Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Medical Science) ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (9): 1171-1175.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2022.09.002

• Academician forum • Previous Articles    

New progress and prospects of blood glucose monitoring technology

JIA Weiping()   

  1. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus; Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai 200233, China
  • Received:2022-08-29 Accepted:2022-09-07 Online:2022-09-23 Published:2022-09-23
  • Contact: JIA Weiping
  • Supported by:
    Shanghai Municipal Key Clinical Specialty


Glucose monitoring is an important part of diabetes management. For over a century, diabetes monitoring technology has developed from the initial urine glucose test, to the later blood glucose test, and finally to the current continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which is evolving in a more convenient, accurate, minimally invasive, and even non-invasive direction. CGM refers to the technology that continuously measures glucose concentrations in the subcutaneous interstitial fluid by glucose sensors. It can detect hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia that are not easily recognized by traditional monitoring methods. Using the huge amounts of glucose data generated by CGM technology, diabetes management is expected to be more targeted, with glucose control more accurate. In this context, novel measure of glucose control represented by time in range (TIR) has been popularized, which can provide comprehensive information including hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucose fluctuation. Hence, the modern approach to glucose control should focus not only on glycosylated hemoglobin, but also pay attention to new metrics such as TIR. In the future, more mature, minimally invasive and even non-invasive glucose monitoring technologies that are comfortable, stable and highly accurate should be further developed to greatly improve the experience and enthusiasm of the patients in blood glucose monitoring. Meanwhile, closed-loop insulin infusion system should be further developed, to truly realize individualized and automated glucose control, as well as further improvement of glucose control in the patients with diabetes.

Key words: diabetes mellitus, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), time in range (TIR)

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