Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Medical Science) ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (5): 673-679.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2022.05.017

• Review • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Research advances in screening modalities for colorectal cancer and colorectal adenoma

ZHAO Min(), CHU Yimin, PENG Haixia()   

  1. Digestive Endoscopy Center, Shanghai Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200336, China
  • Received:2022-02-18 Accepted:2022-05-25 Online:2022-05-28 Published:2022-05-28
  • Contact: PENG Haixia;
  • Supported by:
    Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai(21ZR1458600);Medical-Engineering Cross Research of Shanghai Jiao Tong University(YG2022ZD031)


In recent years, the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) in China are on the rise, which seriously threatens the life and health of Chinese residents and causes a huge social burden. Screening to detect early colorectal cancer or adenoma (precancerous lesions) can effectively reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Therefore, the role and significance of screening in the prevention and treatment of CRC is significant. There are 4 types of screening techniques for CRC and colorectal adenoma. ① Stool-based tests: fecal occult based test (FOBT), fecal DNA test, fecal flora marker test, and fecal M2 pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) test. ② Imaging tests: computed tomo-graphic colonography (CTC), double-contrast barium enema (DCBE), and colon capsule endoscopy (CCE). ③ Endoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) and colonoscopy (CS). ④ Liquid biopsies: circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor RNAs (ctRNAs), protein markers, extracellular vesicles (EVs), etc. Among them, biomarkers DNA and RNA molecules can convey rich information about human health status and have high sensitivity and specificity in screening CRC, but they have not been widely carried out in screening adenomas, and more in-depth large-scale randomized studies of relevant biomarkers are needed. The review of CRC and colorectal adenoma screening technologies is present, introducing their principles, characteristics, and recent research advances to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of CRC and colorectal adenoma screening technologies.

Key words: colorectal cancer, colorectal adenoma, screening

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