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    Original article (Basic research)
    Electron microscopic study of the human THOC1-THOC2-THOC3 subcomplex
    LIU Yong-mei, TAN Ming, LEI Ming
    2020, 40 (1):  1. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.001

    Abstract ( 364 )   PDF (9981KB) ( 233 )  
    Objective · To study the structure of the human THOC1-THOC2-THOC3 subcomplexnegative-staining electron microscopy. Methods · The recombinant protein components were co-expressed in cultured insect cells, and the protein complex was isolated via sequential Ni-NTA and Strep-Tactin affinity purification followedSuperose gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein sample was then subjected to negative-staining electron microscopy and single particle image analysis. Results · The recombinant human THOC1-THOC2-THOC3 complex with high purity and good homogeneity was obtainedusing a tandem affinity purification scheme with Ni-NTA and streptavidin-based chromatography. Preliminary study on the structure of human THOC1-THOC2-THOC3 subcomplex was achievedelectron microscopy using negative staining with uranium formate. Conclusion · A low resolution model of human THOC1-THOC2-THOC3 subcomplex was achievedsingle particle reconstruction.
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    Changes of ATP metabolism and purinergic receptors in inflammatory response stage of diabetic wound healing
    WANG Qi, ZHU Guan-ya, XIE Ting, GE Kui, NIU Yi-wen
    2020, 40 (1):  10. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.002

    Abstract ( 503 )   PDF (9975KB) ( 233 )  
    Objective · To investigate the changes of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism and its related indices of inflammatory response stage during diabetic wound healing. Methods · Ninety-six C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups randomly, i.e. normal control group (NC, n24), normal with ATP applied group (NA, n24), diabetes control groups (DC, n24), and diabetes with ATP applied group (DA, n24). The mice in DA and DC group were inducedstreptozocin multiple intraperitoneal injection. Full-thickness excisional wound was created on the dorsum of all mice. Distilled water was applied in NC and DC group. ATP was applied in NA and DA group. Hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE staining) was used to observe neutrophils infiltration. Myeloperoxidase deficiency (MPO) contents were detectedenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The contents of ATP and its metabolites in tissues of wound margin were detectedultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Immunohistochemistry was utilized to investigate the of Connexin43, Pannexin1, CD39, P2X7 and P2Y2. Healing speed were assessedthe calculation of healing rate on each point. Results · ①During the inflammatory response stage of wound healing, the MPO contents, neutrophils infiltration numbers, the ATP contents, and the s of Connexin43, Pannexin1, CD39, P2X7 and P2Y2 of mice in DC group were all lower than those in NC group (all PP0.000). Conclusion · Inflammatory response is insufficient on the early stage of diabetic wound healing, while ATP, ATP hydrolase and purinergic receptor also remain at low level at the same time. To a certain extent, exogenous application of ATP can accelerate diabetic wound healing rate.
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    Association of SIRT1 gene with major depression and its clinical features
    ZHAO Jun-xiong, HUA Shen, FAN Wei-xing, WANG Wei-ping, TANG Wei, ZHANG Chen
    2020, 40 (1):  18. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.003

    Abstract ( 473 )   PDF (5066KB) ( 309 )  
    Objective · To explore the relationship between rs3758391 polymorphism of SIRT1 gene and depressive symptoms, and to further understand the role of SIRT1 gene in major depressive disorder. Methods · A total of 323 patients with major depressive disorder were retrospectively collected the Jinhua Second Hospital, Wenzhou Kangning Hospital and Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. A total of 347 healthy subjects were also recruited. Depressive symptoms were evaluatedusing the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and rs3758391 polymorphism was genotypedusing the TaqMan SNP genotyping Assay. The effect of rs3758391 polymorphism on the of SIRT1 mRNA in brain was analyzedBRAINEAS database, and the difference of depressive symptom severity among three genotypes at rs3758391 polymorphism was comparedmultivariate analysis of variance. Results · The frequencies of C and T alleles of rs3758391 polymorphism in SIRT1 gene were 18.7% and 81.3% in the case group, and 14.3% and 85.7% in the control group, respectively. The allelic distribution frequencies between the two groups were significantly different (χ24.86, P0.03). There were significant differences in mood, cognitive impairment and HAMD scores among patients with different genotypes of rs3758391 polymorphism (PSIRT1 gene in occipital cortex (OCTX) (P0.003). Conclusion · rs3758391 polymorphism of SIRT1 gene may be a risk factor for major depressive disorder in Chinese Han population, and is associated with the severity of depressive symptoms, especially with emotional symptoms and cognitive impairment.
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    Fatty acid quantification methodisobutyl esterification and GC-FID/MS
    GAN Miao-yan, XIE Hui, TANG Hui-ru
    2020, 40 (1):  22. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.004

    Abstract ( 449 )   PDF (9544KB) ( 202 )  
    Objective · To establish a quantification method for understanding the varieties and concentrational changes of fatty acids under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Methods · Based on isobutyl esterification using (-)-menthyl chloroformate and isobutanol, 27 typical fatty acids were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzedgas chromatography-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The sensitivity and stability of the method were detectedlimit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD). The method was applied to four typical biological samples (human serum, urine, feces and rat liver) to verify the universality in different substrates. Results · Isobutyl esters of 27 fatty acids were effectively separated with an HP-5MS column. The results showed nice linearity within 2-3 orders of magnitude in terms of concentration with R2>0.99 for all 27 tested fatty acids. The LODs of the method were between 0.03 and 2.96 pmol on column whereas the LOQs were between 0.09 and 9.86 pmol. The results of method validation showed that the intra-day and inter-day RSDs were all under 10% in the range of high, medium and low concentrations. With this method, moreover, 10, 7, 14 and 9 fatty acids were detected in human serum, urine, feces and rat liver, respectively. Conclusion · A quantitative analytical method for fatty acids with short, media and long chains (C1-C24) is established based on isobutyl estrification in aqueous media. This method has the advantages of mild condition, high sensitivity, good stability, and simple and quick operation, and can be directly used in the detection of serum, urine, feces, liver and other biological samples, which may provide a new idea for high-throughput metabolome analysis.
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    Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide and aerobic exercise on rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its mechanism
    GUO Yi-qiong, WU Qiong, WU Ya-ting, GAO Lu-lu, YANG Jian-jun
    2020, 40 (1):  30. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.005

    Abstract ( 335 )   PDF (9012KB) ( 179 )  
    Objective · To investigate the effects of different doses of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) and aerobic exercise on rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its mechanisms. Methods · SD rats of 8 weeks old were randomly divided into normal control group and high fat diet (HFD) group. The normal control group was given normal diet, and the HFD group was given HFD for 10 weeks to construct a NAFLD rat model. After successful modeling, the rats with NAFLD were assigned into four groups with eight in each, namely: HFD group, LBP-a group (50 mg/kg), LBP-b group (100 mg/kg) and aerobic exercise group (20 m/min, 60 min/d). After the intervention for 6 weeks, fasting for 12 hour and fasting blood glucose level was measured. Blood samples and liver tissues of rats were collected after intraperitoneal anesthesia with 10% chloral hydrate. The levels of glutamate pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and irisin in rats were measured according to corresponding protocols of kits. The s of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 α (Pgc1-α) and fibronectin type Ⅲ domain-containing protein 5 (Fndc5) in liver were detectedusing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results · Compared with the HFD group, the levels of GPT, GOT, TC, TAG, MDA and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly decreased in LBP-a group, LBP-b group and aerobic exercise group (PPPPgc1-α mRNA in LBP-b group and aerobic exercise group were up-regulated as compared with the HFD group (PFndc5 mRNA in three intervention groups were up-regulated as compared with the HFD group (PConclusion · LBP and aerobic exercise can significantly improve lipid metabolism disorder and decrease liver oxidative stress in rats with NAFLD, which may be related to the up-regulated s of Pgc1-α mRNA and Fndc5 mRNA.
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    Establishment of a lung cancer momodel with humanized immunity and its role in efficacy evaluation of programmed death-1 inhibitors
    ZHOU Zhen, XU Yun-hua, ZHANG Fei-fei, ZHAO Yi, GUO Lin, FU Guo-long, SHEN Sheng-ping, LENG Xue-jiao
    2020, 40 (1):  37. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.006

    Abstract ( 499 )   PDF (8899KB) ( 275 )  
    Objective · To establish a lung cancer momodel with humanized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and study the role of the model in evaluating the efficacy of programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors. Methods · Fresh biopsy tissue samples or tumor cells in malignant pleural effusion the patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were inoculated subcutaneously in CB17-SCID mice to establish patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. The of PD-L1 in PDX models was detectedimmunohistochemistry. The mature human PBMC and PDX model tumor cells were mixed and then inoculated into NCG mice to establish a PDX model of lung cancer with humanized immunity, on which the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitor was verified. Results · Among the PDX models established16 clinical samples, 2 were strongly positive for PD-L1, 4 were positive, and the rest were negative. In the PDX model with strongly positive PD-L1, the tumor growth inhibition rate of cindilimab, an inhibitor of PD-1, was 82.6%, 21 days after the initial administration; in the PDX model with negative PD-L1, the inhibitor of PD-1 showed no antitumor activity. Conclusion · A PD-L1-expressing lung cancer momodel with humanized immunity is successfully established and the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitor can be evaluated on the model.
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    Effects of low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and glycolipid metabolism in normal rats and obese rats
    PENG Rong, YANG Li-jun, DENG Mao-lin
    2020, 40 (1):  44. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.007

    Abstract ( 468 )   PDF (9916KB) ( 229 )  
    Objective · To explore the effects of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) on body weight and glycolipid metabolism in obese rats and normal weight rats. Methods · Eighty male normal weight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups, i.e., normal control diet group (CD group, n10), LCD group (n10) and traditional high-fat diet group (HFD group, n60). After eight weeks, 30 obese rats were selected HFD group. Then the obese rats were divided randomly into three groups. The feed of two groups was changed HFD to LCD (HFD-LCD group) or CD (HFD-CD group), and the rest group was fed with HFD continuously. The experiment lasted for another eight weeks. The feed of CD group and LCD group remained unchanged. The measurement indicators included body weight, feed intake, visceral fat, and blood biochemical indexes (fasting blood glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration). Results · In normal rats, the 6th week, the body weight of LCD group was significantly lower than that of HFD group (PP>0.05). But at the end of the 16th week, total cholesterol of LCD group was significantly higher than that of CD group (P0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower (P0.021). In the obese rats, at the end of the 16th week, the body weight of HFD-LCD group was significantly lower than that of HFD group and HFD-CD group (PPP>0.05). In the obese rats, compared with HFD group, the intervention of HFD-LCD (β-88.56, P0.000) and HFD-CD (β-39.08, P0.007) resulted in the decrease of body weight. β-hydroxybutyrate level was helpful to weight loss in the range of 1-2 times of HFD-CD group (β-34.92, P0.006). Conclusion · LCD may have different effects on body weight and lipid metabolism between normal weight rats and obese rats, LCD has no weight loss effect on the normal weight rats, but can increase total cholesterol; however, in obese rats LCD can reduce weight and improve the metabolism of glycolipid.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome prolongs rapid eyes movement sleep time in depressive state and shortens deep sleep time in manic state in patients with bipolar disorder
    JIN Zhi-xing, WANG Mei-ti, ZHOU Qian, Lü Dong-bin, WANG Fan, HUANG Qin-te, WU Zheng-lin, LI Hai-bin, XU Chu-chen, CAO Lan, ZHAO Jie, CAO Tong-dan, HUANG Hai-jing, FANG Yi-ru, HONG Wu
    2020, 40 (1):  51. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.008

    Abstract ( 468 )  
    Objective · To observe the effect of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAS) on sleep staging of bipolar disorder patients in different states. Methods · A total of 210 healthy controls aged 18–65 and 235 bipolar disorder patients of the same age were collected. The bipolar disorder patients were divided into depressive, manic and mixed states. Sleep time structure, sleep posture, heart rate and other indicators were collected by using sleep quality assessment system based on cardiopulmonary coupling analysis. According to whether the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was ≥ 5 times/h, whether they had SAS were determined. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted, investigating the effect of clinical states and SAS, on several sleep indicators. Results · SAS significantly prolonged rapid eyes movement (REM) sleep time of patients in depressive state (P=0.000) and shortened deep sleep time of patients in manic state (P=0.011). In addition, the heart rate during sleep (including deep sleep, light sleep and REM sleep) of patients in manic state increased most significantly among the three clinical states (P=0.000). Lying supine aggravated SAS most significantly in manic state among the three clinical states (P=0.002). Conclusion · SAS has different effects on the sleep staging of bipolar disorder patients in different states.
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    Pregnancy outcome comparison between primiparas and multiparas with advanced maternal age
    LIN Jing, LIU Han, LIU Xin-mei, CHEN Xiao-jun, HUANG He-feng
    2020, 40 (1):  58. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.009

    Abstract ( 549 )   PDF (7053KB) ( 224 )  
    Objective · To explore the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the primiparas and the multiparas with advanced maternal age. Methods · Through a retrospective cohort study, 6 129 elderly women who gave birth to a single child January 2014 to December 2016 in the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were collected to compare the differences in pregnancy outcomes between the primiparas and the multiparas (parity2). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the two groups of pregnant women. Results · Compared with the multiparas, the primiparas with advanced maternal age had a higher risk of premature rupture of membranes (adjusted OR1.35, 95% CI 1.18-1.54), preeclampsia/eclampsia (adjusted OR1.99, 95% CI 1.45-2.73), gestational diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR1.32, 95% CI 1.15-1.51), small-for-gestation age (adjusted OR2.49, 95% CI 1.78-3.48), and cesarean section (adjusted OR1.45, 95% CI 1.30-1.62). The birth weight of infants deliveredthe primiparas was slightly lower than that of the multiparas. Conclusion · In the advanced maternal age women, primiparas have a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes than multiparas, such as premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, small-for-gestation age and cesarean section.
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    Imaging law of postoperative electrode locations in deep brain stimulation for Parkinsons disease
    WANG Tao, ZHANG Chen-cheng, LI Dian-you, SUN Bo-min, FU Meng
    2020, 40 (1):  64. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.010

    Abstract ( 443 )   PDF (8236KB) ( 183 )  
    Objective · To explore the potential regularity and caof the differences between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) presenting electrodes after deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinsons disease (PD), into provide reference for optimizing clinical decision. Methods · Forty-nine PD patients who underwent DBS treatment in Department of Functional Neurosurgery of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Jan. 2016 to Dec. 2017 were selected. CT images were acquired 3-5 days after surgery and MRI images were acquired during 3-6 monthsthe follow-up of regular programming. The fused images of short-term CT combined with preoperative MRI and long-term MRI respectively were compared to show the differencethe tip contact positions of electrodes. Results · A total of 50 groups of postoperative CT fused images and MRI images were obtained. The space differences of the two types of images were 1.36 (0.98, 1.70) mm (P0.021) and 1.28 (0.99, 1.88) mm (P0.006), on the right and left electrodes, respectively. Bilateral electrodes in both short-term and long-term images had a tendency to move to the medial, rear, and bottom part of the brain. Conclusion · The potential tendency in shifts of DBS electrodes can provide reference for establishing the brain drift model and optimizing the position of the implanted electrode.
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    ARHGEF16 variants screening and mutation function analysis for children with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection
    WANG Jing, JIN Li-hui, ZHANG Qi, SUN Kun, YU Yu
    2020, 40 (1):  70. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.011

    Abstract ( 406 )   PDF (7314KB) ( 156 )  
    Objective · To investigate the pathogenesis of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC), and to identify ARHGEF16 gene through full exon sequencing screening and analyze its mutation function. Methods · The blood, clinical data and auxiliary examination results of 78 children with TAPVC and 100 healthy controls were collected, and the genomic DNA was extracted for ARHGEF16 mutation screening. ARHGEF16 wild-type and mutant plasmids were constructed and transfected into 293T cells. mRNA and protein levels were detectedquantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Protein-protein interaction exploration was performedCytoscape software. Results · Two novel variants c.C236>T (A79V) and c.G619>C (G207R) were found in TAPVC patients and were not found in healthy controls. Compared with the wild type, the mutants ARHGEF16 were up-regulated in both mRNA and protein levels. Protein interaction analysis showed that ARHGEF16 and RAC1 were directly associated; RAC1 was up-regulated in HEK293 cells with ARHGEF16 over through RT-qPCR. Conclusion · The missense mutations of ARHGEF16 affect the mRNA and protein levels of ARHGEF16. Over of ARHGEF16 up-regulates the of RAC1, suggesting that it may participate in the development and formation of TAPVCregulating RAC1.
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    Diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound TI-RADS combined with three-dimensional shear wave elastography in thyroid microcarcinoma
    HAN Rui-jun, DU Jing, CHEN Cui, ZHU Cai-xia, LI Feng-hua, WANG Jia-dong
    2020, 40 (1):  76. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.012

    Abstract ( 379 )   PDF (7496KB) ( 130 )  
    Objective · To evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasound thyroid imaging-reporting and data system (TI-RADS) combined with three-dimensional shear wave elastography (3D-SWE) technique in thyroid microcarcinoma. Methods · Jun. 2017 to Jan. 2018, 66 patients with 67 thyroid nodules in the Department of Ultrasound of Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were recruited. All thyroid nodules were classified as TI-RADS 4-5, and the maximum diameter was 5.0-10.0 mm. After routine ultrasound examination, all thyroid nodules were evaluatedTI-RADS classification, 3D-SWE technique, fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) examination and an additional BRAFV600E gene mutation test. All the nodules were divided into benign group and malignant group according to the results of surgical pathology or fine-needle aspiration combined with BRAFV600E gene detection. The threshold value of the parameters in 3D-SWE for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules was calculated, and the TI-RADS was further adjustedYoungs modulus parameters of the lesion to obtain combined TI-RADS (conventional ultrasound combined with 3D-SWE) for detecting the benign and malignant nodules. Results · Among the 67 thyroid nodules, 38 of them were malignant and 29 were benign. The optimal cut-off point of three-dimensional maximum Youngs modulus in sagittal plane (3D-S-Emax) was 24.6 kPa. The area under the curve (AUC) value, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 3D-S-Emax were 0.683, 65.8%, 65.5% and 65.7%, respectively. The AUC value for combined TI-RADS was 0.801 and that for conventional TI-RADS was 0.794, without statistical difference. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of conventional TI-RADS and combined TI-RADS were 63.2%, 82.8%, 71.6%, and 86.8%, 69.0%, 79.1%, respectively. Only sensitivity of combined TI-RADS was significantly higher than that of conventional TI-RADS (P0.004). Conclusion · Combined TI-RADS and conventional TI-RADS have similar diagnostic value in thyroid microcarcinoma, while combined TI-RADS has higher diagnostic sensitivity and lower missed diagnosis rate.
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    Meta-analysis of effect and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on patients with schizophrenia
    HUANG Yan, ZHANG Xian-gao, LIN Heng, CHENG Shu-ying
    2020, 40 (1):  81. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.013

    Abstract ( 399 )   PDF (7804KB) ( 163 )  
    Objective · To evaluate the efficacy and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for schizophreniameta-analysis, and provid evidence support for clinical treatment of schizophrenia. Methods · Randomized controlled trials of rTMS and schizophrenia were searched on Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP. The quality of the included literature was controlled and meta-analysis was performed with Stata 15.1 software. Results · Seventeen studies were enrolled, including 486 patients in the stimulation group and 436 in the control group. rTMS was effective in treating patients with schizophrenia (OR3.32, 95% CI 1.93—5.70, Z4.35, P0.000); rTMS treatment was effective for overall condition and negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia (SMD-0.33, 95% CI -0.58—-0.08, Z2.61, P0.009; SMD-0.41, 95% CI -0.65—-0.17, Z3.31, P0.001), and ineffective for positive symptoms (P0.755). There was no significant difference in adverse reactions between the two groups (P0.732). Subgroup analysis revealed that only high frequency (10 Hz) stimulation and treatment for 4 weeks could achieve therapeutic effects. Conclusion · rTMS is effective in treating negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and has high therapeutic safety, but it is ineffective for positive symptoms.
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    Evaluation of glide path preparation and shaping ability of two nickel-titanium engine driven systems in moderate curved root canals
    TAI Zhao-wei, PENG Wei-wei, DU Rong, ZHU Ya-qin
    2020, 40 (1):  89. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.014

    Abstract ( 494 )   PDF (6292KB) ( 242 )  
    Objective · To evaluate the clinical application effect of two nickel-titanium engine driven systems on moderate curved root canals. Methods · Ninety mesial root canals with moderate curvature of extracted human first mandibular permanent molar were randomly divided into three groups: M3 PRO Group, MTwo group and K group. The glide path was firstly preparedusing 10/04 file in M3 PRO group and MTwo group and 10 file in K group respectively .Then the preparation of root canals up to 25 was performed according to the instruction manual in each different group using standardized technique. All data including time required in glide path preparation, shaping preparation, total root canals preparation and changes of working length in root canal were recorded and analyzed statisticallyusing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and LSD-t tests (PResults · Root canal glide path preparation time: MTwo group showed significantly less preparation time while M3 PRO group exhibited significantly the longest preparation time. There was significant difference between MTwo group and M3 PRO group (P0.001). Root canal shaping preparation time: M3 PRO group showed significantly less preparation time while K group exhibited significantly the longest preparation time. Both MTwo group and M3 PRO group showed significantly less preparation time than K group (P0.004, P0.001), but there was no significant difference between MTwo group and M3 PRO group (P0.573). Total root canal preparation time: MTwo group showed the shortest time while K group exhibited the longest time. There were significant differences between MTwo group, M3 PRO group and K group (P0.004, P0.033), but no significant difference between MTwo group and M3 PRO group (P0.451). Changes of root canal working length: There were significant differences among the three groups (P0.037, P0.037, P0.000). M3 PRO group showed a minimal change while K group exhibited significant changes. Conclusion · MTwo nickel-titanium engine driven system with 10/04 file preform a high efficiency in glide path preparation, whilst M3 PRO nickel-titanium engine driven system show less changes in working length. Under the circumstancesthe total time required for root canal preparation is not significant, M3 PRO nickel-titanium engine driven system is more suifor root canal preparation in moderate curved root canals.
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    Original article (Public health)
    Analysis of suicidal ideation and its related factors among unmarried female miworkers in some factories in Shanghai and Guangzhou
    ZHOU Ni, SHEN Qiu-ming, SHI Yue, ZHANG Shu-xian, WANG Hu-wen, CHANG Rui-jie, CAI Yong
    2020, 40 (1):  93. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.015

    Abstract ( 339 )   PDF (10106KB) ( 162 )  
    Objective · To investigate the suicidal ideation among unmarried female miworkers in Shanghai and Guangzhou and explore the association between suicidal ideation and some psychosocial problems, reproductive health factors. Methods · A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3 553 unmarried female miworkers in two factories in Shanghai and two in Guangzhouconvenient sampling. Logistic regression was used to analyze the related factors of suicide ideation including psychosocial problems and reproductive health factors. Results · Overall, 287(8.1%) of the respondents had suicidal ideation during the past year. Univariate Logistic regression showed that alcohol, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, loneliness, poor social support (emotional support and economic support), favorable attitude toward premarital pregnancy, favorable attitude toward multiple induced abortion, experience of unplanned pregnancy and experience of induced abortion were related to suicidal ideation after demographic factors being corrected. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that alcohol (OR1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.93), low self-esteem (OR1.47, 95% CI 1.03–2.11), loneliness (OR3.30, 95% CI 2.42–4.51), poor emotional support (OR2.68, 95% CI 2.00–3.61) and poor economic support (OR3.79, 95% CI 2.86–5.04) were the critical factors. Conclusion · The factors such as risk behavior, mental health, lack of social support were associated with increased odds for suicidal ideation among the unmarried female miworkers. The prevention and intervention mechanism should be constructed, and the social support should be enhanced to effectively prevent the occurrence of suicidal ideation.
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    Influence of emotional intelligence on behavior performance in crisis intervention situations
    DONG Min-ye, JIA Zhi-ying, SHI Zhen-su, LI Guo-hong
    2020, 40 (1):  101. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.016

    Abstract ( 377 )   PDF (7989KB) ( 151 )  
    Objective · To explore the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavioral performance in crisis intervention, taking the knowledge and skills learning performance of crisis intervention as the mediating variable. Methods · Based on the sequential pattern analysis and comprehensive evaluation of learning performance in the previous study, Emotional Intelligence Scale was used to collect the emotional intelligence of 104 mental health service personnel. The mediating effect model was used to analyze the relationship among personal traits, learning performance and behavior performance. Results · There was no direct correlation between emotional intelligence and behavior performance (r-0.016, P0.869). The knowledge and skills learning performance of crisis intervention in identifying problems, providing support and coping strategy played a complete mediating role between emotional intelligence and behavior, with indirect effects of a1b1-0.052 (P0.010, 95% CI -0.126 - -0.010), a2b20.139 (P0.000, 95% CI 0.063 - 0.259), and a3b30.087 (P0.012, 95% CI 0.019 - 0.186). Conclusion · Emotional intelligence interferes in behavioral patternaffecting crisis intervention learning performance, but influence relationships are inconsistent.
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    Relationship of health promotion lifestyle with social support and self-efficacy of the elderly in urban-rural communities
    LUAN Wei, ZHU Zhu, ZHU Dong-ping, GE Wen-jing, ZHU Qun-mei, JIANG Yan-qing, LI Jin, JIANG An-li
    2020, 40 (1):  107. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.017

    Abstract ( 374 )   PDF (6647KB) ( 192 )  
    Objective · To investigate the health promoting lifestyle of the elderly in one urban-rural community in Shanghai, and explore its relationship with social support and self-efficacy. Methods · Using cluster sampling method, 984 senior citizens in a community of Pujiang Town, Minhang District, Shanghai were investigated with general situation, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Ⅱ (HPLPⅡ ). Results · The total score of social support was 40.51±5.92. The total score of general self-efficacy was 2.35±0.58. The total score of health-promoting lifestyle was 120.44±22.75. The total score of SSRS, subjective support and utilization of support, and the total score of GSES were positively correlated with the scores of all dimensions and total scores of HPLPⅡ(PConclusion · The level of health promoting lifestyle of the elderly in the urban-rural community needs to be improved. Among them, the score of nutrition dimension is the highest, and the score of exercise dimension is the lowest. The health promotion behavior and health level of the elderly in the community can be improvedimproving social support and self-efficacy.
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    Research progress on suicide of schizophrenia patients
    ZHANG Jian-biao, Lü Qin-yu, XU Jian, YI Zheng-hui
    2020, 40 (1):  112. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.018

    Abstract ( 421 )   PDF (10084KB) ( 203 )  
    Suicide refers to the act of voluntarily and actively ending ones life. Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with a high risk of suicide, which has a great impact on individuals and families. Suicide is the most important caof premature death in schizophrenia patients. The paper reviews recent advances in suicide-related risk factors, suicidal characteristics of patients with different characteristics, and suicide intervention in schizophrenia patients.
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    Research progress of the mechanism and treatment of macrophage in spinal cord injury repair
    LIN Jun-qing, ZHENG Xian-you, BAO Bing-bo, LI Xing-wei, GAO Tao, HUANG Teng-li
    2020, 40 (1):  118. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.019

    Abstract ( 507 )   PDF (8721KB) ( 257 )  
    Self-repair has been initiated after spinal cord injury (SCI). Unlike wound healing, the self-regeneration of spinal cord is incomplete and insufficient. Many studies show that there are a lot of cells and factors active in self-repair of SCI. Inflammatory is a hard problem for us to face in SCI. Over-inflammatory will casecondary damage to the spinal cord and the capacity of self-repair. In the inflammatory environment, Many kinds of research evidence prove that macrophage pays a vital role in the over inflammatory with damaging the self-repair of SCI. Thus, targeting macrophage in spinal cord injury will hopefully become a method in SCI repair. This review clarifies the function and mechanism of macrophage in SCI repair and the new targeting macrophage methods in recovering the self-repair capacity of SCI.
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    Recent advances in role of monocyte-macrophage in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis
    AN Xiao-ning, CHEN Yong-xi
    2020, 40 (1):  123. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.020

    Abstract ( 383 )   PDF (8819KB) ( 213 )  
    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) constitues a group of autoimmune diseases with poor prognosis. Inflammation and fibrinoid necrosis of the small vessels are the pathological features of the disease, and many organs and systems can be involved. Monocyte-macrophages are important to innate immune system. Monocyte-macrophage can respond rapidly to inflammation and participate in the progression of AAV. Recently, the role of monocyte-macrophage in AAV has been studied with great detail. This article reviews recent research progress of monocyte-macrophage in AAV so as to further understand the disease.
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    Clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 to prognosis prediction and treatment of triple-negative breast cancer
    ZHANG Feng-chun, ZHANG Shuo-yuan, CHEN Tian-en, XU Ying-chun
    2020, 40 (1):  128. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.021

    Abstract ( 499 )   PDF (10336KB) ( 239 )  
    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) as a pair of T cell immune response co-stimulatory molecules play a negative role in adoptive immunityinhibiting T lymphocyte function. Blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway has been a hot spot of research and treatment of cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer, and there is no approved targeted therapy. Immunotherapy representedPD-1/PD-L1 blockers, is getting widely studied due to the medical potential of therapy for TNBC. Thereinto, the clinical researches of the monoclonal antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 have brought a promising future for the treatment of metastatic TNBC. Currently, there are several trials with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies and their combination with other therapies in salvage, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant settings on going. In this article, the authors review the current studies about potential value of PD-1/PD-L1 in prognosis, prediction, and treatment in TNBC, intending to cast insight on future basic and clinical studies.
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    Recent advances in using of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in treating central nervous system diseases
    HE Zheng-hui, WANG Yang, DENG Zhi-feng
    2020, 40 (1):  134. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.022

    Abstract ( 459 )   PDF (9142KB) ( 330 )  
    Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles can regulate functions of targeting cells in lesions and have fewer risks in treating diseases. In central nervous injury lesions, stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles can promote neurogenesis and angiogenesis and regulate nervous inflammation, which promotes the recovery of the nerve injury. Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles can ease Aβ protein-related neuron damage in Alzheimers disease. Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles also can deliver microRNA and chemotherapeutic agents to neuroglioma cells. This review introduces recent advances in using stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in treating central nervous system diseases.
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    Brief original article
    Clinical outcomes of modified lateral advanced flap combined with tunnel technique for the treatment of maxillary isolated soft tissue defect
    FAN Yan-dan, GONG Yin, DONG Jia-chen, SHU Rong
    2020, 40 (1):  139. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2020.01.023

    Abstract ( 392 )   PDF (6676KB) ( 351 )  
    Objective · To observe the clinical outcome of the modified laterally advanced flap combined with tunnel technique for the treatment of maxillary isolated soft tissue defects. Methods · Three of maxillary isolated soft tissue defects were selected, and the modified lateral advanced flap combined with tunnel technique and subepithelial connective tissue graft was performed to repair the soft tissue defects. Pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), recession height (RD), recession weight (RW), gingiva thickness (GT), and keratinized tissue width (KTW) were measured at baseline and one-year follow-up after treatment and the root coverage rate (RC%) was calculated. Results · Totally three patients were treated, two Miller Ⅲ and one Miller Ⅱ. The mean RC% at one-year follow-up was (78.89±18.36)%. The mean CALs at baseline and follow-up were (6.00±1.00) mm and (1.83±1.61) mm. The mean RHs at baseline and follow-up were (5.33±0.58) mm and (1.17±1.04) mm. The mean RWs at baseline and follow-up were (6.00±1.32) mm and (4.50±3.91) mm. The mean GTs at baseline and follow-up were (0.83±0.29) mm and (1.83±0.76) mm. The mean KTWs at baseline and follow-up were (0.83±0.76) mm and (5.50±0.50) mm. Conclusion · In the treatment of maxillary isolated soft tissue defect, the modified lateral advanced flap combined with tunnel technique has broad application and valid clinical outcome.
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