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    Original article (Basic research)
    Screening for phytoestrogens and their anti-skin aging effect in vitro
    LI Lin, QU Xiao-ting, LU Yang
    2011, 31 (10):  1361. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.001

    Abstract ( 1831 )   PDF (6805KB) ( 1487 )  

    Objective To screen phytoestrogens and investigate their effect on collagen synthesis in skin fibroblasts. Methods Sixty-four kinds of plant extracts were screened for phytoestrogens by determining their effect on estrogen receptor (ER)positive MCR-7 cell proliferation with MTT assay. ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells and ER antagonist ICI 182780 were used to validate if the stimulatory effect on MCF-7 cell proliferation was mediated by ER. By using dot blot method, the effect on procollagen-1 (PC-1) synthesis in neonatal foreskin fibroblasts was also assessed. Results Among the selected 64 plant extracts and active fractions, soybean isoflavonoids and the ethanol extracts of Radix Puerariae, Spica Humuli Lupuli, Semen Cassiae, Folium Mori and Radix Glycyrrhizae effectively induced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, but showed no effect on MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, their effect on MCF-7 cell proliferation was inhibited by ICI 182780. Genistein and puerarin significantly increased PC-1 synthesis in skin fibroblasts (P<0.01), and puerarin showed more potent effect than genistein. In contrast, daidzein significantly reduced PC-1 synthesis (P<0.01). Conclusion The extracts of Radix Puerariae and soybean isoflavnoids have relatively potent estrogenic activity. Puerarin and genistein, their main active ingredients, stimulate collagen synthesis of human skin fibroblasts, suggesting their potential anti-wrinkle and anti-skin aging effect.

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    Establishment of mouse and rat acute exhaustive exercise models and their effects on myocardial ultrastructures
    YANG Jie, ZHENG Jia-yi, ZHOU Dong-dong, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1366. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.002

    Abstract ( 2077 )   PDF (5460KB) ( 1404 )  

    Objective To explore the methods of acute exhaustive exercise in mice and rats, and investigate the effects of acute exhaustive exercise on myocardium ultrastructures. Methods Ten healthy C57/black mice and 10 healthy SD rats aged 8 months were divided into control group and exhaustive exercise group respectively. Before acute exhaustive exercise, mice were subjected to adaptive training (treadmill running, 1 time/d, 10 min/time, 15 to 20 m/min) for 2 weeks, and SD rats received adaptive training (treadmill running, 1 time/d, 15 min/time, 20 m/min) for 1 week. Animals in exhaustive exercise group underwent exhaustive running for one time (20 to 25 m/min for mice and 25 to 30 m/min for rats) until they stubbornly refused to exercise with signs of exhaustion. Left ventricular muscles were then obtained for ultrastructure observations with transmission electron microscope. Results After adaptive training in mice for 2 weeks, exhaustion occurred after continuous running for (4 561±2 174) m within (3.6±2.2) h, and the ultrastructures were characterized by myocardial edema, mitochondria cristae swelling and lysis, abnormal high density structures in some mitochondria and increased lysosomes. After adaptive training in rats for 1 week, exhaustion occurred after continuous running for (6 947±1 052) m within (2.3±0.4) h, and the ultrastructures were characterized by myocardial edema, chaotic myofilament arrangement, increased mitochondria density and mitochondria cristae rupture, lysis and vacuolization. Conclusion Acute exhaustive exercise can induce myocardial edema and mitochondrial damage in mice and rats.

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    UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of panaxynol in cultured Caco-2 cells
    YAN Zhong-hong, LI Lin, WANG Guo-quan, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1370. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.003

    Abstract ( 1395 )   PDF (6698KB) ( 1200 )  

    Objective To develop an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify the uptake of panaxynol in cultured Caco-2 cells. Methods The chromatographic separation was performed on Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with aqueous methanol as the mobile phase, using gradient elution at 0.3 mL/min. A triple-quadruple mass spectrometer employing electrospray ionization in positive ion mode was developed, and panaxynol in Caco-2 cells was determined using multiple reaction monitoring of precursor→product ion transitions at m/z 227→129 for quantification and m/z 227→143 for confirmation. Results The established method was validated by determining the linearity (r2>0.99), precision (≤6.2%) and accuracy (-6.7% to 2.1%). The limit of detection for panaxynol was 4 ng/mL. When incubated for 2 h at 37 ℃, the uptake was (20.7±1.8) nmol/mg protein for 50 μmol/L panaxynol and (21.8±1.7) nmol/mg protein for 100 μmol/L panaxynol, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion This method is sensitive, reliable and specific, and can be used in determination of panaxynol in Caco-2 cells.

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    Isolation and algicidal effect of algicidal bacterium strain N25
    QIU Xue-ting, QIAN Yu-ting, ZHOU Ren, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1375. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.004

    Abstract ( 1879 )   PDF (7125KB) ( 1260 )  

    Objective To isolate high efficient algicidal bacteria, and investigate their algicidal effect on Microcystis aeruginosa. Methods Bacteria were isolated from activated sludge, and were inoculated in Microcystis aeruginosa culture fluid. Algicidal bacteria were screened through observation of color of culture fluid and number of Microcystis aeruginosa. Algicidal efficiency was evaluated by calculating the algicidal rates, and high efficient algicidal bacteria were obtained. PCR was employed to sequence 16S rDNA of high efficient algicidal bacteria, and was aligned with the data of Genebank to identify the target bacterium. Transmission electronic microscopy was used to observe the morphological changes in the algae treated with algicidal bacteria for 48 h. Results A strain of algicidal bacterium was isolated from activated sludge samples, which was designated as N25-2 (hereinafter to be referred as N25). It was identified by 16S rDNA that the match rates of N25 with Bacillus SP. and Lysinibacillus fusiformis were both 99%. When the concentration of Microcystis aeruginosa was over 1×106/mL and the concentration of bacteria reached 1×106 cfu/mL, the algicidal rate was higher than 72% within 48 h. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed that there were increased vacuoles, deep staining of polyhedrons and increased phycobilisomes in Microcystis aeruginosa after being treated with N25, and the main morphological changes were plasmolysis and inner structural damage. Conclusion N25 has a high algicidal efficiency, and the algicidal mechanism may be associated with the secretion of bacteria, which needs further study.

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    Influence of castration on myocardial structure of male rats
    SHI Chao, LI Yan-xiang, ZHAI Hua-ling, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1380. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.005

    Abstract ( 1637 )   PDF (6917KB) ( 1351 )  

    Objective To investigate the influence of low androgen on myocardial structure of male rats. Methods Male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (n=8), castration group (n=7) and androgen replacement group (n=8). Rats in control group underwent sham castration, those in castration group were castrated, and those in replacement group were given testosterone undecanoate after castration. Ten weeks later, serum concentration of testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Pathological changes of myocardial tissues were observed by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Results Serum concentration of testosterone in castration group was significantly lower than those in control group and androgen replacement group (P<0.01). Light microscopy revealed that in castration group, there were myocardial swelling, hypertrophy, degeneration and nucleus enlargement, the nuclei significantly enlarged, the myocardial fibers fractured, dissolved, contracted and became wavy, and arranged in disorder. Electron microscopy revealed that in castration group, myocardial fibers arranged irregularly, fractured and dissolved, the glycogen and flat drop between muscle fibers accumulated, mitochondria swelled, most of the ridges in mitochondria were not clear, and the intercalated disk widened. Compared with castration group, the above-mentioned pathological changes in androgen replacement group were significantly lessened. Conclusion Obvious myocardial histopathological injury may occur in male rats after castration, and exogenous testosterone replacement therapy may work in some degree. Low androgen may do harm to myocardium of males.

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    Effects of calcium silicate, β-tricalcium phosphate and Dycal on proliferation of dental pulp cells
    JIANG Long, PENG Wei-wei, ZHU Ya-qin
    2011, 31 (10):  1384. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.006

    Abstract ( 1506 )   PDF (5499KB) ( 1295 )  

    Objective To compare the effects of calcium silicate (C3S), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and Dycal on the proliferation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). Methods DPCs were obtained using modified tissue explant technique in vitro. DPCs of the third passage were cultured with material extract fluids containing different mass concentrations of C3S, β-TCP and Dycal for 3 d (different mass concentrations of C3S, β-TCP and Dycal groups), and proliferation-related parameter of optical density [D (490 nm)] was measured by MTT assay. DPCs without culture with material extract fluids were served as negative control group. DPCs of the third passage were cultured with material extract fluids containing 6.25 mg/mL C3S, β-TCP and Dycal respectively (C3S, β-TCP and Dycal groups), those cultured with routine culture fluid were served as control group, and the changes of cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry in each group. Results MTT assay revealed that 3 d after culture, D (490 nm) in different mass concentrations of C3S groups was significantly higher than that in negative control group (P<0.05), D (490 nm) in 0.625 mg/mL group and 6.25 mg/mL group reached the peak, there was no significant difference in D (490 nm) between negative control group and different mass concentrations of C3S groups (P>0.05), and D (490 nm) in 50 mg/mL Dycal group and 100 mg/mL Dycal group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Flow cytometry demonstrated that 3 d and 6 d after culture, the percents of cells in S+G2 stage in C3S group were significantly higher than those in control group, β-TCP group and Dycal group (P<0.05). Conclusion C3S can promote the proliferation of DPCs. β-TCP does not have significant effect on the proliferation of DPCs, while Dycal inhibits the proliferation of DPCs.

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    Effects of lentiviral vector-mediated RNAi on expression of CCR5 in CD34+ cells in peripheral blood of mice
    JIANG Zhao-lei, ZHU Jia-quan, BAO Chun-rong, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1388. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.007

    Abstract ( 1782 )   PDF (6061KB) ( 1338 )  

    Objective To construct the recombinant lentivirus carrying chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and investigate its effects on the expression of CCR5 mRNA of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (CD34+ cells) in peripheral blood of mice. Methods RNA interference (RNAi) target sequence was designed by Ambion RNAi target sequence and references. The target sequence was amplified after transduction into plasmid pBSHH1, and was transducted into FG12 lentiviral vector containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The recombinant lentivirus of CCR5-shRNA was packaged, and the virus titer was determined. The recombinant lentivirus was transducted into CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells in peripheral blood of mice, and the transduction efficiency was measured. Then, CD34+ cells transfected with CCR5-shRNA lentivirus were injected into mice, and the expression of CCR5 mRNA was detected by Real-Time PCR after one week. Results The lentivirus was verified to carry both RNAi target sequence and H1 RNA polymerase III gene. CCR5-shRNA lentiviral vector was successfully constructed. The lentiviral infection titer was 5×107 TU/mL. The efficiency of CCR5shRNA lentivirus in transfection of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells in peripheral blood of mice was 97.9%. Real-Time PCR revealed that the expression of CCR5 mRNA in CD34+ cells in peripheral blood of mice significantly decreased after CD34+ cells transfected with CCR5-shRNA lentivirus were injected into mice. Conclusion The recombinant CCR5-shRNA lentivirus of high titer is successfully constructed, which effectively reduces the expression of CCR5 mRNA in CD34+ cells in peripheral blood of mice and lays a foundation for the treatment of rejection after organ transplantation.

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    Effects of androgen and high-fat diet on ultrastructures of ovary, pituitary and adrenal in female rats
    ZHAI Hua-ling, WU Hui, ZHANG Lan, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1393. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.008

    Abstract ( 1904 )   PDF (7496KB) ( 1160 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of androgen and high-fat diet on ultrastructures of ovary, pituitary and adrenal in female SD rats. Methods Twenty-four female SD rats aged 21 d were randomly divided into control group, androgen injection group and androgen injection+high-fat diet group. Eight weeks after treatment, serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, testosterone, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured, and ultrastructures of ovary, pituitary and adrenal were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results The serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, testosterone, triglyceride and cholesterol in androgen injection group and androgen injection+high-fat diet group were higher than those in control group. Polycystic changes of ovaries and increasing apoptosis in pituitaries and adrenals were observed in androgen injection group and androgen injection+high-fat diet group, and increasing lipids were found in androgen injection+high-fat diet group. Conclusion Androgen can induce the polycystic ovaries and increase the blood glucose in female rats. Androgen combined with high-fat diet may well meet the modeling requirements for polycystic ovary syndrome in female rats.

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    Establishment of mouse model of cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian failure
    WANG Fang-yuan, XIE Chao, CHENG Wei-wei, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1398. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.009

    Abstract ( 2128 )   PDF (9075KB) ( 1071 )  

    Objective To establish the mouse model of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure. Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide at the dose of 75 mg/kg. The general conditions, estrous cycles, serum estrogen (estradiol) levels, morphology of ovarian tissues, changes of numbers of follicles, secretion of anti-Mullerian hormone and tissue fibrosis of mice were observed. Mice without cyclophosphamide injection were served as controls. Results Compared with controls, the serum estrogen level and secretion of anti-Mullerian hormone of ovarian tissues decreased, there were significant stromal hyperplasia and fibrosis in ovarian tissues, and the number of follicles reduced in mice injected with cyclophosphamide. Conclusion Intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg cyclophosphamide may cause obvious ovarian failure, and the changes in reproductive endocrine and ovarian histopathology are similar to those of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure in female patients in clinics. It can be used to establish the animal model of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure due to its simplicity, feasibility, high success rate and low mortality.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms of xeroderma pigmentosum complementary group D and cytidine deaminase gene and susceptibility to lung cancer
    ZHOU Min, RONG Xia-jun, GAO Bei-li, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1403. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.010

    Abstract ( 1704 )   PDF (5910KB) ( 1442 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms of xeroderma pigmentosum complementary group D (XPD) and cytidine deaminase (CDA) gene and susceptibility to lung cancer, and explore the influence of the interaction between smoking and gene polymorphisms on the risk of development of lung cancer. Methods Case-control study was performed on 103 patients with lung cancer and 103 healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was employed to determine  the  genotype distribution of XPD exon 10 G→A (Asp312Asn) and 23A→C (Lys751Gln) and that of CDA exon 79A→ C (Lys27Gln) and 208G→ A (Ala70 Thr). Results There was no significant difference in genotype distribution of XPD312 and XPD751 between two groups (P>0.05). However, smoking in combination with mutation at locus 751 of XPD increased the risk of development of lung cancer (P=0.044), and the risk of development of lung cancer increased 6.13 times with mutations at both loci 312 and 751 of XPD (P=0.047). There was no significant difference in genotype distribution of CDA Lys27Gln and CDA Ala70 Thr between two groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in genotype distribution of XPD and CDA among different pathological types. Conclusion Smoking in combination with mutation at locus 751 of XPD may increase the risk of development of lung cancer, and mutation at both loci 312 and locus 751 of XPD may increase the risk of development of lung cancer.

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    Clinical evaluation of root canal retreatment with micro-ultrasonic technique and warm vertical technique
    HUANG Yi-feng, HONG Jin, DU Rong, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1409. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.011

    Abstract ( 1894 )   PDF (4322KB) ( 1607 )  

    Objective To analyse the causes of failure in root canal treatment, evaluate the clinical effect of micro-ultrasonic technique on root canal retreatment, and explore the method to improve the success rate of retreatment. Methods A total of 63 patients (82 teeth) who failed in first root canal treatment were selected, and the causes of failure were analysed. Micro-ultrasonic technique was used to clean and expand the root canal, and warm vertical technique was employed to fill the root canal. Patients were reexamined 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment, and the success rate of root canal retreatment was calculated. The influencing factors for clinical effect of root canal retreatment were explored with literature review. Results Iatrogenic factors (underfilling, loose filling, root canal missing and broken instrument in root canal) contributed to most (67.07%) of the failure in first root canal retreatment. After 2 years of follow up, the success rate of retreatment was 86.59%, including cure in 48 teeth, improvement in 23 teeth and failure in 11 teeth. Among the 11 teeth with failure in retreatment, 3 were extracted due to tooth fracture or vertical root fracture, and the other 8 exhibited fine root canal filling and enlarged apical shadow on X-ray images or had mucosa swelling and sinus. Conclusion Iatrogenic factors are the major causes for failure in root canal treatment. The success rate of root canal retreatment can be increased by proper management with micro-ultrasonic technique and warm vertical technique.

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    Relationship between 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 deficiency and changes of progesterone receptor isoforms in ectopic endometrium
    ZHANG Ping, LI Di-you, HUI Ning
    2011, 31 (10):  1413. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.012

    Abstract ( 1415 )   PDF (8229KB) ( 1137 )  

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of changes of isoforms of local progesterone receptors (PRs) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (17β-HSD2) deficiency in insensitiveness of ectopic endometrium (EMT) to progestin. Methods Ectopic endometrium samples of 36 cases of EMT (EMT ectopic endometrium group) and 16 samples of eutopic endometrium (EMT eutopic endometrium group) were selected, the expression of PR-(A+B), PR-A, PR-B and 17β-HSD2 mRNA was detected by Real-Time PCR, and the expression of PR-(A+B), PR-B and 17β-HSD2 protein was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results In EMT eutopic endometrium group, the expression of PR-(A+B), PR-B and PR-A mRNA in proliferative phase was significantly higher than that in secretory phase (P<0.05). PRs were expressed in both endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in proliferative phase, while those were mainly expressed in stromal cells in secretory phase. PR-A gained the advantage between PR-A and PR-B, while the rate of PR-A/PR-B was relatively stable during the whole menstrual cycle. The expression of PR-B in endometrial stromal cells was positively correlated with that of 17β-HSD2 in epithelial cells. In EMT ectopic endometrium group, the expression of PR-A was continuously low in the whole menstrual cycle, while there was no significant difference between the expression of PR-A in ectopic endometrium and that in eutopic endometrium in secretory phase (P>0.05). The expression of PR-B in ectopic endometrium was significantly lower than that in eutopic endometrium in the whole menstrual cycle, and the cyclical variations of PR-A and PR-B disappeared in ectopic endometrium. Compared with EMT eutopic endometrium group, the expression of PR-B in EMT ectopic endometrium group was significantly lower, and the rate of PR-A/PR-B was significantly higher (P=0.001). In EMT ectopic endometrium group, PR-B was significantly lower in stromal cells, 17β-HSD2 also decreased significantly, and the cyclical variation of 17β-HSD2 disappeared. Conclusion The changes of isoforms of PRs in ectopic endometrium may influence the expression of 17β-HSD2, which may be one of the mechanisms of progestin resistance for EMT.

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    Clinical study on relationship between plasma volume and blood pressure in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis
    FANG Yan, ZHANG Wei-ming, YAN Yu-cheng, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1419. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.013

    Abstract ( 1637 )   PDF (4322KB) ( 1123 )  

    Objective To explore the association between plasma volume and blood pressure during hemodialysis in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Methods Thirty-six patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis were divided into normotensive group (n=16) and hypertensive group (n=20) according to blood pressure before hemodialysis. The blood pressure and body weight before hemodialysis and after hemodialysis were recorded, and serum total protein concentrations were measured to determine the changes of plasma volumes (△PV). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13.0 software. Results In normotensive group, the systolic pressure was (123.3±19.9) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) before hemodialysis and (122.3±27.0) mmHg after hemodialysis, the diastolic pressure was (69.6±9.2) mmHg before hemodialysis and (70.9±17.0) mmHg after hemodialysis, and there was no significant difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure before hemodialysis and those after hemodialysis (P>0.05). During hemodialysis in normotensive group, the change of body weight was (2.7±1.4) kg, and △PV was (14.7±10.8)%. In hypertensive group, the systolic pressure was (162.6±16.2) mmHg before hemodialysis and (148.2±31.1)mmHg after hemodialysis, the diastolic pressure was (86.6±9.6) mmHg before hemodialysis and (82.1±14.4) mmHg after hemodialysis, the systolic pressure after hemodialysis was significantly lower than that before hemodialysis (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between diastolic pressure before hemodialysis and that after hemodialysis (P>0.05). During hemodialysis in hypertensive group, the change of body weight was (3.2±1.3) kg, and △PV was (20.4±14.4)%. Correlation analysis revealed that blood pressure before hemodialysis and after hemodialysis in hypertensive group and normotensive group was not significantly related to △PV and changes of body weight during hemodialysis (P>0.05). Conclusion During hemodialysis, changes in plasma volume do not influence changes in blood pressure before hemodialysis and after hemodialysis, and reduction in body weight is insufficient to reflect the changes of plasma volume and may be of limited effect to predict the changes in blood pressure before hemodialysis and after hemodialysis.

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    Value of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT in diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism
    SHENG Shi-wei, ZHU Rui-sen, FAN You-ben, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1423. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.014

    Abstract ( 1536 )   PDF (7993KB) ( 972 )  

    Objective To investigate the value of 99mTc-sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) and single photon emission computed tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) in diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Methods Thirty-seven patients with PHPT were selected. Thirty minutes (early phase) and two hours (delayed phase) after intravenous administration of 99mTc-MIBI (740 MBq), dual-phase planar imaging over the neck and chest was performed, followed by SPECT/CT imaging. The imaging findings were compared to the pathological results. Statistical analysis was conducted on the basis of clinical manifestations and laboratory findings with McNemar test. Results In total, 41 parathyroid lesions from 37 patients with PHPT were confirmed by pathology. Among the 37 patients, 29 patients had single parathyroid adenoma (ectopic parathyroid adenoma in 5 patients), 5 patients had single parathyroid hyperplasia lesion, 2 patients had 2 parathyroid adenomas, and the other patient had 3 parathyroid hyperplasia lesions. 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT identified 87.8% of the PHPT lesions, with significantly higher diagnostic sensitivity than that of 99mTc-MIBI dual-phase planar imaging (75.6%)(P<0.05). The sensitivity of 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT in diagnosis of parathyroid hyperplasia lesions was 50.0%, while no parathyroid hyperplasia lesion was detected by planar imaging (P<0.05). SPECT/CT also provided exact anatomical locations of the lesions, which was especially helpful for the surgical treatment of ectopic PHPT lesions. Conclusion 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT is more effective than conventional 99mTc-MIBI dual-phase planar imaging in diagnosis of PHPT.

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    Expression of hamartin and tuberin in 86 cases of angiomyolipoma of kidney
    WANG Zhao-liang, CHEN Yi-ming, ZHU Jian-shan
    2011, 31 (10):  1428. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.015

    Abstract ( 1379 )   PDF (5746KB) ( 1346 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression and significance of hamartin and tuberin protein in angiomyolipoma of the kidney. Methods The expression of the above biomarkers was detected in 43 cases of normal renal tissues and 86 cases of angiomyolipoma of the kidney by immunochemical EnVision method. Results There was positive expression of hamartin and tuberin protein in all the 43 cases of normal renal tissues. While in 86 cases of angiomyolipoma of the kidney, the positive expression rate of hamartin was 81.25%, and that of tuberin was 93.75%. Conclusion Loss of expression of hamartin and tuberin protein may be associated with the occurrence of some cases of angiomyolipoma of the kidney, and the pathogenesis of sporadic angiomyolipoma of the kidney may be different from that of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated type.

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    Comparison of effects of cyclopentolate hydrochloride, compound tropicamide and atropine on cycloplegia
    DONG Ling-yan, KANG Xiao-li, WANG Ya-fu
    2011, 31 (10):  1432. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.016

    Abstract ( 3116 )   PDF (4153KB) ( 1523 )  

    Objective To compare the effects of cyclopentolate hydrochloride, compound tropicamide and atropine on cycloplegia in children. Methods Forty children (80 eyes) with refractive errors, aged from 6 to 12, were randomly divided into 2 groups. Children in group A were subjected to cycloplegic refraction by compound tropicamide, followed with cyclopentolate hydrochloride 2 weeks later. Children in group B were administered cyclopentolate hydrochloride, followed with atropine 2 weeks later. Subjective and objective refraction, pupil size, residual accommodation and systemic side effects were observed. Results After application of two agents in group A, there were significant differences in residual accommodation between two agents, while there was no significant difference in pupil size between two agents, with 82.5%, 85.0% and 85.0% in agreement with the degree of spherical lens, cylinder lens and axis of astigmatism respectively. In group B, there was no significant difference in pupil size and residual accommodation between two agents, with 90.0%, 92.5% and 92.5% in agreement with the degree of spherical lens, cylinder lens and axis of astigmatism respectively. Conclusion Cyclopentolate hydrochloride is a safe and effective cycloplegic, which can be widely used in cycloplegic refraction for children.

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    Value of multibiomarker measurement in risk stratification for perioperative myocardial infarction of percutaneous coronary intervention
    HOU Xu-min, HAN Wen-zheng, QIU Xing-biao, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1436. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.017

    Abstract ( 1484 )   PDF (5156KB) ( 1187 )  

    Objective To determine whether serum multibiomarkers are effective in screening patients with high risks for perioperative myocardial infarction. Methods A total of 203 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled. The mean age of patients was (65±9) years, 68.5% were males, and 60.6% were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Serum biomarkers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and D-dimer were measured before PCI and 12 h to 18 h after PCI. Results Perioperative myocardial infarction occurred in 67 patients (33.0%). The percents of patients with preoperative BNP>100 pg/mL and hs-CRP>5.0 ng/mL in those with perioperative myocardial infarction were significantly higher than those in patients without perioperative myocardial infarction (32.8% vs 19.9%, P=0.042; 25.4% vs 13.2%, P=0.031). However, only the percent of patients with postoperative BNP>100 pg/mL in those with perioperative myocardial infarction was significantly higher than that in patients without perioperative myocardial infarction (41.8% vs 27.2%, P=0.036). There was no significant difference in the percents of patients with preoperative and postoperative D-dimer>0.5 mg/L between patients with perioperative myocardial infarction and those without perioperative myocardial infarction. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that hs-CRP> 5.0 ng/mL before PCI was an independent risk factor for perioperative myocardial infarction (OR: 2.445, 95%CI: 1.082-5.521, P=0.032). Conclusion The combined measurement of hs-CRP and BNP before PCI may help to screen patients with high risks for perioperative myocardial infarction.

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    Comparison of detection performances between two kits for mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    GAO Kan-kan, JU Jun, TONG Zhong-xiang
    2011, 31 (10):  1440. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.018

    Abstract ( 1469 )   PDF (4959KB) ( 1110 )  

    Objective To evaluate the detection performances of two interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)release assay (IGRA) kits for mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Methods One hundred and five clinical blood samples were detected (61 in tuberculosis group, 31 in nontuberculous pulmonary disease group, and 13 in healthy control group), 82 of which were detected with two kits contrastively (43 in tuberculosis group, 26 in nontuberculous pulmonary disease group, and 13 in healthy control group), and QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis, Australia) was served as reference kit to calculate the accuracy of test kit in detection of infection and to explore the basic immune status by counting the quantity of IFN-γ in tuberculosis group and healthy control group. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic validity of reference kit were 81.39% (35/43), 76.92% (30/39), 79.55% (35/44), 78.95% (30/38) and 79.27% (65/82) respectively, and those of test kit were 73.77% (45/61), 84.09% (37/44), 86.54% (45/52), 69.81% (37/53) and 78.09% (82/105) respectively. The coincidence rate of two kits was 86.56% (Kappa=0.734). The quantity of IFN-γ after stimulation in tuberculosis group was significantly higher than that in healthy control group (t=2.529, P=0.014). Conclusion The detection performances of test kit and reference kit are almost the same, and both kits can work for the auxiliary diagnosis of MTB infection. T cell activity may be increased reactively to some extent in patients with tuberculosis.

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    Analysis of impaired nervous system and symptoms in 81 children with inherited metabolic disorders
    HE Da-ke, ZHANG Jian-ming, SHAO Xin-hua, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1444. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.019

    Abstract ( 1792 )   PDF (4366KB) ( 1864 )  

    Objective To analyse the clinical characteristics of nervous system of children with inherited metabolic disorders. Methods The clinical manifestations, biochemical parameters and imaging data of 81 children with inherited metabolic disorders were retrospectively reviewed, and were comprehensively analysed on the basis of findings of tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography mass spectrometry and enzymological examinations. Results Among the 81 children with inherited metabolic disorders, there were 14 cases of methylmalonic acidemia, 5 cases of methylmalonic acidemia with homocysteinuria, 4 cases of  propionic acidemia, 3 cases of maple syrup urine disease, 2 cases of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, 1 case of glutaric acidemia, 1 case of citrullinemia, 1 case of argininemia, 3 cases of phenylketonuria, 1 case of biotinidase deficiency, 17 cases of glycogenosis, 1 case of mucopolysaccharidosis, 4 cases of leukodystrophy and 24 cases of Wilson disease. The common clinical manifestations were seizure, development retardation or retrogression, disturbance of consciousness, mental retardation, feed difficulty and vomiting. Head CT or magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain dysplasia, encephalomalacia and abnormal white matter signal, and electroencephalography displayed slow wave or epileptiform activity. Conclusion Inherited metabolic disorders are characterized by seizure, disturbance of consciousness, development retardation or retrogression and mental retardation, and children with above nervous system symptoms should be timely screened for inherited metabolic disorders for the early diagnosis, proper treatment and improved prognosis.

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    Analysis of relationship between age at onset and clinical features of migraine
    FENG Zhi-ying, LI Ying, ZOU jing, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1448. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.020

    Abstract ( 1614 )   PDF (4080KB) ( 1229 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between age at onset (AAO) and clinical features of migraine so as to provide references for prognosis estimation of migraine. Methods Four hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients with migraine were enrolled, among whom 62 were migraine with aura (MA group), and 385 were migraine without aura (MO group). The related data about age, gender, AAO, age of first diagnosis, course of disease, family history, intensity of migraine, frequency of migraine and duration of migraine of patients in two groups were recorded. Patients in both groups were subdivided into immaturity group (≤18 years old) and adult group(>18 years old) respectively. The relationship between AAO and family history, intensity of migraine, frequency of migraine and duration of migraine was statistically analysed. Results Female patients accounted for 81.3% and 66.1% in MA group and MO group respectively (P<0.05). There were significant differences in age of first diagnosis, course of disease and duration of migraine between MA group and MO group (P<0.05). In patients with MO, there were significant differences in age of first diagnosis, course of disease, family history, duration of migraine and frequency of migraine between immaturity group and adult group (P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that age of first diagnosis, course of disease, family history and frequency of migraine were independent risk factors. Conclusion Early AAO, obvious family history and severe headache may yield poor prognosis in patients with migraine. AAO can be used as a predictor for prognosis of migraine in Chinese population.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Study on motives for senior citizens' choice of community health services available within 30 minutes from social support network perspective
    HE Ya-ping, SHEN Tian, LIU Wei, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1452. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.021

    Abstract ( 1522 )   PDF (5474KB) ( 1325 )  

    Objective To explore the motives and influencing factors for senior citizens' choice of community health services available within 30 min. Methods Based on cluster sampling and social support network analysis paradigm, and among the senior citizens aged 60 and above receiving medical treatment in community health centers of Luwan District of Shanghai, 709 people who could reach both a general hospital and a community health center within 30 minutes' walk were selected and surveyed with a questionnaire. Results The top three reasons for senior citizens to choose community health centers were as follows: close distance and high accessibility(85.9%), service attitude (72.8%) and affordability (41.2%). While general hospitals were chosen due to their excellent techniques (78.3%), equipments (61.3%) and treatment outcomes (45.3%). Factors like suffering from chronic diseases, time of waiting and annual times of visit to community health centers had relatively greater influence on their choice (P<0.01). Conclusion At present, the community health services network is characterized by high intensity, low density and low interactivity. The stability of community health services network is not remarkable compared with the other health services available within 30 min. Time of waiting is an important factor influencing the stability of the network. Senior citizens are more concerned about the emotional support and information transmission of community health services.

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    Situation investigation and strategy analysis of medical higher vocational teachers' professional development
    TANG Hong-mei, LI Yang, WANG Fu-ming
    2011, 31 (10):  1457. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.022

    Abstract ( 864 )   PDF (4545KB) ( 1072 )  

    Objective To investigate the present situation and problems of medical higher vocational teachers' professional development, and explore the route suitable for medical higher vocational teachers' professional development. Methods One hundred and fifty-four full-time teachers of Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences were surveyed with self-designed questionnaires. A total of 142 questionnaires were recovered, with the recovery rate of 92.2%. There were 137 effective questionnaires, and the effective rate was 88.9%. The surveyed content and structure were divided into teachers' basic situation and teachers' professional development situation. Results There were problems in professional level, professional identity, professional independent consciousness, professional knowledge and skills structure, evaluation system and training system for medical higher vocational teachers' professional development, which needed to be improved. It was revealed that 72.99% teachers had just little sense of proud and responsibility for their profession, 61.31% teachers did not have definite professional development plan, and 46.45% teachers thought the unreasonable performance evaluation system was the biggest obstacle to construction of double teacher structure education team. Conclusion Medical higher vocational teachers' professional development may be promoted from teacher education system, management system, evaluation system, training system and professional practice.

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    Review
    Application of gold nanoparticles in tumor imaging and therapy
    XU Wen-cai, LI Ping, FU Shen
    2011, 31 (10):  1461. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.023

    Abstract ( 1098 )   PDF (4075KB) ( 1168 )  

    With the development of nanotechnology, a variety of nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles (GNP) in particular, are gradually involved in tumor imaging and therapy. GNP at the molecular level can overcome the biological barriers to pool in tumor cells with priority, and carry the detection signal or drugs to specifically recognise tumor cells through coupling with tumor-specific markers. Meanwhile, GNP have special physical properties, which will bring new breakthroughs to tumor diagnosis, treatment and monitoring.

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    Research progress of regulation of osteoblast differentiation and proliferation
    WANG Yong-ping, OUYANG Yuan-ming, JIANG Yao
    2011, 31 (10):  1465. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.024

    Abstract ( 1159 )   PDF (5162KB) ( 1492 )  

    During bone metabolism and bone remodeling, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts under certain conditions, which play an important role in bone formation. The normal bone remodeling and part of the bone pathological changes are closely related to osteoblast differentiation and proliferation. Osteoblast differentiation and proliferation are regulated by a variety of systemic and regional factors. Recent progress of regulation of osteoblast differentiation and proliferation is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of targeted therapy in medullary thyroid carcinoma
    CHAI Hong, CHEN Ze-quan, YU Yong-li
    2011, 31 (10):  1470. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.025

    Abstract ( 1194 )   PDF (5088KB) ( 1160 )  

    Advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which can not be completely resected and is null to conventional radiochemotherapy, usually lacks in effective strategies. Targeted therapy has emerged as a new strategy in the treatment of hematological and solid neoplasms. With the research progress of molecular biology mechanism on carcinogenesis, progression and metastasis, targeted therapy has been used in the research of treatment of MTC. The main drugs used in the treatment of MTC now include small molecule multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor and radioactive nuclide targeted therapy medicine, all of which have yielded promising results in basic researches, animal experiments and clinical applications. The other drugs, such as endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib (ZD1839), indometacin and 17 allylamino 17 demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), have also exhibited favorable prospects in the clinical trials of treatment of advanced MTC.

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    Research progress of molecular typing methods of fungus
    ZHENG Bing, YAO Dong-ting, YING Chun-mei
    2011, 31 (10):  1475. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.026

    Abstract ( 1000 )   PDF (6164KB) ( 1256 )  

    In recent years, the incidence of fungal infection has increased significantly. Fast and accurate typing of fungi is important in the study of fungal pathogenicity, drug sensitivity and epidemiological investigation. Due to the characteristics of convenience, high resolution and repeatability, molecular typing methods are widely used. The research progress of molecular typing methods of fungus is reviewed in this paper.

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    Brief original article
    Pulchinenoside B4 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human liver cancer cell line HepG2 in vitro
    WNAG Hai-xia, ZHENG Xin-yong, GAO Jin
    2011, 31 (10):  1481. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.027

    Abstract ( 998 )   PDF (6322KB) ( 1429 )  

    Objective To screen the potential effective components in Pulsatilla chinensis for treatment for liver cancer, and explore the anti-cancer mechanism. Methods Pulchinenoside was isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis, human liver cancer cell line HepG2 was served as target cell, and the inhibiting effects of pulchinenoside on HepG2 cells were evaluated by MTT assay. Cell cycle arrest was determined by flow cytometry, cell apoptosis was detected by DNA fragmentation method, and Caspase 3 activity was measured. The possible responsible signal pathway for cell apoptosis was explored. Results Pulchinenoside B4 significantly inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the maximum inhibitory rate was 71.5%. Cell cycle analysis indicated that 83.2% of cells were arrested at G2 phase at most. Flow cytometry revealed that cell apoptosis was dependent of time of incubation with 40 mg/mL pulchinenoside B4, cell apoptosis rate increased from nearly 0 to 14.3% at most with time increase from 0 to 48 h, and DNA fragmentation occurred. Further study indicated that pulchinenoside B4 significantly upregulated Caspase 3 activity in HepG2 cells. Conclusion Pulchinenoside B4 regulates the cell cycle of liver cancer cells, causes cell cycle arrest at G2/M, and induces cell apoptosis, which is a potential chemical for the treatment of liver cancer.

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    Therapeutic effects of different desensitizers in treatment of dentine hypersensitivity
    NING Fang, CAO Dong
    2011, 31 (10):  1486. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.028

    Abstract ( 1036 )   PDF (3196KB) ( 1187 )  

    Objective To observe and compare the therapeutic effects of Hybrid coat and Gluma desensitizer in treatment of dentine hypersensitivity of posterior teeth occlusal surface. Methods One hundred and twenty teeth from 60 patients with dentine hypersensitivity randomly received Hybrid coat desensitive treatment (Hybrid coat group, n=60) or Gluma desensitizer desensitive treatment (Gluma group, n=60). Air conditioning stimulation and stimulation probing method were used to detect and record the sensitive condition of teeth before treatment, immediately after treatment, 1 month after treatment and 3 months after treatment, and the desensitization valid rates were calculated and compared between groups. Results The desensitization valid rates of Hybrid coat group immediately after treatment, 1 month after treatment and 3 months after treatment were 91.7%, 90.0% and 81.7% respectively, and those of Gluma group were 88.3%, 75.0% and 65.0% respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in the desensitization valid rates between two groups immediately after treatment (P>0.05), while the desensitization valid rates of Hybrid coat group 1 month after treatment and 3 months after treatment were significantly higher than those of Gluma group (P<0.05). Conclusion Both desensitizers have favorable immediate therapeutic effects on dentine hypersensitivity. The mid-term therapeutic effect of Hybrid coat is better than that of Gluma desensitizer, while the long-term effect leaves room for further investigations.

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    Effects of reduced glutathione on plasma levels of C-reactive protein in elderly patients with acute cerebral infarction
    TANG Zheng-de, SONG Tao, SU Hai-xia
    2011, 31 (10):  1489. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.029

    Abstract ( 1045 )   PDF (2971KB) ( 1226 )  

    Objective To observe the effects of reduced glutathione on plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in elderly patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods Sixty patients with acute cerebral infarction were divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 patients in each group. Patients in control group received routine therapy including anti-platelet, invigorating blood circulation and eliminating stasis, improving brain cell function and control basic diseases. Patients in treatment group received reduced glutathione (1.8 g/d) in addition to routine therapy. The course of treatment in both groups was 14 d. Plasma concentrations of CRP before and after treatment in both groups were measured by ELISA. Results The plasma concentrations of CRP in treatment group and control group after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment [(19.9±2.0) mg/L vs (47.0±5.7) mg/L,P<0.01;(28.5±4.1)mg/L vs (43.3±5.2) mg/L,P<0.05]. The decrease of plasma concentrations of CRP in treatment group was more significant than that in control group [(29.5±5.7)mg/L vs (14.1±3.0)mg/L,P<0.01]. Conclusion Reduced glutathione, which has the antiinflammation and anti-oxidation effects, can significantly decrease the plasma concentrations of CRP in elderly patients with acute cerebral infarction.

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    Detection of amount of Aflatoxin B1 in rice samples in Shanghai
    YE Lu, WEI Yan-xia, LIU Chang
    2011, 31 (10):  1492. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.030

    Abstract ( 942 )   PDF (4249KB) ( 1356 )  

    Objective To determine and analyse the amount of Aflatoxin B1 in rice samples sold in Shanghai. Methods Subei and Dongbei rice samples were obtained from groceries, medium-size markets, supermarkets and e-shops, and the amount of Aflatoxin B1 in rice samples was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The amount of Aflatoxin B1 in Subei and Dongbei rice samples was compared by T test, and the amount of Aflatoxin B1 in rice samples obtained through different methods was compared by one-way analysis of variance. Results The mean amount of Aflatoxin B1 in all the 60 samples was 1.926 ppb. The amount of Aflatoxin B1 in 2 samples was higher than the national standard, which were Dongbei rice samples obtained from a grocery and a medium-size market. The amount of Aflatoxin B1 in Subei rice and Dongbei rice samples was (1.221±1.055) ppb and (2.631±2.903) ppb respectively, with significant differences between them (P<0.05). The amount of Aflatoxin B1 in rice samples obtained from groceries, e-shops, medium-size markets and supermarkets was (2.900±2.457) ppb, (1.570±1.416) ppb, (1.743±2.683) ppb and (0.569±0.608) ppb respectively, with significant differences among them (P<0.05). Multiple test revealed that there were significant differences in the amount of Aflatoxin B1 between rice samples obtained from groceries and those obtained from supermarkets (P<0.05). Conclusion The amount of Aflatoxin B1 in rice samples sold in Shanghai is relatively lower. The amount of Aflatoxin B1 in Dongbei rice samples is higher than that in Subei rice samples, and the amount of Aflatoxin B1 in rice samples obtained from groceries is higher than that obtained from supermarkets. Unqualified rice samples are obtained from a grocery and a medium-size market.

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    Clinical experience
    Early surgical treatment of ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms
    GUO Yan, WANG Gan, GAO Wen-wei, et al
    2011, 31 (10):  1496. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.031

    Abstract ( 897 )   PDF (5838KB) ( 1413 )  

    Objective To investigate the surgical treatment of ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms. Methods The clinical data of 43 patients with ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms were retrospectively analysed. Twenty-three patients underwent surgical clipping, and the other 20 patients received endovascular treatment. Results Patients were followed up for an average of 12 months after operation. Of the 23 patients with surgical clipping, 19 achieved a favorable outcome, 1 resulted in mild disability, 2 ended up in severe disability, and the other 1 was dead. Of the 20 patients with endovascular treatment, 18 achieved a favorable outcome, 1 resulted in mild disability, and the other 1 was dead. Symptomatic vasospasm occurred in 10 patients. Conclusion Early treatment of ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms may lead to favorable outcomes. Simple, fast and normal anatomy-preserving strategy should be adopted for the treatment of anterior circulation aneurysms. Proper understanding of three-dimensional structure of aneurysms before operation and appropriate preoperative planning are of great importance. Early treatment of ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms can prevent the risks of rerupture and benefit the prevention and treatment of vasospasm and hydrocephalus.

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    Technique and method
    Improved isolation and culture method of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and in vitro model establishment of lineage restricted oligodendrocyte differentiation
    LI Ying, FU Sai-li, MA Zheng-wen
    2011, 31 (10):  1500. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.032

    Abstract ( 1222 )   PDF (7711KB) ( 1008 )  

    Objective To obtain healthier and purer oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) via modification of the methods in OPCs isolation, culture and generation passage, and to mimic the development of OPCs in vivo via setup of an in vitro model of lineage restricted oligodendrocyte differentiation. Methods Using nonspecific differentiated pre-attachment and A2B5IgM immuno-panning, OPCs isolated from embryonic rat spinal cords were highly purified. Their proliferations were induced by enrichment of the culture solution with fibroblast growth factor-2 and platelet-derived growth factor, and their differentiations to mature oligodendrocytes were induced with tri-iodothyronine and neurotrophin-3. The morphology and characteristics of OPCs and cells differentiated from them were observed using microscope and immunostaining. Results More than 95% of the cells exhibited typical OPCs morphology of bipolar or tripolar processes, and expressed A2B5. These cells could proliferate steadily and execute generation passage repeatedly. After inducement into differentiation process, cells expressed specific antigens, such as O4, O1, receptor-interacting protein and myelin basic protein, sequentially. Conclusion The morphology, proliferation and differentiation of the isolated OPCs are similar with the O2A precursor cells in embryonic brain (natural OPCs).

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    Case report
    Three cases report of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome and literature review
    SAI Fang-fang, MIAO Ling
    2011, 31 (10):  1505. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.10.033

    Abstract ( 1119 )   PDF (4469KB) ( 1146 )  

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKHS), also named as uveoencephalitis, is an autoimmune disease attacking melanocytes, which involves eye, ear, meninge and skin. Three cases of VKHS are reported in this paper. All of these patients have uveitis and extraocular symptoms and signs. All of them have good prognosis after hormone therapy.

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