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    Original article (Basic research)
    Isolation and identification ofOct4 RNA-binding proteins
    MA Ji1*, GUO Chuan-liang2, 3*, FAN Shu-yue1, 3, XUE Yan1, 2, 3, ZENG Fan-yi1, 2, 3
    2019, 39 (1):  4. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.002

    Abstract ( 584 )   PDF (7222KB) ( 487 )  
    Objective · To identify the RNA binding proteins of Oct4, a key factor of embryonic stem cells. Methods · Total RNA was extracted moembryonic stem cells (R1), which was reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Then PCR product of Oct4 mRNA were transcribed into Oct4 mRNA. Finally the candidate RNA-binding proteins were eluted applying the streptomycin affinity chromatography, and submitted for high-performance liquid chromatography combined with the mass spectrometry. The identified RNA binding proteins were further confirmedRNA immunoprecipitation (RIP). Results · 121 RNA binding proteins of Oct4 3 untranslated region (UTR) and Oct4 5 UTR were identified with liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry. There were 11 proteins with the number of peptide spectrum matches more or equal to 2, and 7 of them were selected for additional confirmation using RIP method. RIP results showed that Oct4 interacted with DSP, SOD1, LMNA, NPM1, PSIP1, NCL and HDGF. Among them, HDGF had the strongest binding ability to Oct4 mRNA. Conclusion · Identification of Oct4 RNA binding proteins will provide a theoretical basis for the regulation mechanism of Oct4, and will be a basis for the further study of its function.
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    Expression of liver-specific ZP domain-containing protein in momodels of obesity
    YUAN Ye-qing, ZHANG Ming-liang, WANG Yan-su, BAO Yu-qian
    2019, 39 (1):  11. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.003

    Abstract ( 655 )   PDF (6021KB) ( 489 )  
    Objective · To study the of liver-specific ZP domain-containing protein (LZP) in momodels of obesity. Methods · The gene and protein of LZP in different tissues of C57BL/6J mice were detectedrealtime-PCR and Western blotting respectively. C57BL/6J mice were treated with high fat diet (HFD) to establish the model of diet-induced obesity and ob/ob mice were also treated with HFD. The body mass and blood glucose were monitored during the experiment, then the liver weight and fat mass were measured at the end of the study. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of liver was performed to observe the morphology of liver. The of LZP in liver of model mice was also detectedrealtime-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results · The of LZP mRNA was mainly found in liver, while a lower gene level was also observed in several other tissues such as spleen and testisrealtime-PCR. The protein of LZP was detected in liver in C57BL/6J miceWestern blotting. Compared with normal diet group, the group treated with HFD had significantly increased body mass and total fat mass, higher blood glucose, increased liver mass and more serious hepatic steatosis (all P<0.05), while the of LZP in liver was reduced (P<0.05). Similarly, body mass and blood glucose were increased significantly in ob/ob mice (both P<0.05), though the of LZP was decreased compared with wild type littermates (P<0.05). Conclusion · Momodels of obesity display decreased of LZP in liver, indicating that LZP may play a role in metabolic homeostasis in obese individuals.
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    Comparison of the phagocytosis and inflammatory response of murine macrophages infectedLeptospirastrains 56606v and 56606a
    FAN Xia1, XIA Bi-li2, Lü Lin1, XU Meng-sha3, LI Jia-yin1, HE Ping1
    2019, 39 (1):  16. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.004

    Abstract ( 602 )   PDF (6544KB) ( 476 )  
    Objective &middot; To compare the response and consequence of momacrophages infectedLeptospira interrogans 56606v and 56606a, and explore the mechanisms of pathogenic Leptospira to cadisease. Methods &middot; Peritoneal macrophages of C57BL/6 mice were infectedpathogenic Leptospira 56606v and non-pathogenic Leptospira 56606a respectively. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to observe phagocytosis and clearance of Leptospira after infection, and realtime-PCR was used to determine cytokine production of macrophages. Results &middot; After 72-hour infection, strain 56606v exhibited a lower phagocytic rate but survived after incubation with peritoneal macrophages compared with strain 56606a, which showed a higher phagocytic rate but was cleared at that time point. Additionally, cytokine production of macrophages incubated with 56606v was lower than that with 56606a. Conclusion &middot; Leptospira interrogans strain 56606v can survive in macrophages, which may contribute to evasion phagocytic clearance and lead to disease, while strain 56606a can be cleared, which implicates a lower pathogenicity.
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    Role of inositol-requiring kinase 1&alpha;/X-box binding protein 1 in airway mucus secretion inducedneutrophil elastase
    LI Qi1, ZHOU Xiang-dong1, ZENG Man1, Victor P. KOLOSOV2, Juliy M. PERELMAN2
    2019, 39 (1):  21. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.005

    Abstract ( 535 )   PDF (8749KB) ( 462 )  
    Objective · To explore the effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) on neutrophil elastase (NE) induced mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) production in human airway epithelial cells. Methods · HBE16 airway epithelial cells were cultured and pretreated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), or transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against inositolrequiring kinase 1α (IRE-1α) or X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), respectively before incubation with NE. NE group and blank control group were also set up. ROS production was assayeddetection kit; of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (pPERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), phosphorylated IRE-1α (pIRE-1α), and XBP-1 protein was detectedWestern blotting; spliced XBP-1 (XBP-1s) mRNA was measuredreal-time PCR; levels of MUC5AC protein in culture supernatant and cytoplasm were assayedELISA and immunofluorescence. Results · There was an obvious increase of ROS production with strong elevation of GRP78, ATF6, pPERK, and pIRE-1α protein in NE group cells after 24 h, compared with blank control group (P<0.05). The protein and mRNA of XBP-1s, and MUC5AC production also increased obviously (P<0.05). NAC and 4-PBA reduced ERS-related protein and MUC5AC production and secretion (P<0.05). Further studies showed that MUC5AC secretion was also bluntedIRE-1α siRNA or XBP-1 siRNA, accompanied with decreased of XBP-1s mRNA and protein (P<0.05). Conclusion · NE induces ERSproducing ROS, and increases MUC5AC protein production and secretion; IRE-1α/XBP-1 play a certain role in this process.
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    Mechanism of CCT2, a new downstream substrate of PDGFR&alpha;, on proliferation of tumor cells
    QU Guo-jun1, LU Yuan-feng2, LI Yu1
    2019, 39 (1):  28. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.006

    Abstract ( 638 )   PDF (6778KB) ( 482 )  
    Objective &middot; To study the molecular mechanism of chaperonin containing TCP1 subunit 2(CCT2), a new downstream substrate of platelet derived growth factor receptor &alpha;(PDGFR&alpha;), in tumorigenesis. Methods &middot; Non-small cell lung cancer cell line H1703 was used. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation of CCT2 upon PDGFR&alpha; inhibitor Gleevec treatment and PDGF stimulation. H1703 cells were divided into siCon group, siPDGFR&alpha; group and siCCT2 group; 48 h later, cell number counting was used to test the effect of CCT2 on cell growth after siRNA transfection. H1703 cells were divided into siCon group, siPDGFR&alpha; group, siAKT group and siCCT2 group; Western blotting was used to measure the protein level of PDGFR&alpha; and PARP. Cell fractionation was used to detect the cellular localization of CCT2 and co-immunoprecipitation was used to test the interaction between CCT2 and PDGFR&alpha;. Results &middot; CCT2 phosphorylation was inhibitedGleevec and inducedPDGF. Compared to the control group, the number of cells transfectedsiCCT2 reduced30% (P0.006). The protein level of PDGFR&alpha; was also decreased in siCCT2 transfected cells, whereas the cleavage of PARP was increased. CCT2 was localized in both cytoplasmic and membrane fractions and interacted with PDGFR&alpha; directly. Conclusion &middot; CCT2 is a new downstream substrate of PDGFR&alpha;. CCT2 can promote tumor cells growthinteracting and stabilizing PDGFR&alpha;.
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    Screening of the anti-atherogenic drugsusing THP-1-HIF-1&alpha;-HER-Luciferase cell model
    QIAN Yu-jun1, QIN Chun-xia1, SUN Li-li1, DING Hua-min1, LI Tie-jun1, 2
    2019, 39 (1):  33. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.007

    Abstract ( 596 )   PDF (7721KB) ( 437 )  
    Objective · To screen the anti-atherosclerosis (AS) activity of the compoundsusing THP-1-HIF-1α-HER-Luciferase high-throughput model, and to verify the anti-AS function of the effective compounds. Methods · THP-1-HIF-1α-HER-Luciferase cells were pretreated with different concentrations of compounds (1, 10, and 100 μg/mL) for 2 h, then cultured under hypoxia for 24 h. Luciferase activity of cells was detected and compounds with anti-AS activity were screenedluciferase activity evaluation. THP-1 and U937 cells were pretreated with effective compounds, and then induced for 24 hoxidized low density lipoprotein (OX-LDL). The formation of foam cells was observedoil red staining. The mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) was detectedreal-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). HIF-1α protein was detectedWestern blotting. Anti-AS activity of effective compounds were evaluated. Results · Among the 200 compounds, 11 compounds could significantly inhibit the increase of luciferase activity in THP-1-HIF-1α-HER-Luciferase cells inducedhypoxia (all P<0.05), and compound numbered 14 (C14) had the most significant inhibitory effect. THP-1 and U937 cells formed foam cells induced for 24 hOX-LDL. However, cells were pretreated with C14 for 2 h, which could significantly inhibit the formation of foam cells inducedOX-LDL. Cells were induced for 24 hOX-LDL, which could significantly increase the of HIF-1α mRNA and protein (all P<0.05), while cells pretreated with C14 could significantly inhibit the increase of HIF-1α mRNA and protein in a gradient-dependent manner (all P<0.05). Conclusion · THP-1-HIF-1α-HER-Luciferase high-throughput model can be reliability used in screening of compounds with anti-AS activity. C14 has the good anti-AS activity characteristics.
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    Composition differences of polyphenolic compounds in fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. and Lycium barbarumL.
    WANG Qi1, TANG Hui-ru2
    2019, 39 (1):  39. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.008

    Abstract ( 597 )   PDF (10464KB) ( 540 )  
    Objective &middot; Both Lycium barbarum L. (LB) and Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LR) belong to the Lycium genus of Solanaceae family but their fruits have significant phenotypic differences in terms of color and shapes. This study is aimed to investigate the inter-species difference of their fruit polyphenol composition. Methods &middot; The polyphenol composition of fresh and dried fruits of two Lycium species were comprehensively analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESIQ-TOF-MS). Results &middot; 35 polyphenolic compounds were detected and quantified in the fresh and dried Lycium fruits including phenolic acids, anthocyanins and phenolamides (i.e., the amide-adducts of polyphenolic acids and polyamines). For both species, the dried fruits had more polyphenolic compounds than their fresh fruits with significant inter-species difference; for both fresh and dried fruits, LR had more polyphenolic compounds than LB. Conclusion &middot; There are significant inter-species differences between these two Lycium in both fresh and dried fruits. These results offer essential information for further understanding of the biological functions of these two Lycium fruits as phytomedicines and functional food.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Association analysis of FOS gene rs1063169 polymorphism and Alzheimers disease in Han Chinese people
    CHEN Yan1, FANG Xin-yu1, WANG Ye-wei1, NI Jian-liang2, ZHANG Jiang-tao2, LU Wei-hong1, LI Tao3, ZHANG Deng-feng4, ZHANG Chen1
    2019, 39 (1):  47. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.009

    Abstract ( 540 )   PDF (6609KB) ( 526 )  
    Objective · To investigate the relation between FOS gene and Alzheimers disease (AD), and the relation between tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in rs1063169 and AD in Han Chinese people. Methods · The difference in FOS gene in various brain regions between AD patients and healthy people was studied using Alzdata website, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network among FOS protein and 28 proteins encodedAD-related susceptibility genes was constructed through String database into explore whether FOS gene was associated with AD in these known database. Then, 715 AD patients and 760 healthy controls Southwest and East China were collected to analyze tag SNP rs1063169SNaPshot assay. Results · The cross-platform normalized data on Alzdata showed that FOS gene in AD patients expressed differently in entorhinal cortex (P0.003) and hippocampus (P0.001) compared with healthy people. PPI network found out that FOS protein had interactions with 4 proteins encodedAD-related susceptibility genes, which were apolipoprotein E (APOE), clusterin (CLU), β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), and protein-tyrosine kinase 2β (PTK2B). However, there was no significant difference in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles in rs1063169 between the AD cases and the healthy controls (P>0.05). Conclusion · There is differential of FOS in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of AD patients and healthy people, and FOS protein may have effects on the development of AD through the interaction with proteins encodedAD-related susceptibility genes, but no relation was found between rs1063169 polymorphism and AD in the collected Han Chinese people.
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    Construction of point-based mandibular median sagittal plane
    ZHANG Xin1, 2, LIU Yang1, 2, 3, ZHOU Jian-ping1, 2, 3, WU Yan1, 2, 3, ZHENG Lei-lei1, 2, 3, DAI Hong-wei1, 2, 3
    2019, 39 (1):  52. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.010

    Abstract ( 531 )   PDF (10142KB) ( 476 )  
    Objective · To develop a new point-based mandibular median sagittal plane (MMSP)selecting varied mandibular planes which were formedcombining bony landmarks derived multiple regions of the mandible. Methods · Forty adult patients were evenly divided into two groupsthe degree of chin deviation: mandibular asymmetric group (MA group) and mandibular symmetric group (MS group). Three dimensional (3D) mandibular models were rebuiltMimics 19.0 software. In this software, 3D coordinates of 4 central landmarks and 6 pairs of lateral landmarks were collected. Then 120 candidate planes were constructedpoint-based method, and compared with the reference plane formedthe iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. All the planes were reordered and screenedgeometric indices such as angle, distance and area in MS group. In addition, the clinical symmetrical indices such as point-to-plane distance, surface area difference, volume difference, and 3D deviation ratio of screened planes were compared in MA and MS groups. Results · The candidate planes co-constructed with landmarks three mandibular regions (symphysis, mandibular angle and coronoid process) were the top 5% of all the planes. Among them, no statistical difference between B-Cor-Golat plane (constructed with supramentale, coronoid superius and gonion lateralis) and ICP plane was found (P >0.05), while there were significant differences between the rest screened planes and the reference plane (P<0.05). Conclusion · The B-Cor-Golat plane can be used as the mandibular median sagittal plane to reflect the symmetrical degree of the mandible well.
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    Analysis of biomarkers for predicting left ventricular remodeling after successful revascularization of acute myocardial infarction
    TAO Yi-jing1*, XIA Zhi-li1*, GAO Cheng-jie2, GAO Ya-jie1, WU Hao3, WAN Qing1, LI Yong-guang1, LU Zhi-gang1, SHEN Cheng-xing1, PAN Jing-wei1
    2019, 39 (1):  60. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.011

    Abstract ( 565 )   PDF (7618KB) ( 419 )  
    Objective · To investigate the correlation between the biomarkers and left ventricular remodeling (LVR) in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods · 220 patients with AMI who were admitted in the Department of Cardiology of the Shanghai Sixth Peoples Hospital January 1st, 2015 to January 1st, 2016 and received successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention were included in this study sequentially. AMI patients due to right coronary artery were excluded. LVR after AMI was defined as more than 20% increase of the left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) measuredechocardiogram in 1-year-follow-up compared with LVEDV at admission. Patients were divided into LVR group and non-LVR group. The differences of myocardial injury markers and inflammatory factors between the two groups were compared, and the correlation between LVR and the biomarkers was analyzed. Results · Compared with the non-LVR group, the cTnI (serum cardiac troponin I), CKMB (creatine kinase MB) and myoglobin levels at admission and peaks, as well as neutrophil to monocyte ratio and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the LVR group were increased significantly (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in proBNP (brain natriuretic peptide precursor) and BNP levels between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that cTnI and NLR at admission were correlated well with LVR. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the cTnIadmission curve (AUC) was 0.704, and the sensitivity and specificity of cTnIadmission to predict LVR after AMI were 69.2% and 64.3% respectively, when 9.14 μg/L was chosen as the cut-off point. The area under the NLR curve (AUC) was 0.664, and the sensitivity and specificity of NLR were 70.6% and 60.2% respectively, when 5.87% was chosen as the cut-off point. Conclusion · The increased levels of cTnI and NLR at admission in patients with AMI are independent predictors of LVR.
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    Relationship between glomerular filtration rate and acute ischemic stroke in middle-aged and elderly population
    ZHANG Cui-ping, OUYANG Xiao-chun, YU Xiao-li, XIONG Wen-juan, WANG Yan-qiu, MA Yao
    2019, 39 (1):  65. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.012

    Abstract ( 562 )   PDF (6410KB) ( 477 )  
    Objective · To explore the occurrence risk and clinical significance of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) level and acute ischemic stroke in middle-aged and elderly population. Methods · The clinical data of 292 hospitalized patients in the Department of Neurology at the No.908 Hospital of the Peoples Liberation Army Joint Logistics Support Force Jan. 2016 to Jun. 2018 were retrospectively analyzed, including gender, age, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking and drinking history, erythrocyte count, brain images, and the level of blood glucose, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, GFR, blood urea nitrogen, blood uric acid, serum creatinine, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, homocysteine. According to the GFR level, patients were divided into normal GFR group and low GFR group. The clinical characteristics were compared between two groups. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between GFR level and the occurrence of acute ischemic stroke. Results · The number of patients in normal GFR group and low GFR group was 154 (52.74%) and 138 (47.26%), respectively. Chi-square test or t test analysis showed that there was no significant difference in gender, body mass index, smoking history, drinking history, erythrocyte count, blood glucose, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and homocysteine between two groups, and significant difference in age, diastolic blood pressure, GFR, blood urea nitrogen, blood uric acid, serum creatinine (all P<0.05). The incidence rate of acute ischemic stroke in normal GFR group and low GFR group was 41.56% (64/154) and 59.42% (82/138), respectively (χ29.291, P0.002). Compared with the normal GFR group, the occurrence risk OR (95% CI) of acute ischemic stroke in lower GFR group was 2.06 (1.29–3.29) (P0.002) and 2.04 (1.01–4.12) (P0.047) before and after adjusted the related risk factors. Conclusion · The low GFR levels are associated with the occurrence of acute ischemic stroke in middle-aged and elderly population.
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    Establishment of risk prediction model for pulmonary complications in elderly patients with multiple rib fractures
    MAO Yi-Ming1, WU Chang-Jiang2
    2019, 39 (1):  69. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.013

    Abstract ( 549 )   PDF (5901KB) ( 442 )  
    Objective · To establish a risk prediction model for pulmonary complications in elderly patients with multiple rib fractures. Methods · A total of 150 cases of elderly patients with multiple rib fractures were analyzed retrospectively January 2016 to December 2017 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Suzhou Kowloon Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Patients were divided into case group (n88) and control group (n62) according to whether pulmonary complications occurred. Univariate analysis and Logistic regression analysis were performed based on 8 factors, including gender, age, basic pulmonary disease, smoking history, the number of rib fractures, expectoration, diabetes, and the treatment time. Results · The results of univariate analysis showed that age, basic pulmonary disease, smoking history, the number of rib fractures, expectoration, diabetes, and the treatment time were associated with pulmonary complications (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that basic pulmonary disease (OR3.338, 95% CI 2.772-11.606, P0.003), smoking history (OR2.407, 95% CI 1.103-5.253, P0.027), the number of rib fractures (OR3.321, 95% CI 1.178-9.359, P0.023), and expectoration (OR4.034, 95% CI 1.818-8.952, P0.001) were the independent risk factors for pulmonary complications in elderly patients with multiple rib fractures. The area under the model ROC curve was 0.816, and the regression model was reliable. Conclusion · Basic pulmonary disease, smoking history, the number of rib fractures and expectoration are the independent risk factors for pulmonary complications in elderly patients with multiple rib fractures. More attention should be paid to these factors into reduce the incidence of pulmonary complications.
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    Effect of acute hypervolemic fluid infusion during anesthesia induction on intraoperative hemodynamics in the patients undergoing Da Vinci robot-assisted pancreatic surgery
    QIAN Yang, LUO Yan
    2019, 39 (1):  73. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.014

    Abstract ( 654 )   PDF (8128KB) ( 487 )  
    Objective · To investigate the effect of acute hypervolemic fluid infusion (AHFI) during induction of general anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamic fluctuation in the patients undergoing pancreatic robotic surgery. Methods · Sixty patients undergoing Da Vinci robot-assisted pancreatic surgery were randomly divided into routine infusion group (control group, n30) and AHFI group (n30). In AHFI group, the patients were infused with 12.5 mL/kg crystalloid solution before anesthesia induction, 12.5 mL/kg colloidal solution before pneumoperitoneum, and 8 mL/(kg·h) (crystalloid solution:colloidal solution1:1) continuously after pneumoperitoneum. The patients in control group were treated with routine liquid therapy. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac index (CI), stroke volume variation (SVV), and the incidence of adverse events in both groups were recorded. After operation, the exhaust time, hospitalization time and 3-month mortality of the two groups were followed up. Results · Compared with control group, the consumption of crystalloid solution, colloidal solution and both solutions in AHFI group increased (P<0.05), while the incidence of adverse events was less (P0.020). There was no significant difference in the MAP variation, HR variation and CI between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with control group, CVP increased significantly and SVV decreased significantly in AHFI group before pneumoperitoneum, after pneumoperitoneum and after postural changes (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the exhaust time, hospitalization time and 3-month mortality between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion · Compared with conventional fluid infusion, AHFI during anesthesia induction can reduce the occurrence of adverse events in the patients undergoing Da Vinci robot-assisted pancreatic surgery. There is no significant difference in the recovery of gastrointestinal function and prognosis between the two methods.
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    Application of optical coherence tomography angiography in children with anisometropic amblyopia
    XIANG Xiao-qiong, LUO Li-ying, TANG Min, FU-Yang
    2019, 39 (1):  79. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.015

    Abstract ( 538 )   PDF (7765KB) ( 409 )  
    Objective &middot; To explore the application value of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in retinal microvascular blood flow in children with anisometropic amblyopia. Methods &middot; 31 children with monocular anisometropic amblyopia in the Department of Ophthalmology in Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University June to August in 2018 were included. The 3 mm &times; 3 mm and 6 mm &times; 6 mm area centered on the macular area and 4.5 mm &times; 4.5 mm area centered on the optic disc area were detectedOCTA. The software automatically calculated the average blood flow densities of superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), and the average blood flow densities of optic disc and the peripapillary area, the average area of foveal avascular zone (FAZ), as well as the average foveal thickness in the anisometropic amblyopia and the contralateral eyes. The anisometropic amblyopia eyes of the children were classified as the amblyopia group, and the contralateral non-ambly eyes were classified as the contralateral eye group. The differences in blood flow parameters between two groups were compared. Results &middot; In the 3 mm &times; 3 mm macular scan, the average blood flow densities of SCP and DCP in the amblyopia group were (46.40&plusmn;4.72)% and (52.17&plusmn;2.82)%, respectively, and the average blood flow densities in the contralateral eye group were (48.48&plusmn;3.46)% and (54.31&plusmn;2.18)%, respectively. The differences in the average blood flow densities of SCP and DCP between two groups were statistically significant (P0.012, P0.012). In the 6 mm &times; 6 mm macular scan, the average blood flow densities of SCP and DCP in the amblyopia group were (47.41&plusmn;3.04)% and (48.92&plusmn;5.34)%, respectively, and the average blood flow densities in the contralateral eye group were (50.36&plusmn;2.70)% and (51.54&plusmn;4.69)%, respectively. The differences between two groups were statistically significant (P0.016, P0.046). In the 4.5 mm &times; 4.5 mm optic disc scan, the average blood flow densities of the optic disc in the amblyopia group and the contralateral eye group were (48.98&plusmn;4.03)% and (52.06&plusmn;3.90)%, respectively. The difference was also statistically significant (P 0.040). The average blood flow densities of the peripapillary area in the amblyopia group and the contralateral eye group were (52.16&plusmn;2.22)% and (52.44&plusmn;1.50)%, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion &middot; The average blood flow densities of SCP, DCP and optic disc in the anisometropic amblyopia eyes are significantly lower than that in the contralateral eyes. OCTA has certain application value in evaluating retinal blood flow in children with anisometropic amblyopia.
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    Original article (Public health)
    Reliability and validity of defeat scale on anxiety and depression in medical students
    TANG Hua1, WANG Su-ping1, 2, GONG Rui-jie3, WANG Ze-zhou2, CAI Yong2
    2019, 39 (1):  84. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.016

    Abstract ( 622 )   PDF (6403KB) ( 567 )  
    Objective &middot; To introduce the defeat scale (DS) and evaluate its reliability and validity among Chinese junior medical students. Methods &middot; With convenience sample method, 665 medical students were examinedthe Chinese version of DS, and 29 of them were retested one month later. The structural validity, criterion validity, and content validity of DS were accessedfactor analysis and correlation analysis. The reliability of DS was evaluatedinternal consistency reliability (Cronbachs &alpha; coefficient), split-half reliability (Spearman-Brown coefficient), and retest reliability. Results &middot; The exploratory factor analysis showed that two factors including decadence (13 items) and low sense of achievement (3 items) could be extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that model revisedtwo factors fitted well (&chi;2/df7.199, RMSEA0.097, CFI0.925). The correlation coefficient between each item of content validity and its sub-dimension were among 0.678-0.889. The correlation coefficient was 0.738 between DS and patients health questionnaire depression scale-9 item, and -0.712 between DS and Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The Cronbachs &alpha; coefficient of DS was 0.933, the Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.925, and the retest reliability was higher than 0.900. Conclusion &middot; The DS has good validity and reliability among Chinese junior medical students.
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    Co-occurring psychosocial problems and consistent condom among unmarried female miworkers of two factories in Shanghai
    SHEN Qiu-ming1, SHI Yue1, WANG Ze-zhou1, ZHANG Shu-xian1, Lhakpa Tsamlag1, CAI Bo2, CAI Yong1
    2019, 39 (1):  89. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.017

    Abstract ( 505 )   PDF (8552KB) ( 425 )  
    Objective &middot; To investigate condom among unmarried female miworkers in Shanghai and explore its relation with some psychosocial problems. Methods &middot; A questionnaire survey was conductedcluster random sampling. A total of 903 unmarried female miworkers who had sexual experience were enrolled to evaluate their condom and psychosocial factors. Logistic regression was used to analyze the related factors of condom use. Results &middot; Among the unmarried female miworkers, the percentage of consistent condom was only 13.8%. Univariate Logistic regression showed that low self-esteem (OR0.47, 95% CI0.25-0.90) and depression (OR0.59, 95% CI0.38-0.93) were related to inconsistent condom after correcting demographic factors. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that depression (OR0.58, 95% CI0.37-0.90) was the main factor related to inconsistent condom use. The participants with at least two psychosocial problems were more difficult to condoms consistently (OR0.56, 95% CI0.32-0.97). Conclusion &middot; The unmarried female miworkers with depression or co-occurring psychological problems in Shanghai are more likely to have unsafe sex behavior, which indicates the importance of psychological interventions.
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    Review
    Role of On-cells and Off-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla in pain modulation
    WANG Ruo-xi, JIANG Tao, JIAO Ying-fu, GAO Po, YANG Li-qun, YU Wei-feng
    2019, 39 (1):  95. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.018

    Abstract ( 646 )   PDF (6653KB) ( 522 )  
    The rostral ventromedial medulla is one of the key structures in descending pain modulation system. It receives inputs the thalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and parabrachial nucleus, and sends descending projections through the dorsolateral funiculus and ventrolateral funiculus to the spinal dorsal horns. The rostral ventromedial medulla is thought to be the final relay in descending modulation of pain. The neurons in this region can be classified into On-cells, Off-cells and Neutral cells according to the changes in the firing activity before tail flick. This review mainly focuses on pain modulation functions and potential analgesia mechanisms of On-cells and Off-cells.
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    Research progress on esophageal stents for children
    HU Han-bo, SUN Kun
    2019, 39 (1):  99. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.019

    Abstract ( 570 )   PDF (5429KB) ( 376 )  
    Currently, benign esophageal stricture is a common clinical esophageal disease in children, and its common treatment is balloon dilatation. According to the complexity of the lesion, the child often suffers multiple esophageal dilation. Besides, esophageal stent provides a new choice for the treatment of esophageal stricture in children becaof the long-lasting support. However, the complications limit its clinical application, such as chest pain, restenosis, and stent displacement. This article reviewed the current research and clinical application of esophageal stents for children.
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    Translational medicine
    Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy combined with catheter-directed thrombolysis in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis of lower extremity via contralateral femoral vein approach
    LU Hua-xiang, HUANG Jia-qi, HUANG Sheng, YANG Guang-lin, LIU Xiao-bing, LIU Guang
    2019, 39 (1):  102. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.020

    Abstract ( 618 )   PDF (5610KB) ( 267 )  
    Objective &middot; To analyze the early clinical effects of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities through a contralateral femoral vein approachpercutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) combined with catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) therapy. Methods &middot; A retrospective analysis about 45 patients (September 2016 to August 2017) was conducted to analyze the success rate of the technique, the degree of thrombolysis in different venous segments, and the incidence of complications during the treatment of PMT+CDT. Results &middot; Technique successful rate was 100%. 86.7% of lower extremity thrombosis (LET) Ⅰ segments (calf veins), 82.2% of LET Ⅱ segments (femoral and popliteal veins) and 71.1% of LET Ⅲ segments (common iliac and femoral veins) were completely dissolved. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion &middot; It is feasible, safe and effective to PMT+CDT in acute DVT.
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    Diagnosis and treatment of a case of pulmonary embolism with normal D-dimer
    ZHANG Yi-qin1, XIE Song-ming2, WANG Wen-an1
    2019, 39 (1):  106. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.01.021

    Abstract ( 689 )   PDF (4380KB) ( 365 )  
    The patient was a 51-year-old female. She was admitted to the hospital becaof &ldquo;repetitive convulsions for 1 month&rdquo;. No significant neurological positive signs were found in the examination. D-dimer was in the normal range in several times of detection. Brain CT and electroencephalograph showed no obvious abnormality. Sustained hypoxemia occurred on admission, and CT imaging of pulmonary artery perfusion was performed. In the CT images bilateral distal main pulmonary arteries and their main branches showed vessel filling defect, partial lumen stenosis and occlusion, and bilateral small branches of pulmonary arteries showed extensive similar filling defect. Finally the patient was diagnosed with pulmonary embolism, whose condition was safter anticoagulation therapy with warfarin.
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