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    Original article (Basic research)
    Toxicity and transfection efficiency of novel low molecular weight polyethylenimine conjugates (PEI-Bu) on rat primary mesenchymal stem cells
    XIANG Sheng-nan, SU Jing, TONG Wen-xue, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  131. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.001

    Abstract ( 1046 )   PDF (826KB) ( 886 )  

    Objective To construct the novel low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) conjugates, and evaluate its toxicity and transfection efficiency on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods Low molecular weight PEI derivative non-viral nano vector was developed by conjugation of PEI of 800 in molecular weight and degradable carbamate linkage, and was named as PEI-Bu. The DNA condensation capability, in vitro degradation efficiency as well as toxicity and transfection efficiency on primary BMSCs of PEI-Bu were investigated. Results PEI-Bu efficiently condensed plasmid DNA, and stable polyplexes were formed, with the size of polyplexes being about 50 nm. Compared with commercialized PEI 25 000 (PEI of 25 000 in molecular weight) commonly used in laboratories, PEI-Bu had lower toxicity and higher transfection efficiency on rat primary BMSCs. Conclusion As a novel non-viral nano vector, PEI-Bu can efficiently transfect BMSCs with favorable safety, which has a potential value for further development.

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    Effect of curcumin on expression of adiponectin in mice with insulin resistance
    BAI Yu-na, ZHENG Jia, SONG Zhen-feng, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  136. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.002

    Abstract ( 884 )   PDF (262KB) ( 1049 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect of curcumin on expression of adiponectin in mice with insulin resistance. Methods Sixty-four 7-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, 50 mg?kg-1?d-1 curcumin group and 250 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin group, with 16 mice in each group. Mice in normal control group and model control group were daily gavaged with 1.0% carboxymethyl cellulose solution for 11 weeks, and mice in 50 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin group and 250 mg·kg-1·d-1 group were gavaged with 50 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin and 250 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin respectively for 11 weeks. On the eleventh week, mice in model control group, 50 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin group and 250 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin group were simultaneously intraperitoneally injected with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)(7 μg·kg-1·d-1)for consecutive 8 d. The fasting blood glucose and serum insulin were measured, the insulin action index (IAI) was calculated, the serum adiponectin was determined by ELISA, and the expression of adiponectin mRNA in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues and periepididymal adipose tissues was detected by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Results IAI in model control group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P<0.05), and IAI in 250 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin group was significantly higher than that in model control group (P<0.05). The mass concentration of serum adiponectin in model control group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P<0.05), and the mass concentration of serum adiponectin in 250 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin group was significantly higher than that in model control group (P<0.05). The expression of adiponectin mRNA in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues and periepididymal adipose tissues in 50 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin group and 250 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin group was significantly higher than that in model control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Curcumin has definite protective effect on mice with insulin resistance, and the mechanism may be the upregulation of expression of adiponectin mRNA.

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    Activation of proinflammatory cytokines and transduction pathways in acute fat embolism syndrome mouse model
    SHANG Jia-wei, LIU Xi, WEI Hai-ling, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  140. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.003

    Abstract ( 1182 )   PDF (600KB) ( 1175 )  

    Objective To investigate the function of proinflammatory cytokines in the animal model of fat embolism syndrome and its potential signal transduction pathways. Methods The fat embolism model was established by injection with the allogeneic perinephric fat through the caudal veins of healthy male C57BL mice. The half lethal dose (LD50) was calculated by Bliss´ method. Mice in experiment group were injected with LD50 of fat, and those in control group were managed with the same dose of normal saline. The lung tissue damage (both gross and microscope), arterial blood gas, ratio of lung tissue wet and dry weight (D/W), activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissues, plasma IL-1β and TNF-α levels and expression of IKK β gene and NF-κB protein in lung tissue homogenate were compared between groups. Results Compared with control group, the lung tissues were seriously damaged, there was lipid droplet accumulation in the endovascular and alveolar space, and D/W increased in experiment group. In experiment group, the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) significantly decreased, the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) increased, plasma IL-1β and TNF-α significantly increased, the activity of MPO in lung tissues enhanced, and the expression of IKKβ gene and NF-κB increased (P<0.05). Conclusion Inflammatory reaction plays an important role in the pathological process of fat embolism syndrome, and the increase of NF-κB related gene and protein indicates the participation of the inflammatory signal pathways mediated by NF-κB.

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    Anti-skin aging effect of GX-50
    HOU Xue-feng, SONG Xiao-fei, WANG Zhao-xia, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  145. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.004

    Abstract ( 904 )   PDF (845KB) ( 1150 )  

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of GX-50 against skin aging. Methods GX-50 was applied on the back of mice aged 20 months, and the effect of GX-50 on mouse skin was observed with HE staining and immunohistochemistry. Human skin fibroblasts were primarily cultured, senescent cell model was established by H2O2 induction, and blank control group, DMSO group, GX-50 group, H2O2 group, and GX-50+H2O2 group (pretreatment with GX-50+H2O2 treatment) were divided. The anti-aging effect of GX-50 on primary human skin fibroblasts was examined by SA-βGal staining, as well as determination of secreted malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. The irritation characteristics of GX-50 were detected by Draize eye test. Results The histological observation revealed that the GX-50 treated skin exhibited better appearance and higher collagen content. β-galactosidase in human skin fibroblasts was reduced by GX-50. Compared with blank control group, the secretion of MDA was down-regulated by 30.45% and the fluorescence value of ROS was down-regulated by 8.03% in GX-50 group (P<0.05). Compared with H2O2 group, the secretion of MDA was down-regulated by 61.46% and the fluorescence value of ROS was down-regulated by 8.36% in GX-50+H2O2 group (P<0.05). Draize eye test showed the irritation score of GX-50 was 0. Conclusion GX-50 has protective and anti-aging effect on skin, and may serve as a potential cosmetic additive against skin aging.

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    Effects of chronic postnatal overnutrition-induced maternal obesity on metabolic features in offspring
    CHEN Xiao-yi, LI Ji-bin, YE Ze-hui, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  150. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.005

    Abstract ( 962 )   PDF (461KB) ( 934 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of maternal obesity and high-fat diet on the metabolic features in offspring mice. Methods Female ICR mice with normal body weight (control group, or CTR group) and obese mice induced by chronic postnatal overnutrition (postnatal overnutrition group, or CPO group) were selected to mate with normal male ICR mice of the same age. Male litters in both groups were randomly divided into high-fat diet group (CTR-H group and CPO-H group) and standard chow diet group (CTR-S group and CPO-S group) at the end of breast feeding, and were managed with with high-fat diet and standard chow diet respectively till 5 months of age. The body weight, liver/body weight and abdominal fat/body weight of female mice were measured after breast feeding (21 d). Ten weeks after feeding with different diet, glucose intolerance test of offspring mice was performed, fasting blood glucose and serum insulin were examined, and insulin resistant index (IRI) was calculated. The histological features of abdominal tissues of offspring mice were observed with HE staining, and the areas of adipocytes were compared. Results The body weight, liver/body weight and abdominal fat/body weight of maternal mice in CPO group were significantly higher than those in CTR group (P<0.05). Ten weeks after feeding with different diet, there was impaired glucose tolerance in the offspring mice from CPO group, and that was more severe in CPO-H group. The fasting blood glucose and IRI in CTR-H group and CPO-H group were higher than those in CTR-S group and CPO-S group respectively (P<0.01). The serum insulin in CPO-H group was higher than those in the other groups (P<0.01). The areas of abdominal adipocytes in CTR-H group and CPO-H group were larger than those in CTR-S group and CPO-S group respectively (P<0.01), the area of abdominal adipocytes in CPO-S group was larger than that in CTR-S group (P<0.01), and the area of abdominal adipocytes in CPO-H group was larger than that in CTR-H group (P<0.01). Conclusion Maternal obesity may contribute to the development of obesity and metabolic dysfunctions in their offspring, and the impact may be exacerbated by high-fat diet feeding.

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    Effect of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-EMMPRIN on invasion and migration of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells
    KANG Yu-jun, WANG Chuan, JIANG Zheng, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  155. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.006

    Abstract ( 985 )   PDF (989KB) ( 1021 )  

    Objective To construct the recombinant plasmid encoding human extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), and investigate its expression and effect on invasion and migration of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Methods Total mRNA was extracted from human colon cancer SW-480 cells, EMMPRIN gene was obtained by RT-PCR and cloned into pEGFP-N1 vector, then the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-EMMPRIN was constructed and transfected into human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells by Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of EMMPRIN mRNA and protein in SGC-7901 cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively, and the effect of EMMPRIN on invasion and migration of SGC-7901 cells was determined with Transewell assay. Results The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-EMMPRIN was constructed and expressed in SGC-7901 cells. RT-PCR and Western blotting indicated that the expression of EMMPRIN mRNA and protein in SGC-7901 cells increased after transfection, and Transwell assay revealed that the invasion and migration of SGC-7901 cells were significantly enhanced after transfection. Conclusion EMMPRIN can significantly enhance the invasion and migration of tumor cells.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Clinical study on treatment of IgA nephropathy with renal insufficiency by corticosteroid, corticosteroid combined with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroid combined with mycophenolate mofetil
    WANG Wei-ming, JIA Xiao-yuan, PAN Xiao-xia, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  162. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.007

    Abstract ( 1049 )   PDF (809KB) ( 1212 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of corticosteroid, corticosteroid combined with cyclophosphamide (CTX) and corticosteroid combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) with renal insufficiency. Methods Patients confirmed as primary IgAN by renal biopsy were selected, with chronic renal disease (CKD) of 3-4 stage and moderate renal lesions. Sixty patients were enrolled, and randomly received corticosteroid therapy (corticosteroid group, n=20), corticosteroid combined with CTX therapy (corticosteroid+CTX group, n=20) and corticosteroid combined with MMF therapy (corticosteroid+MMF group, n=20). The 24 h urine protein, renal function parameters and adverse effect were observed during treatment. Results With the time of treatment, 24 h urine protein was gradually reduced in each group, and 24 h urine protein in corticosteroid group and corticosteroid+CTX group 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment and in corticosteroid+MMF group 12 months after treatment was significantly lower than the baseline(P<0.05). The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in corticosteroid+CTX group 6 months after treatment and in corticosteroid+MMF group 3 and 6 months after treatment were significantly higher than the baseline (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between serum creatinine 12 months after treatment and the baseline in each group (P>0.05). Eight patients (8/20) in corticosteroid+MMF group suffered from serious pulmonary infection during treatment for 3 to 4 months, the baseline eGFR of whom was significantly lower than that of patients without serious pulmonary infection in corticosteroid+MMF group (P<0.05). Conclusion Twenty-four hour urine protein can be significantly decreased with corticosteroid therapy, corticosteroid combined with CTX therapy and corticosteroid combined with MMF therapy in patients with IgAN and impaired renal function, and stable renal function can be maintained during treatment. Intensive follow-up should be carried out in the treatment with MMF due to the possibility of occurrence of serious pulmonary infection.

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    Analysis of biochemical reactions of Porphyromonas gingivalis clinical isolates
    ZHOU Yan-bin, LIU Da-li, LI Yun-peng, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  168. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.008

    Abstract ( 1092 )   PDF (409KB) ( 1049 )  

    Objective To detect the biochemical reactions and analyze the carbohydrate metabolism of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) clinical isolates, with type strains as controls. Methods API 20A and ATB Rapid ID 32A biochemical reaction testing systems were used to determine the biochemical metabolic properties of P.gingivalis clinical isolates (SJD2, SJD4, SJD5, SJD11 and SJD12), with type strains (W83 and ATCC 33277) as controls. Results All tested P.gingivalis strains possessed enzymatic activity of β-galactosidase and β-N-Acetyl-glucosaminidase. These strains had capacities to hydrolyse several amino acid residues and free amino acids such as tryptophan and arginine. In addition, there existed heterogeneity in the biochemical reactions among P.gingivalis strains. Furthermore, different bacterial identification results were found between API 20A biochemical reaction testing system and ATB Rapid ID 32A biochemical reaction testing system. Conclusion P.gingivalis may utilize peptides and amino acids as main carbon or nitrogen resources, with the ability of metabolizing carbohydrate. There are differences in biochemical properties among different strains. ATB Rapid ID 32A test system may be more suitable for identification of gram-negative subgingival anaerobes.

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    Clinical value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose dual-head coincidence imaging in metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer with positive Tg and negative 131I scan
    YAO Xiao-qin, WANG Hui, MA Chao, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  174. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.009

    Abstract ( 910 )   PDF (305KB) ( 974 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) dual-head coincidence imaging in metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer with positive thyroglobulin (Tg) and negative 131I scan. Methods Thirty-five patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and positive Tg and negative 131I whole-body scan after thyroidectomy were included. 18F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging was performed in all the patients for the detection of metastatic lesions. The 18F-FDG imaging results were compared with pathological findings or results of continuous follow-up by Tg and other imaging modalities such as B ultrasound, CT and MRI. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive diagnosis value of 18F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and positive Tg and negative 131I scan were obtained. Results Twenty-seven patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer were confirmed by pathological examinations or continuous follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive diagnosis value of 18F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging were 81.5%(22/27), 75.0%(6/8), 80.0%(28/35) and 91.7%(22/24) respectively. 18F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging was well in line with pathological examinations and continuous follow-up in diagnosis of metastatic lesions in differentiated thyroid cancer with positive Tg and negative 131I scan (κ=0.499, P=0.006). Conclusion 18F-FDG dual-head coincidence imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer with positive Tg and negative 131I scan.

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    Efficacy and safety of slow repetitive transcranial magnetive stimulation in treatment of resistant auditory hallucination in elderly patients with schizophrenia
    YUE Ling, LI Guan-jun, WANG Ji-jun, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  177. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.010

    Abstract ( 935 )   PDF (304KB) ( 1119 )  

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of slow repetitive transcranial magnetive stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of resistant auditory hallucination in elderly patients with schizophrenia. Methods Twenty elderly patients with schizophrenia and duration of resistant auditory hallucination no less than one year were selected. On the basis of stable antipsychotic drugs treatment, patients underwent slow rTMS (1 Hz) therapy in left temporoparietal region in two weeks, with 5 times per week. The scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), MiniMental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) before and after treatment were compared. The decrease in score of auditory hallucination for no less than 2 points was defined as effectiveness, and that for less than 2 points was considered as ineffectiveness. The acceptance of rTMS by patients were surveyed with questionnaire 2 weeks after treatment. Results Effectiveness of rTMS therapy in treatment of auditory hallucination was achieved in 7 patients, and ineffectiveness in 13 patients. The total efficiency rate was 45.0% revealed by CGI scoring. All subjects accepted rTMS therapy, and no adverse event occurred. Conclusion It is effective and safe for slow rTMS to treat elderly patients with schizophrenia and resistant auditory hallucination.

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    Analysis of relationship between clinical manifestations and karyotypes in 122 patients with hypospadias
    LV Yong-fen, LI Pin, ZHU Zhi-ying, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  181. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.011

    Abstract ( 1025 )   PDF (229KB) ( 1046 )  

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of other urinogenital system malformations in 122 patients with hypospadias, and analyse its relationship with karyotypes. Methods The clinical data of 122 patients with hypospadias were collected. The occurrence of other urinogenital system malformations was observed in patients with different types and severity of hypospadias. The karyotypes of 73 patients were analysed, and the types of hypospadias and occurrence of other urinogenital system malformations were observed in patients with abnormal chromosome. Results Among the 122 patients with hypospadias, 76 (62.3%) combined with other urinogenital system malformations, including penoscrotal transposition, hydrocele, cryptorchidism, indirect inguinal hernia and multiple deformity. Thirty-nine patients (32.0%) exhibited mild hypospadias, 38 (31.3%) moderate, 35 (28.7%) severe, and 10 (8.2%) had extremely severe hypospadias. The prevalences of other urinogenital system malformations in patients with moderate, severe, and extremely severe hypospadias were 73.7%, 68.6% and 70.0% respectively, all of which were significantly higher than that in patients with mild hypospadias (43.6%)(P<0.05). Four (5.5%) of the 73 patients undergoing karyotype analysis had abnormal chromosome. Conclusion The most common associated anomalies in patients with hypospadias is penoscrotal transposition, and the incidence of other urogenital system malformations is relatively higher in patients with moderate or more severe hypospadias. Abnormal karyotype is not the main factor of hypospadias combined with other malformations.

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    Association of follicular and serum EG-VEGF, VEGF and TGF-β1 levels with ovarian response in women with IVF and their predictive values for pregnancy outcome
    GAO Min-zhi, SUN Zhao-gui, ZHAO Xiao-ming, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  184. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.012

    Abstract ( 929 )   PDF (547KB) ( 821 )  

    Objective To investigate the association of follicular and serum levels of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) with ovarian response in women with in vitro fertilization (IVF), and explore their predictive values for pregnancy outcome. Methods Sixty infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were selected, the follicular levels of EG-VEGF, VEGF and TGF-β1 during oocyte retrieval and the serum levels of EG-VEGF, VEGF and TGF-β1 on day 2 after oocyte retrieval were measured, and their association with ovarian response and pregnancy outcome of IVF were analysed.ResultsThe follicular level of EG-VEGF, serum level of EG-VEGF and follicular level of VEGF were negatively correlated with serum level of estradiol (E2) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (r=-0.622, P<0.01; r=-0.511, P<0.01; r=-0.427, P<0.01). The follicular level of EG-VEGF was positively correlated with follicular level of VEGF (r=0.354, P<0.01). Among the 60 patients, 31 were pregnant, while the other 29 were not. The serum level of E2 on the day of hCG injection in pregnancy group was significantly lower than that in non-pregancy group (P<0.05), and the serum level of EG-VEGF in pregnancy group was significantly higher than that in non-pregancy group (P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in follicular and serum levels of VEGF and TGF-β1 between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Follicular and serum levels of EG-VEGF and follicular level of VEGF are negatively correlated with ovarian response. Serum level of EG-VEGF in the early luteal phase is associated with pregnancy outcome of IVF, which may potentially predict the pregnancy outcome of IVF.

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    Roles of single nucleotide polymorphism and loss of heterozygosity of FGFR4 gene in oncogenesis of gastric carcinoma
    LIU Jia-hua, SHEN Yan-ying, NI Xing-zhi
    2013, 33 (2):  191. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.013

    Abstract ( 979 )   PDF (545KB) ( 1047 )  

    Objective To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) gene in gastric carcinoma, and explore their roles in oncogenesis, progression and prognosis of gastric carcinoma. Methods The SNP of FGFR4 gene exon 6, 9, 13, 16 and 18 of 50 cases of gastric carcinoma was detected. The LOH of rs351855 of coden 388 in FGFR4 gene exon 9 was determined by SNP technique. The correlation of SNP and LOH of FGFR4 gene with clinicopathology of gastric carcinoma and survival of patients was analysed. Results There was somatic mutation of coden 401 (R401C,C>T) in FGFR4 gene exon 9 in 1 case, non-synonymous SNP was detected in 34 cases of gastric carcinoma with the percentages of GG genotype, AG genotype and AA genotype being 32%, 52% and 16% respectively, and the frequency of LOH of rs351855 was 92.31% in 26 case of gastric carcinoma with AG genotype. There was no significant difference in the expression of Arg388 allele and frequency of LOH among different degrees of differentiation, tumor stages, lymph node status, pTNM classification and time of survival (P>0.05). Conclusion High frequency of LOH of rs351855 of coden 388 in FGFR4 gene in patients with gastric carcinoma suggests that there is absence or inactivation of tumor suppressor gene nearby. The expression of Arg388 allele and LOH of rs351855 in FGFR4 gene are not associated with the progression and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.

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    Effects of parecoxib sodium on analgesia after radical mastectomy for breast cancer
    CHU Xiao-ying, XIA Yi-meng, ZHANG Fu-jun, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  196. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.014

    Abstract ( 908 )   PDF (288KB) ( 923 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of administration of parecoxib sodium at different time points on analgesia after modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. Methods Sixty patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer under general anesthesia were selected and divided into four groups, with 15 patients in each group. Group A received 2 mL normal saline during anesthesia induction, group B 40 mg parecoxib sodium during anesthesia induction, group C 40 mg parecoxib sodium at the end of surgery, and group D 40 mg parecoxib sodium both during anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery. Parecoxib sodium was intravenously administered after dilution into 2 mL normal saline in group B, group C and group D. Fentanyl was supplemented to the requirement of patients during analepsia. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were recorded 2, 12 and 24 h after surgery, VAS motion scores and analgesic satisfaction rates were obtained 24 h after surgery, and the occurrence of nausea and vomiting were observed after surgery. Results The VAS scores 2, 12 and 24 h after surgery in group B, group C and group D were significantly lower than those in group A (P<0.01), and the VAS scores 12 h after surgery in group B and group D were significantly lower than those in group C (P<0.05). The VAS motion scores 24 h after surgery in group B, group C and group D were significantly lower than that in group A (P<0.01), and the VAS motion score 24 h after surgery in group B was significantly higher than that in group D (P<0.05). The analgesic satisfaction rates 24 h after surgery in group B, group C and group D were higher than that in group A. The prevalences of nausea and vomiting 12 and 24 h after surgery in group B, group C and group D were lower than those in group A. Conclusion Parecoxib sodium plays a role in preemptive analgesia for patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, which may improve postoperative pain control and analgesic satisfaction rate and reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Administration of parecoxib sodium both during anesthesia induction and at the end of the surgery may yield better results.

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    Pathological characteristics and differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumor in children
    XU Ke-chun, GUAN Wen-bin, XU Yan-chun, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  200. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.015

    Abstract ( 1265 )   PDF (760KB) ( 1327 )  

    Objective To investigate the pathological features of yolk sac tumor(YST) in children, determine the immunohistochemical characteristics and their role in pathological diagnosis of YST, and discuss the differential diagnosis of YST. Methods The clinical data of 21 cases of YST were retrospectively summarized, among which 8 were concerned with gonad, and the other 13 nongonad. The characteristics of histology and immunohistochemical staining were observed. Results There were various pathological organizations for YST. There was micro capsule and reticular structure in 17 cases, embryo sinus structure in 16 cases, gland tube-gland bubble structure in 10 cases, papillary structure in 8 cases, giant cystic structure in 3 cases, intestinal type structure in 3 cases, polycystic bubble yolk sac sample structure in 2 cases and mucus tumor sample structure in 1 case. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the positive expression rate of alphafetoprotein (AFP) was 95.24% (20/21), that of cytokeratin (CK) was 100% (21/21), and that of vimentin (Vim) was 76.19% (16/21). Conclusion Besides gonad (testis and ovary), YST in children can also involve non-gonad parts such as sacroiliac region, abdominopelvic cavity, cerebellum and soft tissues. The histological features of YST are diverse, which are characterized by the common structures such as micro capsule and reticular structure, inner embryo sinus structure, gland tube-gland bubble structure and papillary structure and rare structures such as giant cystic structure, intestinal type structure, mucus tumor sample structure and polycystic bubble yolk sac sample structure. Histomorphological characteristics and immunohistochemical findings may help to determine the pathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of YST.

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    Original article (Preventive medicine)
    Hepatitis B prediction model based on Google trends
    YANG Yan-hong, ZENG Qing, ZHAO Han, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  204. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.016

    Abstract ( 889 )   PDF (795KB) ( 1076 )  

    Objective To investigate the feasibility to predict hepatitis B with the state space model in combination of Google trends. Methods SAS 9.13 software was used for data analysis and modeling. The state space model was established with the data of actual incidence of hepatitis B in Chongqing and those from Google trends between January 2, 2005 and December 26, 2010, and the data of actual incidence of hepatitis B between January 2, 2011 and June 19, 2011 was used for model validation. Results The state space model in combination with Google trends was useful to predict the prevalence of hepatitis B in Chongqing. The mean relative error for predictive value and actual value was 7.44%, which indicated a favorable prediction result. Conclusion It is feasible to predict hepatitis B in combination with data from network based searching.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Validity and reliability analysis of IMB based questionnaire on reproductive health among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai
    WANG Ying, MA Jin, WANG Jin, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  209. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.017

    Abstract ( 1017 )   PDF (453KB) ( 898 )  

    Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of the IMB based questionnaire for reproductive health among unmarried rural-urban female migrants, and assess the application of the questionnaire in the target population in Shanghai. Methods Convenience sampling was adopted, and 944 unmarried rural-urban female migrants were selected from the examination centers for migrant workers in three districts of Shanghai to fill out the questionnaire for reproductive health. The questionnaire included basic personal information, knowledge, attitude, behaviors and demands of participants on reproductive health. The content validity was evaluated by experts discussion, the constructive validity was assessed by factor analysis, and the internal reliability was determined by calculating reliability coefficients. The test-retest reliability was measured with the same questionnaire among 40 participants at the interval of 2 weeks. Results All Cronbach´s alpha coefficients ranged between 0.313 and 0.824. Information of reproductive health and attitude towards regular sex partner were two internal reliability scales of the highest scores. The spearman correlation coefficients were larger than 0.5, which showed fine test-retest reliability (P<0.05). Four factors explained 78.66% of the questionnaire by using factor analysis, and all factors could be regarded as information, motives, behavior techniques, and preventive action about reproductive health. Conclusion Overall the designed IMB based questionnaire can be applied to assess reproductive health among unmarried rural-urban female migrants with good reliability and validity, but relative scales of self-efficacy should be revised to accommodate the research about reproductive health of the population.

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    Effect of different health coverage on hospital expenditure of patients with acute myocardial infarction
    YUAN Su-wei, LI Na, ZHANG Yun-ting, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  214. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.018

    Abstract ( 893 )   PDF (420KB) ( 1023 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect of different health coverage on hospital expenditure of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and evaluate the effect of health insurance policy on control of hospital expenditure of patients with AMI in Shanghai. Methods The medical record home page information and health insurance payment information of 1 869 patients with AMI admitted to one tertiary comprehensive hospital in Shanghai between January 2007 and August 2012 were collected. With the reimbursement ratio as independent variable, total cost as dependent variable and the other related factors as controlled variables, univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis were performed. Meanwhile, these patients were divided into two groups according to the time of change of health insurance policy, and the cost control effect after policy change was evaluated by rank correlation analysis. Results Insurance coverage was a main influencing factor of hospital expenditure, and the increase of reimbursement ratio led to the decrease of hospital expenditure in patients with AMI. The reimbursement ratio increased every 1%, the total hospital expenditure decreased 23.80 yuan, and the total hospital expenditure of patients treated with cardiac intervention decreased 30.13 yuan. The change of health insurance policy significantly released the economic burden on patients with AMI (P<0.000 1), but had no significant effect on total medical cost (P=0.087 4). Conclusion Compared with insurance type, the imbursement ratio is a more precise and sensitive variable to measure hospital expenditure. The government should properly adjust the reimbursement ratio, guide residents toward more rational medical consumption, and actively put forward payment reform.

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    Feasibility study on self-designed evaluation system for schools of public health in China
    ZHANG Zhe, MA Si-yu, TAO Jing-jing, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  220. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.019

    Abstract ( 782 )   PDF (346KB) ( 822 )  

    Objective To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of self-designed indicator system for evaluation of schools of public health in China, and investigate the current development status of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health. Methods Six second-grade evaluation indicators were selected from the self-designed evaluation system for schools of public health in China, and two times of ranking were carried out among 12 domestic schools of public health including Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health. The differences between Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health and the other schools of public health were especially analysed. Comparison was made on the published data among 10 schools of public health for the first time of ranking, and comparison was made on the data of 2011 provided by each school among 5 schools of public health for the second time of ranking. The current development status of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health was analysed with SWOT method. Results Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health ranked seventh and third respectively in the first time and second time of ranking. Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health enjoyed priority in “introduction of advanced talents” and “employment rate of undergraduates”, but lagged behind in “percentage of professors and associate professors” and “percentage of faculties with doctor´s degree”. Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health gained more support from Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Shanghai government, while also faced increasing competition with the other schools of public health. Conclusion The selfdesigned evaluation system for schools of public health in China has definite feasibility and effectiveness, which is able to reflect and assess the actual development level of schools of public health in China. Compared with the prominent domestic schools of public heath, there is room for improvement for Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health. Effective measures should be taken to strengthen the development of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health both comprehensively and specifically.

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    Review
    GPER: a novel target in treatment of estrogen-related diseases
    WANG Jie, Haji Akber AISA, MA Hai-rong, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  225. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.020

    Abstract ( 4170 )   PDF (492KB) ( 1007 )  

    G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) is a novel receptor, which belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, to many of the rapid biological responses to estrogen. Different from the two classical nuclear estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, GPER modulates both rapid non-genomic reaction and genomic transcriptional events of estrogen. In this regard, GPER may be considered as a valuable target toward novel therapeutic strategy for many estrogen-related diseases. The intrinsic appearance of GPER, including structure, subcellular localization, ligands, signal transduction pathway and relationship with diseases is reviewed in this paper.

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    Impact of atypical antipsychotics on adiponectin
    YANG Lin, CHEN Jian-hua, XU Yi-feng
    2013, 33 (2):  231. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.021

    Abstract ( 867 )   PDF (283KB) ( 1091 )  

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) may be caused by atypical antipsychotics (AAPs), and the possible mechanisms have not been fully revealed. Adipocytes regulate energy metabolism through release of adipocytokines. Studies have demonstrated that the impact of AAPs on adipokines is one of the potential mechanisms of drug-induced MS, and adiponectin is an important adipocytokine closely related to MS. The association between AAPs-induced MS and adiponectin is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in treatment of immunological diseases
    GONG Fei-xiang, WANG Yang, DENG Zhi-feng
    2013, 33 (2):  235. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.022

    Abstract ( 876 )   PDF (469KB) ( 953 )  

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a subset of adult stem cells, possess multilineage differentiation potential and low immunogenicity. MSCs can promote angiogenesis, cell replacement therapy and neuroprotection. It has also been revealed that MSCs have immunomodulatory properties: inhibition of T cell proliferation, suppression of B cell proliferation and differentiation, modulation of natural killer cell activity and influencing dendritic cell maturation and function. Recent studies have demonstrated that transplantation of MSCs can effectively treat immunological diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The research progress of transplantation of MSCs in treatment of immunological diseases is reviewed in this paper.

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    Revelation of public health education in USA
    MA Si-yu, ZHANG Zhe, TAO Jing-jing, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  240. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.023

    Abstract ( 1110 )   PDF (359KB) ( 1327 )  

    The related literatures on public health education of USA are systematically retrieved, and the websites of relevant schools of public health in USA are extensively visited. It is revealed that there are 46 schools of public health in USA which are accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) in USA, forming a relatively complete discipline system, and the number of new enrollment students is 11 205 in 2010. The accreditation system of public health education in USA not only guarantees the quality of public health education, but also standardizes the core courses of public health education, which include biostatistics, epidemiology, environmental health science, health services administration, and social and behavioral sciences. There are some aspects for China to learn from the American public health education: to establish an accreditation system for schools of public health in China, to regulate core courses and refine degree programs, and at the same time to encourage development of special and prominent features from each school.

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    Research progress of radionuclide molecular imaging in pancreatic beta cells
    LIU Shuai, ZHANG Yi-fan
    2013, 33 (2):  245. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.024

    Abstract ( 857 )   PDF (281KB) ( 1093 )  

    Diabetes is a common disease that poses great threat to human health. At present, insulin replacement therapy remains the main treatment. In recent years, pancreatic beta cell transplantation has demonstrated potential prospect in treatment of type 1 diabetes, however, it is an important issue in clinical application on the non-invasive monitoring of in vivo pancreatic beta cell transplantation. Radionuclide molecular imaging technology, which has been developing rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity, has been widely applied in monitoring pancreatic beta cell transplantation, and has demonstrated favorable prospect in application.

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    Technique and method
    Culture and identification of primary neurons isolated from embryonic ICR mice
    CHEN Xue-song, MA Ji, XUE Yan, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  249. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.025

    Abstract ( 1088 )   PDF (453KB) ( 1055 )  

    Objective To establish a favorable primary culture technique for neurons isolated from embryonic ICR mouse cortical tissues. Methods The cortex of embryonic ICR mice aged 13.5 d was isolated, mechanically dissected and digested, and was proceeded to culture. The morphology of neurons was observed, and PCR and Western blotting were applied to identify the expression of Tuj1 and Map2 gene and protein in neurons. Results Cells grew well, with distinct cell body and surrounding bright halation, and there was typical nerve fiber network of synapses. The isolated and cultured cells were confirmed as neurons by PCR and Western blotting. Conclusion This technique is an easy and practical tool for the primary culture of embryonic ICR mouse cortical neurons with high purity.

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    Case report
    Three cases report of connective tissue disease complicated with knee joint bone infarction
    ZHENG Gui-min, WANG Lei, JIA Xiu-chuan, et al
    2013, 33 (2):  253. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.02.026

    Abstract ( 772 )   PDF (772KB) ( 1120 )  

    Bone infarction is often found in patients with connective tissue disease due to long-term application of large amount of corticosteroids. For these patients, bone infarction more commonly occurs in hip joints rather than in knee joints. Aching joints and arthritis are routine presentations of connective tissue disease, which may easily result in the misdiagnosis of bone infarction in knee joints. Likewise, bone infarction may hinder the tracking of the development of connective tissue disease. The clinical manifestations, immunological characteristics and course of diagnosis and treatment of 3 cases of connective tissue disease complicated with bone infarction are retrospectively described in this paper. All are females, 2 of whom suffers from systemic lupus erythematosus, and the other Sjogren´s syndrome. All of them are treated with corticosteroids and immunodepressants in a long term, exhibit Raynaud´s phenomenon, and are complicated with multiple or single bone infarction. Management of anti-osteoporosis, blood circulation activation and bone metabolism promotion yields definite effect, and magnetic resonance imaging has a high value in diagnosis. A clinical comprehensive analysis on the basis of symptoms, laboratory results and imaging findings should be carried out to avoid the misdiagnosis.

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