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    Expert forum
    Histone modification and glioma tumorigenesis
    FENG Hai-zhong
    2018, 38 (1):  1. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.001

    Abstract ( 689 )   PDF (3942KB) ( 897 )  
    Although epigenetic regulation of histone modification has attracted more and more attention, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The
    present review introduces the role of acetylated H3 lysine 23 (H3K23ac) in glioma tumorigenesis, and demonstrates a new mechanism by which H3K23ac
    regulates gliomagenesis, which may provide novel approaches to glioma treatment.
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    Original article (Basic research)
    Retrospective analysis of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF gene mutations and clinicopathological features in patients with colorectal cancer
    2018, 38 (1):  4. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.002

    Abstract ( 1291 )   PDF (7620KB) ( 866 )  
    Objective · To study the correlation between KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations and the clinicopathological features in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods · The 461 paraffin-embedded CRC tissues were collected. The mutations in hotspot region of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes were investigated using amplification refractory mutation system. The relationship between the mutation rates of each gene and the clinicopathological characteristics in CRC patients were analyzed. The KRAS and BRAF mutation profile and the impact on promoter methylation of the downstream genes were further investigated in both CRC tissues and cell lines through literatures and the American Type Culture Collection. Results · KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutation rates in CRC tissues were 44.0%, 6.1% and 5.2%, respectively. KRAS mutations in the right colon were remarkably higher than the left colon (P=0.000). NRAS mutations were more likely to occur in male patients than female patients (P=0.002). BRAF mutation was closely correlated with age, tumor differentiation, tumor location and nerve invasion, but was exclusive of 203 KRAS mutated samples. Conclusion · KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations were significantly correlated with the clinicopathological features of CRC, and the mutation incompatibility was observed between KRAS and BRAF genes.
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    Flow cytometry detection of cellular redox status with genetically encoded fluorescent probe
    TIAN Ye, LIU Ao, DONG Rui, QI Xing, YI Jing, YANG Jie
    2018, 38 (1):  10. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.003 [

    Abstract ( 621 )   PDF (10617KB) ( 854 )  
    Objective · To test the application of flow cytometry technique to detect the redox status with genetically encoded fluorescent probe roGFP2, to
    compare it with laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), and to demonstrate the diversity of cellular redox status in HeLa and Panc-1 cell populations.
    Methods · Time lapse imaging with LSCM was performed in single cell transfected with roGFP2 probe to detect the dynamic changes of 405 nm/488 nm
    ratio (405/488 ratio). Flowcytometry technique was also performed in HeLa cells transfected with roGFP2 probe to detect the dynamic alterations of
    405/488 ratio. The global cell population was analyzed and the subpopulations of different redox status were dissected. Flowcytometry technique was
    further applied in Panc-1 cells with different CD24 or CD44 marker to detect the dynamic alterations of 405/488 ratio of roGFP2 and identify the different
    redox status. Results · Time lapse imaging with LSCM showed that 405/488 ratio of roGFP2 dramatically changed in response to H2O2 in dose and time
    dependent manner at a single cell level. When dozens of cells were chosen, the average ratio showed increased and dynamic trend. Compared to LSCM,
    flow cytometry could detect the average of 405/488 ratio of roGFP2 as well. Meanwhile, with the application of flow cytometry the cell population can be
    divided into three subpopulations based on 405/488 ratios, most in oxidized and medium redox status, few in reduced status. Using flow cytometry, CD24+/
    CD44+ Panc-1 cells, pancreatic cancer stem cells, can be found to have overall lower 405/488 ratio and more percentage of subpopulation of reduced status under resting and stress condition. Conclusion · Flow cytometry technique can be applied to detect roGFP2 and has advantage in application to show the overall as well as diverse redox status in cell population. Flow cytometry detection of cellular redox status with genetically encoded probe can be a useful
    tool in tumor cell biology and developmental biology research.
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    Function of OTUD7B in acute myeloid leukemia cells and its mechanism
    GONG Xiu-feng, WU Ying-li, ZHAO Qian, LEI Hu
    2018, 38 (1):  18. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.004

    Abstract ( 687 )   PDF (7691KB) ( 697 )  
    Objective · To investigate the biological effect and mechanism of OTUD7B in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Methods · The expression
    of OTUD7B in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells of AML patients were detected. The relationship between OTUD7B
    and survival of AML patients was confirmed by using TCGA database. Mouse model of M2 type AML was established, and the expression of OTUD7B in
    the bone marrow, spleen and liver of the mice was detected. OTUD7B was overexpressed in AML cell lines HL60 and kasumi1, then the cell viability and
    cell cycle were measured. The AKT/mTOR pathway proteins were detected after OTUD7B overexpressed and then the cell growth inhibition was detected
    after overexpression of AKT1. Results · The expression of OTUD7B was lower in primary leukemia cells from all types of AML patients and in the bone
    marrow, liver and spleen of M2 type AML mice, which was closely related to the survival time of AML patients. OTUD7B overexpression in HL60 and
    kasumi1 cells significantly inhibited the cell viability and decreased the percentage of S phase cells. OTUD7B significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of
    AKT and mTOR, and AKT1 overexpression partially reversed the inhibitory effect of OTUD7B on cell growth. Conclusion · OTUD7B expression is low in
    primary leukemia cells from AML patients and in bone marrow, liver and spleen of the M2 type AML mice. The survival time of patients with low OTUD7B
    expression is shorter. Overexpression of OTUD7B significantly inhibited the cell viability of HL60 and kasumi1 cells and the entry of cells into S phase. The
    inhibitory effect of OTUD7B overexpression on AML cells might be related to the inhibition of AKT / mTOR signaling pathway.
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    Effect of sumoylation on the structure and activity of human thymine DNA glycosylase
    FU Tian-ran, ZHANG Liang
    2018, 38 (1):  24. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.005

    Abstract ( 739 )   PDF (7526KB) ( 820 )  
    Objective · To study the effect of sumoylation on the structure, stability and activity of human thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG).
    Methods · Expression and purification systems were established for obtaining SUMO-1-TDG protein with high purity which can be used for crystal
    screening and activity detection. Structure of SUMO-1-TDG was solved after crystal screening, diffraction data collection and structure analysis. The
    change of TDG stability led by sumoylation was detected through a protein thermal shift assay. In addition, an activity assay was applied to investigate the
    effect of sumoylation on the activity of TDG. Results · A high-resolution structure of SUMO-1-TDG which could clearly describe the interaction between
    TDG and SUMO-1 was solved. The melting temperature (Tm) value of SUMO-1-TDG increased by about 16 ℃ and the catalytic activity increased by 9.70%,
    comparing with TDG protein. Conclusion · SUMO-1 binds to TDG to modify the intermolecular interaction of amino acids near the binding site, and
    further participates in the regulation of the stability and catalytic activity of TDG protein.
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    Preliminary screening and study of novel flavonoid monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors
    MA Jia-hui, YANG Ruo-lin, SHEN Zheng-wu#, LIU Jian-hua#
    2018, 38 (1):  30. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.006

    Abstract ( 646 )   PDF (5553KB) ( 943 )  
    Objective · To discover and develop novel monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors. Methods · Computational screening, rational structure analysis and biological assessment was used. Results · A series of natural flavonoid MAGL inhibitors were identified. Compound 9 (quercetin) presented the highest activity with an IC50 value of 36 μmol/L. Conclusion · Several natural flavonoid MAGL inhibitors were identified, which are expected to bring novel hits for discovery of MAGL inhibitors.
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    Evaluation of anti-tuberculosis effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis polyphosphate kinase 2 aptamer
    YANG Yang, LI Dai-rong, LI You-lun, CHEN Yu-han, WAN Qiu, LIU Jing-shu
    2018, 38 (1):  36. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.007

    Abstract ( 531 )   PDF (7602KB) ( 645 )  
    Objective · To investigate the bacteriostasis effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) polyphosphate kinase 2 (PPK2) aptamer on MTB
    in vitro. Methods · The bioinformatics method was used to analyze the homology of MTB PPK2 and common pathogens of respiratory tract, and the
    PPK2 phylogenetic tree was constructed. The binding affinity of the PPK2 aptamer to H37Rv, BCG, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    and Acinetobacter baumannii was analyzed by enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). The PPK2 aptamer was incubated for 24 h in serum
    and its biological stability in serum was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the PPK2 aptamer to
    H37Rv was determined by micro-azure method. H37Rv was inoculated with 1 μmol/L PPK2 aptamer or random sequence on Roche culture medium for
    10 d and colony growth status was observed. H37Rv was co-cultured with different concentrations of PPK2 aptamer for 10 d, absorbance at 600 nm was
    measured by microplate reader. The effect of PPK2 aptamer on the growth of H37Rv was observed. Results · PPK2 phylogenetic tree constructed by
    bioinformatics analysis showed that PPK2 protein of H37Rv was not closely related to the common pathogens of respiratory tract, and it was relatively
    close to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ELONA assay results showed that the PPK2 aptamer binded selectively to H37Rv. Agarose gel electrophoresis
    analysis showed PPK2 aptamer in serum was at least stable for 8 h. The MIC of the PPK2 aptamer to H37Rv was 50 nmol/L. The colony growth of Roche
    culture showed that PPK2 aptamer had an inhibitory effect on H37Rv growth. Growth inhibition test showed that the absorbance at 600 nm of H37Rv
    showed a decreasing trend with the increase of PPK2 aptamer concentration, which indicated that PPK2 aptamer had an inhibitory effect on H37Rv growth.
    Conclusion · PPK2 aptamer has good antibacterial activity against H37Rv in vitro.
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    Effect of gold nanoparticle on autophagy flux and exosome secretion of mesenchymal stem cells
    YAN Chun1, MA Yu-jie2, XIE Wei-yue1, YANG Qing-yuan3, SUN Feng-yong3, YANG Zhi2, XUE Song1, LIAN Feng1
    2018, 38 (1):  42. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.008

    Abstract ( 691 )   PDF (6545KB) ( 910 )  
    Objective · To investigate the effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on exosome secretion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via blocking
    autophagy flux. Methods · Rat derived MSCs were treated with AuNPs (0, 15, 30, 90, 150 μg/mL), and the cell proliferation was detected with CCK-8
    assay to evaluate the cytotoxicity of AuNPs. Then, MSCs were divided into normal control group, AuNPs group (20 μg/mL AuNPs for 72 h) and positive
    control group (5 μmol/L chloroquine for 4 h). Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of MSCs, and exosomes were
    extracted by ultracentrifugation and tested with nanoparticle analyzer and scan electron microscopy. The autophagy was observed by confocal microscopy
    and verified by Western blotting. Results · Low concentrations of AuNPs (0 to 30 μg/mL) slightly affected the cell proliferation. MSCs of AuNPs group
    secreted more abundant and smaller exosomes than those of control group, and expressed significantly more LC3 and p62 (both P<0.05). Autophagosomes in AuNPs group were increased and fusion of lysosomes and autophagosomes was blocked. Conclusion · AuNPs block the autophagy flux and regulates the secretion of exosomes.
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    Effects of GLP-1 analogues on kidney function and kidney ultrastructure in type 2 diabetic rats
    SUI Chun-hua, LU Ying-li, GUO Yu-yu
    2018, 38 (1):  48. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.015

    Abstract ( 568 )   PDF (6293KB) ( 957 )  
    Objective · To study the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) analogues on kidney function and kidney ultrastructure in type 2 diabetic
    rats. Methods · Twenty-eight SPF level male SD rats were randomly divided into control groups (normal control group and diabetic control group) and
    GLP-1 analogues Exenatide intervention groups(normal intervention group and diabetic intervention group). The effects of Exenatide intervention
    on glucose, lipid metabolism, kidney function and kidney ultrastructure were observed. Results · Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin sensitivity
    index, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, 24-hours microalbuminuria, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen of Exenatide intervention group were
    much better than those of corresponding control groups. Through electron microscopy, glomerular mesangial cell in diabetic control group proliferated,
    basement membrane thickened, while glomerular mesangial cell in diabetic intervention group did not proliferate, basement membrane mildly thickened.
    Conclusion · GLP-1 analogues can improve kidney function of diabetic rats. Maybe it is connected with improving kidney ultrastructure.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Expression of MTA2 in endometrial carcinomas and its correlation with clinicopathological features
    GAO Ling-tong, LIU Wei
    2018, 38 (1):  52. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.009

    Abstract ( 573 )   PDF (6082KB) ( 801 )  
    Objective · To explore the expression of MTA2 in endometrial carcinomas and its correlation with clinicopathological features.
    Methods · The GCBI database was used to analyse the MTA2 expression in most cancers. Immunohistochemical staining of MTA2, p53, ER, PR and Ki-
    67 was performed in 119 endometrial carcinomas tissues and 21 corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic endometria. And the correlation between MTA2
    expression and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated as well as the correlation between MTA2 expression and the expression of ER, PR, p53
    or Ki-67. Results · The expression of MTA2 was up-regulated in most of the tumors including endometrial carcinomas in GCBI database. MTA2 was
    overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma compared with the adjacent normal tissues (P=0.000),and the expression level was related to tumor grade
    (χ2=8.072, P=0.018) and Ki-67 expression (r=0.227, P=0.013). Conclusion · MTA2 may act as an oncogene in endometrial carcinomas, and it is a promising target for diagnosis and treatment of endometrial carcinomas.
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    Psychotherapy relationship in group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder
    LU Lu, ZHANG Tian-ran, FAN Qing#, ZHANG Hai-yin#
    2018, 38 (1):  57. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.010

    Abstract ( 722 )   PDF (10133KB) ( 603 )  
    Objective · To explore the performance characteristics of the psychotherapy relationship in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy between the
    psychotherapists and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and the strategies to promote the curative effect in mindfulness-based cognitive
    therapy. Methods · Three psychotherapists in Shanghai Mental Health Center and two groups of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for OCD groups
    (a total of 11 people who completed treatment and 2 people dropped off) were selected. All the patients had mild to moderate OCD. The transcripts were
    transcribed into verbatim and coded using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results · The psychotherapy relationship in subjective experience
    of patients with OCD showed warm emotional support, professional authority and individual requirements. The psychotherapy relationship in subjective
    experience of the therapist was manifested as equal companion, relatively mild and fuzzy distance. Strategies to promote efficacy from a therapeutic
    relationship perspective was profession to trust (especially for example), to promote emotional experience and to accept disappointment and negative
    emotions. Conclusion · Increasing the use of effective strategies can promote the establishment and positive development of therapeutic relationship
    in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for OCD and promote the effectiveness of treatment.
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    Seasonality of post-traumatic wound and surgery site infection: a retrospective study of orthopedic infections
    HU Qing-xiang1*, QI Wen-xiao1*, TANG Jin2#, HE Yao-hua1#
    2018, 38 (1):  63. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.011

    Abstract ( 708 )   PDF (5911KB) ( 758 )  
    Objective · To examine the seasonality of post-traumatic wound infection (PWI) and surgery site infection (SSI) from the perspectives of
    occurrence and microbiological distribution. Methods · The cumulative incidences of PWI and SSI in different seasons were respectively calculated
    and compared in a cohort of 2 177 patients who sustained open-wounded injuries in the upper or lower extremity and a cohort of 11 809 patients
    receiving selective orthopedic operation from 2013 to 2015 in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital. Multifactorial linear regression was used to measure the
    influence of meteorological parameters on PWI incidence. Moreover, the microbiological distribution of PWI and SSI was analyzed on a seasonal basis.
    Results · The incidence of PWI in the patients was 2.20% from 2013 to 2015, and there were significant seasonal patterns (1.04% in spring, 3.52% in
    summer, 3.10% in autumn, 0.71% in winter, P=0.004). The incidence of SSI was 0.21%, and there was no seasonal difference (P=0.809). Only average
    temperature (P=0.002, β=0.016) was correlated with the occurrence of PWI in multifactorial linear regression analysis. Microbiological analysis revealed
    the dominance of Gram-negative bacteria in SSI cases during the summer and autumn (P=0.021). However, this trend was not observed in PWI cases
    (P=0.694). Conclusion · There is a seasonal pattern in PWI occurrence with peaks in summer and autumn, which is correlated with temperature. There is
    no seasonal difference in SSI incidence, but SSI cases were dominantly infected by Gram-negative bacteria in summer and autumn.
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    Clinical observation on perfusion index for detection of noxious stimuli in pediatric patients under#br# general anesthesia
    LIU Pei-pei, ZHENG Ji-jian, BAI Jie, ZHANG Ma-zhong, SUN Ying
    2018, 38 (1):  67. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.012

    Abstract ( 559 )   PDF (5692KB) ( 699 )  
    Objective · To observe the changes of perfusion index (PI), bispectral index (BIS), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and
    respiratory rate (RR) under pulling stimuli in children undergoing open inguinal hernia repairs with spontaneous ventilation, so as to evaluate the clinical
    value of PI in monitoring the stress response. Methods · Thirty children undergoing selective open inguinal hernia repairs with American Society of
    Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II were recruited. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl and propofol, and was maintained with sevoflurane
    after the insertion of laryngeal mask. The PI, BIS, HR, SBP and RR were observed at the following time points: before induction of anesthesia (T0),
    before pulling hernia sac (T1), at the time point of pulling hernia sac (T2), 1 min after pulling hernia sac (T3) and 5 min after pulling hernia sac (T4).
    Results · Compared with the baseline level at T0, the PI value at T1, T3 and T4 increased significantly (P=0.000, P=0.033 and P=0.000, respectively).
    The BIS, HR and SBP values at T1-T4 were significantly lower than baseline levels at T0 (all P=0.000). The PI values at T2 and T3 reduced significantly
    compared with T1. The HR value at T2 was significantly higher than that of T1 (P=0.033). Compared with the SBP values at T1, the SBP values at T3 and T4
    were significantly higher (P=0.000 and P=0.011, respectively). And the RR values at T2 and T3 were higher than that at T1 (both P=0.000). The proportion
    of children with positive stress response based on PI was significantly higher than that based on other variables (all P=0.000). Conclusion · Perfusion
    index can reflect the noxious stimuli of the pulling hernia sac effectively and immediately.
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    Comparison of real-time quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing for detection of female vaginal microbiome
    ZHANG Ning1, 2, HAN Yang1, 2, LUO Fei3, ZHU Li-hong4, QIN Jin-hong2, JIANG Yan1
    2018, 38 (1):  71. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.013

    Abstract ( 691 )   PDF (6086KB) ( 853 )  
    Objective · To compare the differences in the composition of female vaginal flora by real-time quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing.
    Methods · Forty-nine healthy reproductive women less than 45 years old were selected. Specimens were collected from posterior fornix. DNA were
    extracted and the microbiome were ananlyzed by both 16S rDNA V1V2 region sequencing and qPCR of 22 selected genes. The results detected by two
    methods were compared. Results · According to the classification standard of vaginal community state type (CSTs), qPCR analysis showed that 35 out
    of 49 samples were dominated by Lactobacillus species, among them, type Ⅰ (Lactobacillus crispatus, 9 ), type Ⅲ (Lactobacillus iners, 24), type Ⅳ (no
    Lactobacillus as the dominant bacteria, 12), type Ⅴ (Lactobacillus jensenii, 2). 16S rDNA V1V2 region sequence analysis showed that of the 49 samples, 13 belonged to type Ⅰ , type Ⅱ (1), type Ⅲ (23), type Ⅳ (8), type Ⅴ (2). Two methods of vaginal flora classification were consistent for 38 cases, consistent rate was 77.6%. Conclusion · Two methods analysis of vaginal flora showed the different results. If qPCR was used to classify the vaginal microbiome, it was necessary to consider the influence of relevant technical factors on the results.
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    Electroconvulsive treatment for geriatric depression: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials
    SU Liang1, 2, SHI Shen-xun1, 2, LU Zheng1, 3, JIA Yu-ping1, LIANG Shi-qiao1, XU Yi-feng1
    2018, 38 (1):  76. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.014

    Abstract ( 657 )   PDF (6547KB) ( 739 )  
    Objective · To explore the clinical effectiveness and safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in elderly patients with depression.
    Methods · Searches were made in PubMed, EMBase, Web of Knowledge, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBMDisc databases and etc. CONSORT (Consolidated
    Standards of Reporting Trials) statement were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. RevMan and STATA were used to do meta analysis.Results · Ten studies were included in this systematic review. The studies which used Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD, n=5) and MontgomeryÅsberg depression rating scale (MADRS, n=3) to access depressed symptom were analyzed. Sample size was 306 and 290 before and after treatment, respectively. The depressive symptoms were significantly improved after ECT treatment estimated by either HAMD (Z=6.39, SMD=3.64, P=0.000) or MADRS (Z=15.47, SMD=2.12, P=0.000). There was no difference of Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) scores before and after the treatment
    (Z=1.47, P=0.140). The incidence of adverse events of headache, confusion, drowsiness, nausea and vomiting was more than 5%. Conclusion · Depressed
    symptoms are significantly improved in geriatric depression after ECT. The overall cognitive impairment is not obvious, but headache and disturbance of
    consciousness are common.
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    Efficiency and safety of milk feeding rescue for failed chloral hydrate sedation in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease#br#
    LI Bo, DAN Ying-zhi, ZHANG Kan, JIN Li-hong, CHEN Yi-qi
    2018, 38 (1):  81. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.016

    Abstract ( 605 )   PDF (5944KB) ( 783 )  
     Objective · To evaluate the efficiency and safety of milk feeding to rescue failed chloral hydrate sedation in infants with cyanotic congenital  heart disease who underwent transthoracic echocardiography.  Methods · Clinical data of the infants with known cyanotic congenital heart disease were retrospectively analyzed, who were not adequately sedated after initial dose of chloral hydrate in 2015 in Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Vital signs and oxygen saturations were recorded every 5 minutes, and adverse events were noted. For rescue,  efficiency and safety of milk feeding were compared with phenobarbital intramuscular injection.  Results · A total of 129 infants were enrolled in this study. Fifty-two infants were rescued by intramuscular phenobarbital and the other 77 ones were rescued by milk feeding. The proportion of infants  successfully rescued by milk feeding was 55.8%, which was higher than that of intramuscular phenobarbital (30.8%, P=0.005). There was no statistical difference in incidence of adverse events between the two groups (P=0.565).  Conclusion · Milk feeding is an effective and safe choice for rescue sedation for infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing transthoracic echocardiography.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Occipitocervical fusion and fixation in malformation of craniocervical junction surgery#br#
    GAO Wei-zhen, CUI Hua, JIA Feng, WANG Yong, BAO Ying-hui, ZHANG Xiao-hua, QIAN Lie, YIN Yu-hua
    2018, 38 (1):  85. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.017

    Abstract ( 612 )   PDF (5670KB) ( 843 )  
    Objective · To study the application of occipitocervical fusion and fixation in malformation of craniocervical junction surgery.   Methods · Thirty-six consecutive patients with craniocervical junction malformation were decompressed under evoked-potential monitoring. Sixteen  patients were treated with posterior occipitocervical fusion and fixation using Vertex screw-hook system, and 11 using Vertex screw-rod system, other  patients using Mountaineer OCT spinal system. All patients were followed up for 2 to 12 years (mean 7 years). The recovery rate was analysed based  on the scoring system of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA).  Results · All the patients were followed up. A stable bony fusion according to  radiological criteria was achieved in all cases. There was no implant broken and dislocation. The improvement rate according to JOA scoring system  were evaluated. Twenty-four cases (66.7%) got cured; 4 cases (11.1%) had remarkable effects; 8 cases (22.2%) were effective; none was ineffective.   Conclusion · Occipitocervical stabilizations hope to be restored through occipitocervical fusion and fixation. Good results can be obtained in most patients  with complete radiological data, proper surgery indication, suitable surgical modality and internal fixation materials.
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    Original article (Public health)
    Impact factors of glycemic control in patients with short-term history type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pujiang community in Shanghai#br#
    LI Zhi-yong1, LIU Yu2, HUANG Wei1, LING Xiao-yuan1, MA Jing3
    2018, 38 (1):  89. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.018

    Abstract ( 649 )   PDF (7348KB) ( 603 )  
    Objective · To access glycemic control status and investigate its impact factors of patients with short-term history of type 2 diabetes mellitus  in Pujiang Town, Minhang District, Shanghai.  Methods · The clinical information was collected by a standard questionnaire in 1 994 type 2 diabetic  mellitus patients from the community. FPG, HbA1c, and PPG after meal of 100 g steamed bread made of standard flour were measured. 429 patients with  5-years duration of diabetes were qualified in the final analysis. Ideal blood glucose control was FPG<7.0 mmol/L, PPG<10.0 mmol/L and HbA1c<7.0%.   Results · The proportion of patients with ideal blood glucose, FPG, PPG, and HbA1c control were 7.9%, 32.6%, 12.6% and 38.2%, respectively. Patients  with middle school- and high school-education were at lower risks for poor glycemic control (age- and sex- adjusted OR=0.60,95% CI 0.37-0.96).  Duration of diabetes, insulin resistance and blood pressure were negatively associated with glycemic control (age- and sex- adjusted, OR=1.95,95% CI 1.30-2.91;OR=2.52,95% CI 1.57-4.03;OR=1.94,95% CI 1.22-3.09, respectively).  Conclusion · Patients in Pujiang community had substantially  poor glycemic control. Less-educated diabetic patients should be emphasized on the importance of postprandial glycemic control.
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    Study on recent sedentary behaviors and influencing factors among children and adolescents in Chongqing area
    RAN Min, WANG Hong, PENG Lin-li, HE Fang, YANG Jing-wei
    2018, 38 (1):  95. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.019

    Abstract ( 683 )   PDF (7715KB) ( 701 )  
     Objective · To describe the current status and explore the associated factors of sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents residing in  Chongqing area.  Methods · By random stratified and cluster sampling, a total of 9 596 students aged from 6 to 18 years old in Chongqing urban districts  together with their parents were enrolled through a questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to compare the difference among groups, and the binary Logistic regression model was used to explore the factors that influenced the prevalence of average time of homework>2 h/d 
     and screen time>2 h/d.  Results · The average time of sedentary behaviors in school days was 2.82 h/d, and the rate of sedentary behaviors>2 h/d was  74.1%. The rate of boys (75.3%) was significantly higher than that of girls (72.7%) (χ2=8.333, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that junior  and senior students were the common risk factors for both homework and screen time>2 h/d; on the contrary, extracurricular sports never being occupied  could be the common protective factors. In addition, being girls (OR=1.187, 95% CI 1.048-1.299) and parents’ sedentary time>2 h/d (OR=1.529, 95% CI 1.303-1.794) could be the risk factors for homework time>2 h/d. Non-only child (OR=1.194, 95% CI 1.066-1.320), no family rules on screen time (OR=1.193, 95% CI 1.062-1.388), and having a TV set at home (OR=1.330, 95% CI 1.147-1.472) could be the risk factors for screen time>2 h/d.  
     Conclusion · The status quo of sedentary behaviors among students in Chongqing area is not quite well. School’s policy on extracurricular sports and  home screen environment may be the mainly modifiable influencing factors. 
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    Review
    Principle and applications of fluorescent probes for intracellular redox detection#br#
    LIU Ao, QI Xing, ZHANG Ying-chao, XU Tian-xue, YI Jing, YANG Jie
    2018, 38 (1):  101. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.020

    Abstract ( 1228 )   PDF (11257KB) ( 1257 )  
     Redox state indicated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) level is a cellular physiological feature. Redox status is exactly controlled by  conserved system. Its alterations consequently modulate various biological activities and play important roles in cells and organism under physiological  and pathological conditions. Hence detection of redox state is deemed as an important technique both in basic and clinical researches. The present article  reviews the principle and current applications of fluorescent probes or sensors for redox detection. With comparison of properties of various probes,  especially genetic coding fluorescence probes, much understanding will be gained. And the review helps us to understand how to apply the redox probes  on the biological and clinical researches and eventually look forward to new applications in the cell and whole animal level.
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    Vaccine strategies in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis#br#
    XUE Yu-chen, YOU Sha-sha, CAO Hui-min, HE Bin
    2018, 38 (1):  108. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.021

    Abstract ( 858 )   PDF (6834KB) ( 965 )  
    Atherosclerosis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, with both the innate and adaptive immune systems responding  to many endogenous and exogenous antigens. Both proatherogenic as well as atheroprotective roles have been identified for the immune system in  atherosclerosis. Hence, it is conceivable that an immuno-modulatory strategy via active immunization against many of these antigens could potentially alter the natural history of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) plays an important role in lipid metabolism, suggesting it might prevent  atherosclerosis. This review discusses the recent advances of vaccine targeting the development of atherosclerosis, mainly about the CETP targeting vaccines.
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    Role of B lymphocytes in pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder#br#
    HAN Lu1, LI Mei2, ZHU De-sheng1, LI Ze-zhi1, LIU Ming-yuan2, GUAN Yang-tai1
    2018, 38 (1):  112. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.023

    Abstract ( 806 )   PDF (7646KB) ( 540 )  
     The neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a spectrum of central nervous system autoimmune diseases caused by humoralmediated immunity. NMOSD is characterized by specific expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) antibody and involvement of optic nerve and spinal cord.  However, the expression level of AQP-4 antibody is not directly proportional to disease activity and recurrence rate, suggesting that multiple mechanisms  have been involved in mediating the process of disease. Many evidences of clinical and basic experiments indicated that B lymphocytes play an important  role in the pathogenesis of NMOSD. This paper mainly summarized the role of B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of NMOSD, including aspects of antigen presentation, humoral immunity, regulatory B cell effect and B cell immune tolerance.
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    Temozolomideresistanceinhighgradegliomas#br#
    WEI Xiang-yu, XIE Chao-ran, YOU Chao-guo, CHEN Zheng, ZHENG Xue-sheng
    2018, 38 (1):  117. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.01.022

    Abstract ( 584 )   PDF (11844KB) ( 648 )  
    High grade gliomas are always the research focus in the field of neurosurgery due to their poor prognosis despite the current standard therapeutic regimen of surgical resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Alkylating agent temozolomide has been established as the  standard chemotherapy while its resistance inevitable during treatment. This phenomenon seriously influences the prognosis of patients suffering from  high grade gliomas. This review aims to elucidate temozolomide chemoresistance mechanisms through three chapters including O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation, mismatch repair mutation and epigenetic regulation consisting of p21, chromatin and histone, Y-box binding  protein-1 and microRNAs.
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