Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Medical Science) ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (7): 931-938.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2022.07.013

• Review • Previous Articles    

Progress in pathogenesis and clinical treatment of sarcoidosis

ZHANG Lincheng(), ZHONG Hua()   

  1. Department of Respiratory, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
  • Received:2021-08-17 Accepted:2022-06-23 Online:2022-07-26 Published:2022-07-26
  • Contact: ZHONG Hua;
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(82072573)


Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease which could affect many crucial organs and eventually cause irreversible functional damage to these organs. However, the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis is still not clear. Current studies suggest that sarcoidosis is caused by multiple factors. Individuals with certain genetic variations are highly susceptible to certain types of sarcoidosis. Furthermore, exposure to extrinsic antigenic factors such as pathogens or inorganic factors and intolerance of self-antigens also play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Subsequent to antigenic stimulation, abnormality in pathways of pattern recognition receptor, phagosome or autophagy stimulates the activity of CD4+ T cells which release inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-12, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-17, and IL-23, thus fostering the proliferation of Th1 and Th17 subpopulation and inducing the fusion of macrophages to form granulomas. Here we aim to review mechanistic studies in the past decade and list current therapeutic methods to provide some insights into the etiology, pathogenesis and management of sarcoidosis.

Key words: sarcoidosis, granulomatous inflammation, pathogenesis, treatment

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