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    Outstanding international article
    Original article (Basic research)
    Differential analysis of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in single cells of human and mobrain
    CHENG Ying1, JU Pei-jun1, WANG Wei-di1, FANG Yu1, LIN Guan-ning1, 2, CUI Dong-hong1
    2019, 39 (2):  113. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.002

    Abstract ( 482 )   PDF (9448KB) ( 280 )  
    Objective · To investigate the patterns of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in different neuronal cell types of human and mobrains. Methods · Schizophrenia susceptibility genes were studied based on four genetic study methods, including genome-wide association study, linkage and association study, copy number variation study and convergent functional genomics study. Single cell RNA-seq data of human and mobrains were used to explore the patterns of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in specific cell types of neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Furthermore, the functions of schizophrenia risk genes identified only in human brains were analyzedfunctional annotation tools the DAVID database. Results · Comparisons were made about single cell RNA-seq data between human and mobrains, and there existed distinct patterns of schizophrenia susceptibility genes across species. Neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes both human and mowere shown to have more co-expressed schizophrenia susceptibility genes, while co- of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in microglia and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells rarely existed. In addition, schizophrenia risk genes expressed only in human were involved in the regulation of neural synaptic plasticity and calcium signaling pathway. Conclusion · The schizophrenia susceptibility genes have distinct profiles at the single cell level in human and mobrains, which provides clues and evidence for revealing the etiological mechanism of schizophrenia based on momodel research.
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    Effect of procyanidin B2 on inflammatory mediators of human periodontal ligament cells
    GU Li-fen1, YANG Tao2, GAO Ying3, ZHOU Wei1, SONG Zhong-chen1
    2019, 39 (2):  120. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.003

    Abstract ( 378 )   PDF (7391KB) ( 233 )  
    Objective · To investigate the effects of procyanidin B2 on the of inflammatory mediators in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) inducedPorphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods · hPDLCs were cultured using tissue explant method in vitro. The effect of procyanidin B2 on the cell viability of hPDLCs was detectedMTT assay. hPDLCs were stimulatedP. gingivalis LPS after treatment with procyanidin B2 for 1 h. The s of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 mRNA and proteins were detectedreal-time PCR and ELISA assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytoplasm was observed under fluorescence microscope. Nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatant was detectedGriess assay. Results · 100.00 μg/mL procyanidin B2 could enhance the cell viability of hPDLCs. Procyanidin B2 could inhibit the s of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 mRNA and proteins in hPDLCs. It could also downregulate ROS and NO in hPDLCs inducedP. gingivalis LPS. Conclusion · Procyanidin B2 can play an anti-inflammatory roleinhibiting inflammatory mediators in hPDLCs inducedP. gingivalis LPS.
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    Extraction and identification of human stem cells the apical papilla derived-exosomes
    JIN Qiao-qiao, LIN Wen-zhen, YUAN Ke-yong, NIU Chen-guang, HUANG Zheng-wei
    2019, 39 (2):  126. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.004

    Abstract ( 431 )   PDF (7121KB) ( 227 )  
    Objective · To obtain and identify the exosomes derived human stem cells the apical papilla (hSCAPs). Methods · hSCAPs were culturedmodified tissue adherence method and the phenotypes were analyzed with stem cell surface markers CD105, CD45, CD44, CD31, CD34 and CD29. The capability of multi-differentiation in hSCAPs was identifiedosteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in vitro. Exosomes were isolated hSCAPs culture supernatants using gradient centrifugation methods. The size of vesicle was assessednanoparticle size analyzer. The morphology of exosomes was observedtransmission electronic microscope (TEM), and the of exosome molecular markers CD81, CD9, CD63 and TSG101 was analyzedWestern blotting. Results · hSCAPs were positive for the mesenchyme stem cell markers, including CD105, CD44 and CD29 and negative for the hematopoietic markers CD45, CD31 and CD34. hSCAPs could differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. hSCAPs secreted microvesicles which exhibited round vesicle structure with an intact membrane observedthe TEM. The results of nanoparticle size analyzer measurement showed that the diameters of vesicles were ranged 30 to 100 nm, which were consistent with the resultsTEM. Microvesicles could express the molecular markers for exosomes, i.e. CD81, CD9, CD63 and TSG101. Conclusion · The microvesicles were successfully isolated hSCAPs and identified as exosomes.
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    Preventive effect of thermosensitive hydroxybutyl chitosan hydrogel in intrauterine adhesion in New Zealand white rabbits
    WU Ruo-yu, CAO Yi-meng, WU Qing-kai, QIU Yu, HUANG Cheng-sheng, XUE Zhuo-wei
    2019, 39 (2):  131. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.005

    Abstract ( 546 )   PDF (6460KB) ( 372 )  
    Objective · To observe the effect of thermosensitive hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) hydrogel in the prevention of intrauterine adhesion in New Zealand white rabbits. Methods · Eighteen female New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e., normal control group, model group and HBC group. Normal control group underwent sham operation. The models of intrauterine adhesion were constructedboth mechanical damage and infection in model group and HBC group. In HBC group, 2 mL 1.5% thermosensitive HBC hydrogel was injected into the uterine cavity immediately after injury. Two rabbits were killed in each group 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after operation, respectively. The bilateral uterine tissues were collected. The endometrial morphology and quantity of glands were observedhematoxylin-eosin staining. The area of fibrosis in endometrium was measuredMasson staining. Results · One week after operation, compared with normal control group, the columnar epithelial cells of endometrium gradually disappeared and the ratio of endometrial fibrosis area increased significantly in the other two groups. The number of glands also decreased. After 2 weeks, intrauterine adhesion was observed in model group, and the ratio of endometrial fibrosis area continued increasing, and the number of glands decreased further. However, in HBC group, there was no residual hydrogel in the uterine cavity, and the ratio of endometrial fibrosis area decreased and the number of glands increased. After 4 weeks, there was a recovery of columnar epithelium cells, the ratio of endometrial fibrosis area, and the number of glands in HBC group, which returned to the normal level. Conclusion · Thermosensitive HBC hydrogel can effectively prevent intrauterine adhesion in New Zealand white rabbits.
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    Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetes mellitus model mice without myeloid differentiation factor 88 gene
    WANG Ling-xiao, LIU Ting-ting, YANG Xiao-hui, YAO Zhi-qing, CAI Hui-zhen
    2019, 39 (2):  136. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.006

    Abstract ( 417 )   PDF (7440KB) ( 299 )  
    Objective · To investigate the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice without myeloid differentiation factor 88 gene (MyD88-/-). Methods · Levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and IL-10 in serum were assessedELISA in the MyD88-/-T2DM mice which had been administered with different doses of LBP (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg). Momacrophages Raw264.7 were stimulatedlipopolysaccharide (LPS) after treatment with different concentrations of LBP (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL). Then Western blotting was used to detect nuclear translocation level of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and protein s of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) and p-IκB. Results · Serum levels of IL-1β and TGF-β1 in MyD88-/-T2DM mice were down-regulatedLBP (P<0.05). Cell experiment proved that nuclear migration of NF-κB was dose-dependently inhibitedLBP, and the level of p-IκB was reducedhigh dose of LBP. Conclusion · LBP can reduce some proinflammatory cytokines in the MyD88-/-T2DM mice, which may be related with its inhibitive effect on the phosphorylation of IκB and nuclear migration of NF-κB in the macrophages.
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    Role of Nav1.3 in control of excitability of RIN-14B cells
    HAN Lin-hui, GONG Hua-shan, ZHU Cui-hong, ZHANG Guo-hua, RONG Wei-fang
    2019, 39 (2):  142. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.007

    Abstract ( 548 )   PDF (6094KB) ( 377 )  
    Objective &middot; To provide electrophysiological evidence for RIN-14B cells as an useful model of enterochromaffin cells (EC) and to study the role of Nav1.3 channel in the control of its excitability. Methods &middot; Resting membrane potential was recorded and the effects of TTX and ICA-121431 were examinedcurrent-clamp in cultured RIN-14B cells. The effects of TTX and ICA-121431 on Na+ current of RIN-14B cells were examinedvoltage-clamp. Results &middot; RIN-14B cells had a resting potential around -60 mV and fired action potentials when stimulated with depolarizing current pulses. The action potential was completely blockedTTX and inhibitedICA-121431 in a dose-dependent manner. TTX blocked activation and inactivation of sodium current. In addition ICA-121431 dose-dependently inhibited activation of Na+ current. Conclusion &middot; The action potential of RIN-14B cells is inducedTTX-sensitive sodium channel and the excitability is controlledNav1.3. These results suggest RIN-14B cells are similar to EC and it may be a good model of EC.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Association study of zinc finger ZBTB22 single nucleotide polymorphisms and schizophrenia in Han Chinese population
    PANG Jie*, XU Fei*, LI Can
    2019, 39 (2):  147. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.008

    Abstract ( 437 )   PDF (9178KB) ( 241 )  
    Objective · To explore the association of zinc finger ZBTB22 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and schizophrenia in Han Chinese population. Methods · A case-control study was designedgenotyping four SNPs (rs3130100, rs1061783, rs1061801 and rs3130099) in 658 schizophrenia patients and 658 healthy controls of Chinese Han origin. SHEsis was used to analyze genotypic and allelic distributions, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype distribution. Results · rs3130100, rs1061783, and rs3130099 showed significant differences between the cases and controls in allele frequencies (P<0.05 after Bonferroni correction), but no statistically significant differences were found in genotype frequencies after Bonferroni correction. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found among the four SNPs, and the frequency of haplotype TCGA significantly decreased in the schizophrenia patients (P0.015 after Bonferroni correction). Conclusion · The ZBTB22 SNPs rs3130100, rs1061783 and rs3130099 may be associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.
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    Association analysis ofEGR1gene and Alzheimers disease in Han Chinese people
    FANG Xin-yu1, LU Wei-hong1, WANG Hui-zhen2, NI Jian-liang3, ZHANG Jiang-tao3, CAI Jun1, LI Tao4, ZHANG Deng-feng2, ZHANG Chen1
    2019, 39 (2):  153. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.009

    Abstract ( 538 )   PDF (9237KB) ( 229 )  
    Objective &middot; To investigate the association between early growth response gene 1 (EGR1) and Alzheimers disease (AD) in Han Chinese people. Methods &middot; A total of 715 AD patients and 760 health controls were recruited in two independent samples Eastern China (382 AD patients and 426 normal individuals) and Southwest China (333 AD patients and 334 normal individuals) . SNaPshot technique was utilized to analyse the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs11743810. A public database was used to explore whether EGR1 gene was differentially expressed in the brain of AD patients and health controls. Then the protein-protein interaction (PPI) assessment was conducted using the STRING database, and the brain eQTL ( quantitative trait loci) analysis was used to explore the difference in rs11743810 between different genotypes in different brain regions. Results &middot; Cross-platform normalized data showed that there was significant difference of EGR1 in temporal cortex between AD patients and control subjects (|log2FC|0.780, P0.000 before FDR corrected; P0.001 after FDR corrected). PPI analysis revealed that EGR1 was physically connected with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and clusterin (CLU) protein in the network. However, different genotypes of rs11743810 showed no significant difference in in 10 brain regions, and no significant difference in the genotype and allele frequency of rs11743810 between AD patients and controls were found in our two independent samples. Conclusion &middot; The rs11743810 in EGR1 may not be major susceptibility gene site for AD in Han Chinese people.
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    Relationship between serum uric acid level and subclinical target organ damage
    HU Yue-liang1, MA Jin2, TANG Bi-wen1, WANG Qian1, CHAO Hui-juan1, XUAN Yan1, ZUO Jun-li1
    2019, 39 (2):  160. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.010

    Abstract ( 402 )   PDF (6057KB) ( 262 )  
    Objective · To explore the correlation between serum uric acid level and subclinical target organ damage. Methods · A cohort of 333 patients were recruited at the Department of Examination Center of Ruijin Hospital North in July 2017, who were divided into two groups, normal (n248) and high levels (n85, males >420 μmol/L, females >360 μmol/L) of serum uric acid. Subclinical target organ damage indexes included glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and other indicators. Results · Systolic pressure (P0.006), diastolic pressure (P0.000), serum creatinine (P0.000) and LVMI (P0.028) in the high uric acid group were significantly higher than those in the normal uric acid group, and eGFR was significantly lower than that of the control group (P0.000). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the serum uric acid level was significantly correlated with systolic pressure (r0.149, P0.007), diastolic pressure (r0.269, P0.000), LVMI (r0.172, P0.002) and serum creatinine (r0.569, P0.000), and negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (r-0.383, P0.000). After adjusting to sex, age, and BMI, there was a significant positive correlation with diastolic pressure (r0.170, P0.013), and a significant negative correlation with glomerular filtration rate (r-0.332, P0.000). After further adjusting to blood pressure, there was a significant negative correlation with glomerular filtration rate (r-0.291, P0.000). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that serum uric acid was independent of diastolic pressure and glomerular filtration rate (β0.162, P0.000; β-0.058, P0.004). Conclusion · Serum uric acid is positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, and is negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate.
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    Analysis of uterine microbiota in abortion and non-pregnant female based on high-throughput sequencing
    HAN Yang1,2, ZHU Li-hong3, LUO Fei4, HU Wen-jing4, QIN Jin-hong2, JIANG Yan1
    2019, 39 (2):  165. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.011

    Abstract ( 502 )   PDF (7087KB) ( 282 )  
    Objective &middot; To explore the uterine microbiota in women undergoing abortion and non-pregnant women. Methods &middot; Fifty-six women who had experienced spontaneous abortion and 39 women who had experienced artificial abortion were selected to obtain the decidual tissuescurettage vacuum aspiration, and 10 non-pregnant women (without infection) were selected to obtain the endometrial tissues through gynecological surgery Department of Gynecology in Huadong Hospital. Three groups of samples were subjected to high-throughput sequencing based on the V4 variable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, and the bacterial composition of each group of samples was analyzed. The diversity of uterine microbiota was compared among three groups. Results &middot; Low-abundance microbiomes were detected the decidual tissues of abortion women and the endometrial tissues of non-pregnant women. Proteobacteria was the main phylum of the three groups, and Escherichia/Shigella was the main genus. The diversity of uterine microbiota in spontaneous abortion group was higher than that in artificial abortion group. Conclusion &middot; There is a low-abundance uterine microbiota mainly composed of Proteobacteria. The dominant bacteria at the level of phylum, family and genus has no significant difference between the spontaneous abortion group and the artificial abortion group, but there is higher flora diversity in the spontaneous abortion group than in the artificial abortion group.
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    Compliance analysis of adjuvant therapy in elderly patients with breast cancer under case-management model
    DONG Xiao-jing1, ZHANG Nan1, GAN Lu1, WU Yi-ying1, CHEN Yun-yun1, FANG Qiong2
    2019, 39 (2):  170. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.012

    Abstract ( 382 )   PDF (9235KB) ( 178 )  
    Objective · To investigate the current status of adjuvant therapy compliance in elderly breast cancer patients ( ≥ 65 years old) attended the case-management model and to analyze the impact of demographic characteristics and clinical features on adjuvant therapy compliance. Methods · This study enrolled 654 elderly early breast cancer patients who were treated in Ruijin Hospital and subsequently accepted case-management model between March 2013 and August 2016. Data on patients’ compliance to adjuvant therapies which were designedmultidisciplinary treatment (MDT) were collected. The correlation of patients’ adjuvant therapy compliance with demographic characteristics and clinical features were evaluated using χ2 test. The statistically significant variables were taken and the corresponding impact on adjuvant therapy compliance were further analyzed using multiple Logistic regression model. Results · In this study, 603 (92.20%) elderly breast cancer patients were treated with one or a combination of adjuvant therapies according to MDT discussion/recommendation. Overall patients’ compliance to adjuvant therapy was 88.05%. 45.94% patients were required adjuvant chemotherapy, of which 91.34% patients complied in reality; 45.61% patients were required adjuvant radiotherapy, of which 88.73% patients complied in reality; 80.93% patients were required adjuvant endocrine therapy, of which 93.65% (median treatment duration 44.16 months) patients complied in reality; 12.94% patients were required adjuvant targeted therapy, of which 82.05% patients complied in reality.number of adjuvant therapies that elderly early breast cancer patients were required, patients’ compliance to one, two, three and four adjuvant therapies amounted to 94.30%, 83.68%, 87.20% and 60.00% respectively. The results analysis of demographic characteristics and clinical features revealed that, age and number of adjuvant therapies had significant impact on adjuvant therapy compliance in elderly breast cancer patients (P<0.05). Furthermore, patients’ education level showed strong correlation with patients’ compliance to adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy (P<0.05). Additionally metastasis to lymph nodes impacted on patients’ compliance to adjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.05). Conclusion · Case-management model is beneficial to improve adjuvant therapy compliance after surgery in elderly breast cancer patients. To further increase patients’ compliance, more efforts should be invested to help patients older than 74 years old, with lower education level, negative lymph nodes and more types of comprehensive treatment.
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    Application of narrow-band imaging without magnifying in diagnosis of colorectal lesionsNICE classification
    SHEN Yu-feng1,DAI Jun1,LI Xiao-bo2,GE Zhi-zheng2
    2019, 39 (2):  176. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.013

    Abstract ( 504 )   PDF (8836KB) ( 226 )  
    Objective &middot; To evaluate narrow-band imaging (NBI) without magnifying in the diagnosis of colorectal lesionsNBI International Colorectal Endoscopic Criteria (NICE classification), and analyze the safety and practicability of &ldquo;do-not-resect&rdquo; and &ldquo;resect and discard&rdquo; policies in clinical practice. Methods &middot; The patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy, who were found colorectal lesions in the examination, May to December in 2017 were enrolled. All the patients were examinedNBI without magnifyingany of the designated two physicians. NICE classification was used to diagnose colorectal lesions, and the diagnostic confidence of each lesion was recorded. The results of endoscopy were compared with those of pathology, and the accuracy rate and the confidence rate of diagnosis were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the diagnostic method for differentiating superficial tumors non-tumors were also calculated. Finally, the feasibility, safety and cost savings of using &ldquo;do-not-resect&rdquo; and &ldquo;resect and discard&rdquo; policies in clinic were analyzed. Results &middot; A total of 764 lesions were detected in the 636 enrolled patients. The overall accuracy of NICE classification was 84.95% and the diagnostic confidence rate was 81.68%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for differentiating tumors non-tumors were 91.77%, 67.68%, 88.69%, and 74.86%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of diminutive colorectal lesions ( &le; 5 mm) with high confidence was 94.98%, and the negative predictive value of diminutive rectosigmoid lesions ( &le; 5 mm) with high confidence was 96.25%. They achieved the criteria of &ldquo;resect and discard&rdquo; and &ldquo;do-not-resect&rdquo; policies. If &ldquo;donot-resect&rdquo; and &ldquo;resect and discard&rdquo; policies had been executed in clinical practice, ¥165 490 could have been saved and the omission diagnostic rates of &ldquo;do-not-resect&rdquo; and &ldquo;resect and discard&rdquo; policies would have been 3.75% and 0, respectively, in this study. Conclusion &middot; It is feasible to NBI without magnifying in differentiating tumors non-tumors. The diminutive colorectal lesions and rectosigmoid lesions with high diagnostic confidence may achieve the criteria of &ldquo;resect and discard&rdquo; and &ldquo;do-not-resect&rdquo; policies, respectively.
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    Original article (Public health)
    Influence of depression on current smoking and smoking intention among adolescents in Shanghai
    LI Jia-hui1, HE Ya-ping1, XU Gang1, YU Jin-ming2, SHI Rong3, ZHU Jing-fen1,2
    2019, 39 (2):  182. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.014

    Abstract ( 416 )   PDF (6129KB) ( 268 )  
    Objective &middot; To study the impact of depression on tobacco among adolescents in Shanghai, and to provide reference for the development of effective youth tobacco control measures. Methods &middot; A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to extract 10 557 middle school students in Shanghai. The survey was conducted using the Global Youth Tobacco Questionnaire (WHO) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 2-Item Chinese Version (PHQ-2). Results &middot; Among the respondents, the incidence of depression motion was 12.4%. Both the current smoking rate (8.0% vs 2.5%) and future smoking intention (14.2% vs 4.6%) among students with depression were higher than those without depression (P0.000). Compared with those without depression, the risks of current smoking and future smoking intention among youth with depression were 1.56 times (95% CI 1.16-2.10) and 1.92 times (95% CI 1.54-2.40) respectively. In addition, the risk of smoking behavior was higher among female with depression than male students, as well as junior high school students than senior high school students. Conclusion &middot; Depression is one of the influencing factors of tobacco in adolescents. Schools and society should attach importance to the mental health maintenance of adolescents, carry out school-based preventive measures actively, and pay attention to high-risk groups such as female and junior school students with depression particularly.
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    Spatial epidemiological characteristics and prediction models of bacterial dysentery in Chongqing 2009 to 2016 based on meteorological elements
    LIU Xun1, MENG Qiu-yu1, XIE Jia-jia1, XIAO DA-yong2, WANG Yi1, DENG Dan1
    2019, 39 (2):  187. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.015

    Abstract ( 369 )   PDF (8587KB) ( 217 )  
    Objective · To analyze the spatial epidemiological characteristics of bacillary dysentery and its correlation with meteorological elements in Chongqing, and to construct its incidence prediction model, thus providing scientific basis for the prevention and control of bacterial dysentery. Methods · The data of bacterial dysentery cases and meteorological factors 2009 to 2016 in Chongqing was collected in this study. Descriptive methods were employed to investigate the epidemiological distribution of bacillary dysentery. Spatiotemporal scanning statistics was used to analyze spatiotemporal characteristics of bacillary dysentery. DCCA coefficient method was used to quantify the correlation between the incidence of bacillary dysentery and meteorological elements. Both Boruta algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) combined with support vector machine for regression model (SVR) were used to establish the prediction model for the incidence of bacterial dysentery. Results · ① The mean annual reported incidence of bacillary dysentery in Chongqing 2009 to 2016 was 29.394/100 000. Children <5 years old had the highest incidence (295.892/100 000) among all age categories and scattered children had the highest proportion (50.335%) among all occupation categories. The seasonal incidence peak was May to October. Bacterial dysentery showed a significant spatial-temporal aggregation that the most likely clusters for disease was found mainly in the main urban areas and main gathering time was June to October. ② The most important meteorological elements associated with the incidence of bacterial dysentery were monthly mean atmospheric pressure (ρDCCA -0.918), monthly mean maximum temperature (ρDCCA0.875) and monthly mean temperature (ρDCCA0.870). ③ The mean squared error (MSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and square correlation coefficient (R2) of PSO_SVR model constructed based on meteorological elements were 0.055, 0.101 and 0.909, respectively. Conclusion · The main urban areas of Chongqing and the northeast of Chongqing should be regarded as the key areas for the prevention and control of bacillary dysentery. At the same time, according to the characteristics of bacillary dysentery, relevant health departments should take targeted measures to control the spread and prevalence of bacillary dysentery among children <5 years old, scattered children and farmers. The PSO_SVR model constructed based on meteorological elements has good predictive performance and can provide scientific theoretical support for the prevention and control of bacterial dysentery.
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    Investigation on alcohol among the patients with methadone maintenance treatment in Shanghai
    DU Zhe-yi1*, ZHANG Lei1*, ZHANG Jia-ting1, DU Jiang1, SHI Da-qing2, BAO Jia-yi1, WU Qian-ying1, ZHANG Jing-ying1, DONG Ping1
    2019, 39 (2):  193. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.016

    Abstract ( 427 )   PDF (8171KB) ( 223 )  
    Objective &middot; To investigate the prevalence of alcohol and related influencing factors among the patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Shanghai, and to provide information for the alcohol intervention in the future. Methods &middot; A total of 837 MMT patients were investigated and evaluatedGeneral Situation Questionnaire, Alcohol Disorders Identification Test, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, General Well-being Schedule. According to whether drinking or not in the past year, the two groups were divided into the non-drinking group and the drinking group. T-test, Chi-square test and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were used to detected between two groups. Results &middot; 30.9% of the patients had drinking behavior in the past year, 13.8% of them had problem drinking behavior. The main factors affecting patients drinking behavior were sex (P0.029), age of first drug (P0.005), drinking before taking heroin (P0.000) and drinking when taking heroin (P0.000). Conclusion &middot; In Shanghai, alcohol consumption is generally prevalent among MMT patients who lack awareness of the dangerous of drinking. In the future, targeted intervention measures should be taken to reduce the harm of drinking among MMT patients.
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    Research progress on the role of long non-coding RNAs in central nervous system and schizophrenia
    FANG Yu, WANG Wei-di, CHENG Ying, CUI Dong-hong
    2019, 39 (2):  198. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.017

    Abstract ( 452 )   PDF (7399KB) ( 274 )  
    Schizophrenia is a complex and severe psychiatric disorder with an estimated heritability of around 80%, but the exact nature and function of genetic components, and genetic mechanisms have not yet been revealed. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs which are widely expressed in the central nervous system. They regulate gene transcription in various ways, and participate in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. In recent years, many studies have reported that lncRNAs were abnormally expressed in patients with schizophrenia and momodels, which played an important role in this disorder. This review described the biological characteristics and gene regulation mechanisms of lncRNAs, and the role of lncRNAs in the central nervous system and the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
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    Advance in phytoestrogenic effects of psoralen
    LI Hu-xiao, SONG Zhong-chen
    2019, 39 (2):  203. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.018

    Abstract ( 555 )   PDF (7238KB) ( 265 )  
    Psoralen is one of the effective ingredients extracted Chinese herbal medicine Psoralea corylifolia. Studies have found that psoralen has an estrogenic effect and can regulate the estrogen receptor. Psoralen can exert phytoestrogenic effects such as anti-tumor, anti-osteoporosis, anti-oxidation and protection of cardiovascular. This article reviewed the research progress of phytoestrogenic effects of psoralen.
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    Body image disturbance in eating disorders: concept and development
    XU Yi-xiang, CHEN Jue, XIAO Ze-ping
    2019, 39 (2):  207. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.019

    Abstract ( 525 )   PDF (9867KB) ( 234 )  
    Body image disturbance (BID) in eating disorders (ED) has always been a focus of intense investigations and debates since its concept was brought out. Experimental studies conducted in clinical ED patients have not only provided insights into the components, mechanisms and roles of BID in ED psychopathology, but also brought changes to relevant theories and concepts. This article provided a review of theoretical and empirical literatures on BID in ED, as well as a summary and analysis of recent developments and future prospects in this field.
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    Progress in research and application of new media in tobacco control among adolescents
    SHI Fang-hui1, HE Ya-ping1, XU Gang1, ZHU Jing-fen1,2
    2019, 39 (2):  213. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.020

    Abstract ( 396 )   PDF (7216KB) ( 257 )  
    To explore the impact of new media on adolescents&prime; smoking behavior has become an important field as smoking is a common health risk behavior and the popularity rate of new media is increasing among adolescents. At present, new media has gradually become an important way for dissemination of tobacco promotion and control information, which has negative and positive effects on adolescents&prime; smoking behavior, respectively. Meanwhile, new media has also played an active role in the prevention of smoking behavior and the intervention of smoking cessation behavior among adolescents. This paper aimed to systematically review the influence of new media in tobacco information dissemination and its role in adolescents&prime; smoking intervention, so as to provide references for exploring effective tobacco control measures and expect to reduce smoking rate among Chinese adolescents.
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    Brief original article
    Risk estimation of prostate cancer in patients with serum prostate-specific antigen level of 4&ndash;10 ng/mL
    CHEN Ming, FU Xiao-hong, WU Shu, WAN Yong-lin
    2019, 39 (2):  217. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.02.021

    Abstract ( 547 )   PDF (5304KB) ( 285 )  
    Objective · To investigate the value of prostate volume, free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA)/ total PSA (t-PSA) ratio, PSA density (PSAD), colour Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasonography (CETRUS) in patients with PSA level of 4–10 ng/mL. Methods · Retrospective analysis were performed in 119 patients with serum prostate-specific antigen level of 4–10 ng/mL who suspected prostate cancer in Pudong Gongli Hospital Jan 2015 to Jul 2018. All patients received TRUS-guided rectal (8+n)-core method biopsy. According to the result of puncture, the prostate cancer detection rate in patients with different prostate volumes, f-PSA/t-PSA ratios, PSADs, colour Doppler blood flow signals and CETRUS examination results. Results · The detection rate of prostate cancer in biopsies was 56.3% (67/119). The incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia was 43.7% (52/119). The detection rate of prostate cancer in patients with f-PSA/t-PSA ratio ≤0.15 was higher than that with f-PSA/t-PSA ratio>0.15 (73.6% vs 42.4%, P0.001). The detection rate of prostate cancer in the patients with PSAD>0.2 μg/L was higher than PSAD ≤0.2 μg/L(69.8% vs 48.7%, P0.026). The detection rate of prostate cancer in the patients with positive CETRUS results was higher than that with negative CETRUS results (72.4% vs 41.0%,P0.001). Conclusion · The f-PSA/t-PSA ratio, PSAD and CETRUS examination results have important clinical significance for diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with serum PSA level of 4–10 ng/mL.
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