellum posterior lobe, and right lingual gyrus(P=0.000, voxels>50). Conclusion · Short term antipsychotic treatment (8 weeks) may have adverse effects on the gray matter of patients with acute schizophrenia by reducing the volume of gray matter.

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    Metabonomic study of ischemic stroke based on GC-TOFMS approach
    LIU Yu-min, WEI Zhen-yu, CHEN Xin, WANG Jia-yan, WU Dan-hong
    2017, 37 (02):  207. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.015

    Abstract ( 759 )   PDF (6611KB) ( 1035 )  
     Objective · To study the metabolite profiles on patients of ischemic stroke using metabonomics approach. Methods · The serum samples from the 29 patients with ischemic stroke and 31 healthy controls were analyzed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) coupled multi-dimensional statistical methods to find differential metabolites in two groups. Results · Orthogonal partial least squares analysis (OPLS) model was generated based on identified metabolites and shown clear discrimination from patients and healthy controls. Some serum metabolite levels were significantly altered in patients. Six up-regulated metabolites included γ- aminobutyric acid, glutaric acid, glyceric acid, gluconic acid, lactobionic acid, and cholesterol, and nineteen down-regulated metabolites included citric acid, aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, β-alanine, and glycerol-3 phosphate. Conclusion · Amino acid metabolism, glycometabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle are disturbed in patient of ischemic stroke. The metabonomic approach has great potential to understand the underlying mechanisms of stroke in ischemic patients.
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    Analysis of risk factors of vascular intimal hyperplasia in patients with end-stage renal disease before autogenous arteriovenous fistula construction
    FAN Jing-xian, ZHUANG Feng, LU Jian-xin, WANG Ying-deng
    2017, 37 (02):  212. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.016

    Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (7947KB) ( 590 )  
    Objective · To observe the vascular structure before autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) construction in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and analyze the risk factors of the pre-existing venous neointimal hyperplasia. Methods · The 8 vein samples were screened from 20 ESRD patients at their first time of the AVF construction (non-stenosis group), and the other 8 vein samples were screened from 15 ESRD patients at their at least second time of the AVF repair operation (stenosis group). Sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H-E) or Masson’s trichrome for observation. The intimal thickness was measured by the cellSens software, and its correlation with patients’ renal function, calcium-phosphorus metabolism, iron metabolism and inflammatory reaction in the non-stenosis group were analyzed. Results · In the non-stenosis group, there were varying degrees of intimal hyperplasia in 5 (62.5%) cases, loss of endothelial cell layer in 3 (37.5%) cases, and vascular wall replacement by collagenous with atrophy or loss of muscle layer in 5 (62.5%) cases. In the stenosis group, almost all vein samples showed general thickening of the wall and 2 (25.0%) totally lost the muscle layer. Avg It of those two groups were statistically significant (P<0.01). In the non-stenosis group, both of average I/M thickness and average I/M area were negatively related to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (P<0.05) and positively related to serum phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus product (P<0.05). Conclusion · Some apparently normal vein of ESRD patients showed varying degrees of intimal hyperplasia before AVF construction. The intimal hyperplasia had a remarkable correlation with GFR or calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Early intervention of the intimal hyperplasia prior to AVF construction may be a new prevention and control means.
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    Serum CTRP1 level and its relationship with serum adiponectin level in elderly male metabolic syndrome patients
    LIANG Wei, TIAN Shu-ya, REN Yan, SHEN Lin-hui
    2017, 37 (02):  218. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.017

    Abstract ( 659 )   PDF (3982KB) ( 872 )  

    Objective · To observe the change of serum complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein1 (CTRP1) level and explore its relationship with serum adiponectin (APN) level in elderly male metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. Methods · Clinical data of 279 male objects (6090 years old) were analyzed retrospectively, serum CTRP1 and APN levels of all objects were tested by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The patients were divided into three groups, i.e. 105 MS patients (MS group), 90 MS patients combined with hypertension (HMS group), and 84 non-MS patients (control group). All general information, including height, body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and serum three acyl glycerin (TAG) were recorded, in order to calculate body mass index (BMI) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results · Compared with the control group, serum CTRP1 levels of patients in MS group and HMS group both increased, and the latter was more obviously. Serum APN levels of patients decreased obviously in HMS group and MS group. The level of serum CTRP1 was negatively related with the level of serum APN. Conversely, serum CTRP1 level was positively related with blood glucose, BMI, SBP, TAG and HOMA-IR. Conclusion · The level of serum CTRP1 is elevated, while the level of serum APN declines in elderly male MS patients. The serum level of CTRP1 is even higher in HMS patients. Serum CTRP1 level is related to many risk factors of atherosclerosis.

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    Clinical study of endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women with asymptomatic thickened endometrium
    SU Tao, BIAN Shou-fang, HU Shi-qing
    2017, 37 (02):  221. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.018

    Abstract ( 1465 )   PDF (5938KB) ( 932 )  

     Objective · To evaluate the clinical characteristics of endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women with asymptomatic thickened endometrium. Methods · A retrospective review was conducted of the patients between October 2013 and October 2015 in the International Peace Maternity & Child Health Hospital. The postmenopausal women with asymptomatic thickened endometrium of 5 mm or more found by transvaginal ultrasonography were recruited. They underwent hysteroscopy and endometrial sampling to analyze the relationship between endometrial pathology and endometrial thickness. Results · A total of 257 patients were recruited. The average age was 61.3 years old, the average menopause period was 122 months, and the average endometrium thickness was 8.6 mm. The endometrial pathology included normal atrophic endometrium, endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, intrauterine adhesion, uterine septum, endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. The most common pathological type was endometrial polyp, accounting for 66.9% of the all patients and 83.9% (172/205) of all pathological types. Three cases of adenocarcinoma (1.2%) were diagnosed. There was significant difference in endometrial thickness among normal endometrium, endometrial polyp and endometrial cancer (P<0.05). The endometrium in endometrial cancer was the thickest, which was (13.20±5.38) mm averagely. There was significant difference in ages among the pathological types (P=0.004). Conclusion · There are few patients of malignancy among asymptomatic postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium. Follow-up visits were recommended to these women.

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    Multidisciplinary diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of children with clear cell sarcoma of kidney
    SHENG Qi, LIU Ting-ting, HE Ke-jun, ZHANG Qin, TAN Zhen, YUAN Xiao-jun
    2017, 37 (02):  225. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.019

    Abstract ( 1143 )   PDF (4925KB) ( 904 )  

    Objective · To investigate the clinical characteristics and multidisciplinary treatment of children with clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK). Methods · Data of seven children with CCSK treated at Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine between Jan 2011 and Jan 2016 were collected. The retrospective analysis of clinical manifestations, features of imaging and pathology, treatment, and follow-up was performed. Results · Of 7 children with CCSK, 6 were male and 1 was female with the median age of 28 months (4-59 months), and 3 were at stageⅠ, 2 at stage Ⅲ, and 2 at stage Ⅳ. All cases were discussed and evaluated by multidisciplinary teams, including pediatric hematology/oncology, pediatric surgery, pathology, radiology and radiotherapy. CCCG-WT-2009 protocol was adopted to treat these patients. The median follow-up period was 22 months (8-56 months). Six children survived and one died. Conclusion · The multidisciplinary treatment mode can effectively improve the prognosis of CCSK. CCCG-WT-2009 protocol has good therapeutic effect and high cure rate for children with early stage CCSK, but the treatment of advanced stage CCSK needs to be further explored and perfected.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Effect of “brisk walking” on male elderly with hypertension in community-based health centers
    DONG En-hong, XU Ming, GUO Li-jun, BU Jia, BAO Yong
    2017, 37 (02):  230. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.020

    Abstract ( 557 )   PDF (5900KB) ( 823 )  

    Objective · To explore the effects of “brisk walking” on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and autonomic nerve activity of male elderly with hypertension in community-based health centers in Shanghai. Methods · A total of 630 elderly men received “brisk walking” treatment (>10 000 steps/ d) voluntarily, who were selected from six community-based health centers in Pudong New Area of Shanghai. Among them, 210 people stick to training for 12 weeks.According to whether suffering from hypertension, the people were assigned to hypertension intervened group (intervention group, n=110) and normal intervened group (control group 1, n=100). Blood pressure, BMI, heart rate and autonomic nerve activity before and after the training were compared. Results · After 12 weeks of training, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and sympathetic nerve activity of intervention group were significantly lower than those before the training (P<0.05). SBP was also significantly lower than control group 2 (P<0.05). However, heart rate, BMI, parasympathetic nerve activity and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity did not change significantly after the training (P>0.05). Conclusion · “Brisk walking” treatment lasting for 12 weeks can decrease blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity in elderly men with hypertension. It is worthy to be popularized in the community.

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    Analysis of the medical treatment willingness and place among migrant workers in some areas of Shanghai and relevant influencing factors
    SHI Jia-hua, YIN Qing-ju, YING Ren-xiang, KANG Qian-ting, LI Na
    2017, 37 (02):  234. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.021

    Abstract ( 548 )   PDF (7576KB) ( 516 )  
    Objective · To understand the medical treatment willingness and place among migrant workers in Shanghai and relevant influencing factors. Methods · The questionnaire survey was used to investigate migrant workers in some areas of Shanghai and the data were analyzed with constituent ratio, χ2 test, and Logistic regression. Results · Regional differences in medical treatment willingness and place existed between migrant workers in surveyed areas and local workers. Differences between actual and intended medical treatment places existed among migrant workers. Main factors influencing the medical care seeking behavior of migrant workers were medical insurance, economic factors, and demographic factors. Conclusion · The medical security system and the accessibility of basic medical services for migrant workers should be further improved.
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    Review
    Research progress in molecular mechanisms of ectodermal dysplasias and birth defects of offspring
    GU Ben-hong, TIAN Ru-hui, LI Zheng
    2017, 37 (02):  240. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.022

    Abstract ( 732 )   PDF (8040KB) ( 709 )  
    The ectodermal dysplasias (ED), sharing common clinical manifestations, are a large group of heterogenous hereditary disorders, characterized by alterations of structures of ectodermal origin, such as skin, sweat glands, hair, nails and teeth. Besides these organs, central nervous system, peripheral
    nervous system, eyes, ears, and nose, as well as eccrine, mammary, and pituitary glands are all derived from the ectoderm. To varying degrees, the offsprings inherited of ED have birth defects and their health will be influenced. This paper reviews recent results of molecular researches and clinical
    therapy improvements about ED.
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    Psychosurgery: from ablation to neuromodulation
    XU Pei-wei, JIANG Kai-da, XU Yi-feng, LIU Deng-tang
    2017, 37 (02):  245. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.023

    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (6586KB) ( 946 )  

    Psychosurgery, the neurosurgical treatment for psychiatric disorders, has a long and controversial history. The review introduces the birth of psychosurgery, the rise and fall of the frontal lobotomy and the transition to the modern era of psychosurgery, due to the development of the stereotactic instruments, and the different psychosurgical procedures. Today, recent advances in neuromodulation may provide an opportunity for psychosurgery to become a more attractive option for the treatment of psychiatric diseases. Current states in China and prospects of psychosurgery are also discussed.

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    Research progress of mechanisms outer membrane proteins of Helicobacter pylori and its adherence
    ZHAO Qiao-yun, XIE Yong
    2017, 37 (02):  249. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.024

    Abstract ( 665 )   PDF (6432KB) ( 1008 )  

    Helicobacter pylori is a predominant pathogen inducing long-term chronic infection of stomach. Its outer membrane proteins (OMPs) mainly include lipoprotein, fimbriae protein and some adhesions. The adhesions are closely related to the pathogenic processes of adherence, colonization, persistent infection and severe clinical outcomes. In addition, the fact that adherence is vital for colonization and pathogenicity has made it a focus to study the vaccines against adherence. The OMPs related to adherence, their receptors, mechanisms of adherence, and the vaccines are summarized in this review.

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    Research progress of the bidirectional interaction between gut microbiota and brain
    YOU Yi-jun, HAN Xiao-long, ZHENG Xiao-jiao, ZHAO Ai-hua, CHEN Tian-lu
    2017, 37 (02):  253. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.025

    Abstract ( 969 )   PDF (9020KB) ( 1133 )  

    The gut-brain axis (GBA) is a nerve-endocrine mediated bidirectional communication system between the gut and brain, which links the cognition and emotion in brain to peripheral intestinal function. In recent years, many researches have showed that colonized intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the communication between gut and brain. On one hand, microbiota can influence the development and function of brain via GBA. On the other hand, brain can also change the composition of gut microbiota. These findings gradually become a novel medical research highlight, i.e. the microbiota-gut-brain axis. This paper reviews the interaction between gut microbiota and brain via GBA in order to provide supports for studying functions of gastrointestinal tract and brain, as well as the treatment of related diseases.

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    Research progress of traditional Chinese medicine in the intervention of colorectal cancer stem cells
    ZHU Li-min, SHEN Ke-ping
    2017, 37 (02):  258. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.026

    Abstract ( 544 )   PDF (7459KB) ( 468 )  

    Colorectal cancer stem cells are a small part of cell population with features of stem cell in the colorectal cancer tissues. Tumor stem cells have the self-renewal capability and have been considered as the root of tumor recurrence. They play an important role in the development, progression, relapse, metastasis, and resistance to chemoradiotherapy of tumors. The long-term clinical practice has proved that traditional Chinese medicine has particular
    advantage on the aspect of resisting tumor recurrence and metastasis. In recent years, with the deep understanding of the theory of colorectal cancer stem
    cells, the clinical and basic researches of traditional Chinese medicine compound, single herb and active ingredient become hot spots.

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    Molecular biological properties of lncRNA and their regulatory functions in the development of central nervous system
    XU Chu-fan, JIANG Lai
    2017, 37 (02):  262. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.027

    Abstract ( 738 )   PDF (7952KB) ( 618 )  
    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) refers to RNA transcripts with more than 200 nucleotides in length, which plays regulatory roles directly in the form of RNA. Their functions are affected by their secondary structures, post transcriptional modification and so on. LncRNA can be classified to various subtypes with complicated mechanisms. In human-induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), dynamic expression of some lncRNAs is detected during the neuronal differentiation, and a series of lncRNAs associated closely with the development process of the central nervous system (CNS) are found. This review summarizes the molecular biological properties of lncRNA and their regulatory functions in the development of the CNS, which is helpful to reveal the mechanisms of the pathogenesis and progression of certain neurological diseases and results in innovation of their diagnosis and treatment.
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    Case report
    Clinicopathological observation of 5 cases of primary liver adenosquamous carcinoma
    LONG Man-mei, HE Wei, HE Qiao, SHI Yong-heng, LIU Qiang
    2017, 37 (02):  267. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.028

    Abstract ( 679 )   PDF (4443KB) ( 1350 )  

    Primary liver adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare kind of liver malignant tumor with very poor prognosis. Clinical data of 5 cases were analyzed retrospectively, four male and one female, whose average age was 60.2 years (50-67 years) old. Adenosquamous carcinoma contains both adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma histologically, and squamous carcinoma cells are dominant (>80%). Four cases underwent surgical resection and one received liver transplantation. The postoperative follow-up period ranged from 6 to 35 months and the mean survival time of these cases was about 15 months. Three patients died during the follow-up period. The survival rates 1 and 2 years after operation were 60% and 20%, respectively.

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    Treatment of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma
    WANG Yue-ping, CAI Lei, ZHU Lan, SHEN Li-fei
    2017, 37 (02):  270. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.02.029

    Abstract ( 600 )   PDF (5221KB) ( 1218 )  
    The paper reported three young women who collapsed into sudden abnormal behavior and convulsions and fell into unconsciousness. After admission, they were found to suffer from ovarian teratomas with anti-NMDAR antibody positive in cerebrospinal fluid or serum. The patients were diagnosed as anti-NMDAR encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma, and teratoma resection was performed.
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