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    Original article (Basic research)
    Effects of inhibiting the lysine specific demethylase 1 enzyme activity in hepatitis B virus model mouse
    ZHU Yi-qing, WANG Xiao-ying, WU Lei, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1555. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.001

    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (744KB) ( 1084 )  

    Objective To study the effects of inhibiting the lysine specific demethylase 1(LSD1) enzyme activity in hepatitis B virus (HBV) model mouse. Methods The BALB/C mice were injected recombinant plasmid HBV1.3 via tail vein to establish HBV mouse model. The female BALB/C mice were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, LSD1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment group, and tranylcypromine (TCP) treatment group. The expressions of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA in the peripheral blood of all mice were quantitatively detected by enzymelinked immuno sorbent assay, chemical luminescent method, and RT-PCR. The distribution of HBsAg in liver was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of LSD1 in splenic lymphocytes was detected by Western blotting. Results HBV mouse model was successfully established. Compared to model group, expressions of HBsAg, HBV DNA, and LSD1 were significantly lower in LSD1 siRNA treatment group and TCP treatment group (P<0.01). And the distribution of HBsAg in liver also decreased remarkably. Conclusion Inhibiting the LSD1 enzyme activity plays a key role in elimination of HBV in HBV model mouse.

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    Changes of protein kinase C isoforms in rat vascular smooth muscle cells treated with prolonged incubation of PMA
    ZHOU Hui-xuan, ZHOU Quan-hong, WANG Yan, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1560. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.002

    Abstract ( 663 )   PDF (673KB) ( 1240 )  

    Objective To investigate the changes of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) treated with prolonged incubation of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Methods Primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro were divided into blank group, 1, 5, and 10 μmol/L PMA-treated groups, and 0.25‰ DMSO-treated group, and all cells were treated for 4 h. The other cells were treated with 10 μmol/L PMA for 1, 4, and 24 h and with 0.25‰ DMSO for 24 h. The levels of PKCs were measured using Western blotting. Results In 1, 5, and 10 μmol/L PMA-treated groups for 4 h, the levels of PKC-α had no significant changes (P>0.05), while in 10 μmol/L PMA-treated group for 24 h, PKC-α was down-regulated significantly (P<0.05). PKC-δ expression was down-regulated obviously in VSMCs treated with PMA (>5 μmol/L for over 4 h)(P<0.01). PKC-ε expression had no changes in PMA-treated groups (<5 μmol/L shorter than 4 h) (P>0.05), while PKC-ε decreased remarkably in PMA group (10 μmol/L for 1 h)(P<0.01). PKC-θ expression was down-regulated obviously in VSMCs treated with PMA (>5 μmol/L for over 4 h)(P<0.01). Level of PKC-ζ had no changes in PMA group (10 μmol/L for 24 h)(P>0.05). Conclusion Prolonged treatment with PMA down-regulated classical PKC-α and novel PKC-δ, ε, and θ in VSMCs, while had no effect on atypical PKC-ζ.

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    Preparation of recombinant baculovirus based on the human sodium iodide symporter which participates radiosensitive positive feedback system
    GUO Rui, LI Biao
    2013, 33 (12):  1566. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.003

    Abstract ( 823 )   PDF (925KB) ( 999 )  

    Objective To prepare and verify a recombinant baculovirus harboring the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) under control of the early growth response-1 (Egr-1) promoter, and to provide the foundation for the research on radionuclides gene targeted treatment of malignant tumors. Methods The vector pFB was cut from plasmid pFB-CMV-EGFP; Egr1 was cut from plasmid PGL3-Egr1-luc; and hNIS was cut from plasmid pcDNA3.1-CMV-hNIS. Then recombinant baculovirus plasmid pFB-Egr1-hNIS was constructed. In addition, a positive control plasmid pFB-CMV-hNIS and a control plasmid pFB-0 were constructed. Baculovirus Bac-Egr1-hNIS and its controls were prepared, verified, amplified, and collected for titer determination. After glioma cell line U87 was infected with Bac-Egr1-hNIS and exposed to 131I, the presence and enhanced expression of hNIS protein was tested by immunofluorescence using anti-hNIS antibody. To verify the function of hNIS after 131I stimulation, the uptake of iodide was determined after incubation of the processed cells with 125I. Results Recombinant plasmid pFB-Egr1-hNIS, pFB-CMV-hNIS, and pFB-0 were correctly constructed and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Transposition was correct and recombinant Bacmid was extracted. The recombinant baculovirus were packed, verified, and its titer was about 1×1010 Pfu/mL. After incubation with 3 MBq/mL 131I, immunofluorescence showed that the hNIS expression level of Bac-Egr1-hNIS infected U87 cells increased dramatically. In another side, 131I stimulated U87 cells accumulated more 125I than did non stimulated cells. Conclusion The recombinant baculovirus Bac-Egr1-hNIS and its controls were constructed and verified, and high titer was obtained. This study provides a foundation of radiosensitive positive feedback system for further study.

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    Effects of FK506 on function and revascularization of islet grafts in diabetic mice
    MO Ling-fei, DU Cheng-you, PAN Long, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1573. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.004

    Abstract ( 656 )   PDF (880KB) ( 1051 )  

    Objective To investigate effects of FK506 on function and revascularization of transplanted islets after pancreatic islet transplantation (PIT) in diabetic mice. Methods Pancreatic islets of donor mice were obtained by infusion of collagenase P solution with pancreatic duct and Ficoll-400 density gradient centrifugation, then transplanted into renal capsule of type 1 diabetic mice. The recipients were divided into two groups: control group (PIT group) and FK506-treated group (PIT+FK506 group). The blood glucose of recipients mice after islet transplantation were monitored. The histological feature, function of insulin secretion, and revascularization of the grafts were observed. Results The blood glucose on each time point had no significant differences between PIT group and PIT+FK506 group (P>0.05). Histological examination showed that all the islet grafts survived well and had no difference. On day 3-5 and 20 after PIT, compared to PIT group, VEGF and CD34 expressions were significantly lower in PIT+FK506 group. On day 3-5 and 20 after PIT, the newly-formed microvascular density of renal subcapsular islet grafts post transplantation in PIT+FK506 group (9.3±1.0 and 61.0±2.7) were significantly lower than those in PIT group (16.6±1.3 and 96.7±2.3)(P<0.05). Conclusion The therapeutic dose of FK506 inhibits the revascularization of transplanted pancreatic islets, but does not affect the insulin secretion of the transplanted grafts directly.

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    Effects of p40 homodimer on T helper 17 cell proliferation and interleukin 17 secretion
    XUE Feng, LI Xia, XU Qian-nan, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1579. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.005

    Abstract ( 849 )   PDF (513KB) ( 968 )  

    Objective To explore effects of p40 homodimer (p40) on T helper 17 cells in peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis. Methods Bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 mice were isolated and differentiated into bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), and then BMDCs were cocultured with CD4+ T cells to differentiate in vitro into Th0 and Th17 cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to analyze IL-17 secretion and T cell proliferation in the presence or absence of  (p40)2. In addition, periphera blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from psoriasis patients and healthy donors were isolated and cultured with or without (p40)2. The IL-17 level in the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. Results FACS analysis showed that (p40)2 had no obvious effect on Th0 cell proliferation whereas Th17 cell proliferation was significantly enhanced with high percentage of Th17 differentiation by adding (p40)2. In ELISA assay, the IL-17 concentration from cultures of PBMCs from psoriasis patients was significantly elevated upon adding (p40)2. In contrast, (p40)2 had little effect in augmenting the IL-17 level in healthy donors (P>0.05). Conclusion Cytokine (p40)2 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by specifically promoting Th17 responses, which provides a possible explanation of the effectiveness of p40 monoclonal antibodies in treating psoriasis patients.

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    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 helping wound healing in diabetic mice
    PENG Yin-bo, LU Hua-xiang, YAO Min, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1583. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.006

    Abstract ( 1100 )   PDF (515KB) ( 1054 )  

    Objective To assess effects of exogenous monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in wound healing of diabetic mice. Methods Sixty BSK type 2 diabetic mice were randomly divided into MCP-1 treated group and control group (30 in each). An excision wound down to the deep fascia, measuring 1 cm×1 cm, was made on the back of mice.  The MCP-1 group mice were injected with MCP-1 (50 ng/d) for 3 d, and the control group mice received equal volume of PBS. The rate of wound healing, deposition of hydroxyproline (OHP), new blood vessels, and the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed on day 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 after injury. Results Since day 5, compared to control group, the rate of wound healing and deposition of OHP were higher in MCP-1-treated group (P<0.05). On day 5 and 7,  the new blood vessels per high power field were 5.25±0.83 vs 3.2±0.52 and 7.46±0.69 vs 4.8±0.81 respectively (P<0.01) in MCP-1-treated group and control group. Additionally, the levels of VEGF in MCP-1 group were significantly higher than those in control group on day 5, 7, and 10. Conclusion Exogenous MCP-1 may promote diabetic wound healing by enhancing the production of collagen and angiogenesis.

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    Subacute effects of Trichlorfon on the reproductive function of male mice
    TANG Long, HU Yi, LIU Xiao-liang, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1587. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.007

    Abstract ( 840 )   PDF (592KB) ( 1122 )  
    Objective To explore reproductive toxicity of Trichlorfon in male mice. Methods Forty male ICR mice were randomly divided into three exposure groups (2, 10 and 50 mg/kg dose of Trichlorfon) and control group (equal volume of saline), and each group included 10 mice. All mice were exposed orally once per day for 30 d continuously, then the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The rates of sperm motility and sperm shape abnormality were measured, and histopathological changes of testis were observed. The relationship between dose of Trichlorfon and sperm motility and abnormality was analyzed. Results Compared to control group, the percentage of sperm motility in exposure groups changed remarkably, where the percentage of Ⅲ and Ⅳ grades increased in all exposure groups and Ⅰ and Ⅱ grades decreased in 50 mg/kg group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The percentage of sperm abnormality increased significantly (P<0.05) (control group: 0.38%, 2 mg/kg group: 1.00%, 10 mg/kg group: 2.06%, and 50 mg/kg group: 3.39%). The changes for sperm motility and abnormality were presented in a dose-dependent manner. Pathologic observation revealed that the number of spermatocytes in somniferous tubules was reduced in the 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg groups. Conclusion Exposure to Trichlorfon may cause reproductive toxicity in male mice.
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    Sensitivity of acs-20;acs-22 double mutant elegans for hypotonic solution and small molecule compounds
    WANG Hui-zi, HAN Bing, GAO Yao-hui, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1591. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.008

    Abstract ( 803 )   PDF (418KB) ( 848 )  
    Objective To investigate acs-20;acs-22 double mutant elegans sensitivity to small molecular compound absorbed through skin penetration, and to provide new model for drug screening. Methods Wild type Caenorhabditis elegans N2 (C. elegans N2) as control, acs-20;acs-22 double mutant elegans was verified by PCR. Both wild type and +acs-20;acs-22 double mutant elegans were soaked in hypotonic solution (double distilled water). The survival rates were recorded at the time of 20, 40, and 60 min to compare the sensitivity of both kinds of elegans to the changes of osmotic pressure. Both elegans were treated with DOX (10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL) and the survival rates were recorded at the time of 12, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Results PCR results showed that the two relevant genes were successfully mutated in acs-20;acs-22 double mutant elegans compared with the wild type C. elegans N2. And acs-20;acs-22 double mutant elegans was more sensitive to hypotonic solution and DOX treatment. Conclusion Compared to wild type C. elegans N2, acs-20;acs-22 double mutant elegans is more suitable for observing in vivo effect of small molecular compound absorbed through skin penetration, and more appropriate to be used as a new model animal for drug screening.
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    Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on glucose and lipid metabolism and function of intestinal L cells in type 2 diabetic rats
    SUI Chun-hua, WU Hui, XIA Fang-zhen, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1596. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.009

    Abstract ( 616 )   PDF (826KB) ( 1116 )  

    Objective To study the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist on GLP-1 expression in intestinal L cells of type 2 diabetic rats. Methods The changes of body weight, fasting glucose, lipid profile, fasting insulin, insulin resistance index, and insulin sensitivity index were observed in normal rats (normal group), diabetic rats (diabetic group), and diabetic rats treated with GLP-1 receptor agonist (Exenatide treated group). Expressions of GLP-1 in intestinal L cells were determined by immunohistochemical method. Results Compared to diabetic group, body weight, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, fasting insulin, lipid profile, and insulin resistance index significantly improved in Exenatide treated group (P<0.05). Compared to normal group, expressions of GLP-1 were significantly lower both in diabetic group and Exenatide treated group (P<0.01, P<0.05), whereas the expression of GLP-1 of Exenatide treated group was higher than that of diabetic group (P<0.05). Conclusion GLP-1 receptor agonist may improve GLP-1 expression in intestinal L cells in type 2 diabetic rats.

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    Preventive effects of deferoxamine on radiation damage to salivary glands by angiogenesis
    ZHANG Jun-ye, XU Min-hua, ZHENG Yuan-li
    2013, 33 (12):  1600. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.010

    Abstract ( 687 )   PDF (1441KB) ( 792 )  

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO) for the regeneration of radiation damaged salivary glands. Methods C57BL/6 mice were divided into normal control group, irradiation group, D+IR group (DFO 3 d+irradiation), D+IR+D (DFO 3 d+irradiation+DFO 3 d), IR+D (irradiation+DFO 3d), and relative control groups (distilled water injection). Saliva flow rates were measured on day 30, 60, and 90 after irradiation. On day 90 after irradiation, the mice were sacrificed. Submandibular glands were resected and weighed, then, followed by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Real-Time PCR and Western blotting were performed to measure expressions of HIF-1α protein and VEGF mRNA. Results Compared to relative control groups, saliva flow rates increased remarkably in D+IR, D+IR+D, and IR+D groups (P<0.05), where the highest was in D+IR+D group. In D+IR and D+IR+D groups, a small amount of saliva stem cells were observed. Compared to relative control groups, expressions of HIF-1α protein and VEGF mRNA were significantly higher in D+IR, D+IR+D, and IR+D groups. Conclusion The results indicated that DFO might prevent irradiation-induced hyposalivation by promoting the formation of capillaries.

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    Preparation of docetaxel loaded transferrin modified liposome and its in vitro anti-glioma effect
    MIAO Wei-feng, WU Yi-ping, YU Yong-tao, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1608. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.011

    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (494KB) ( 957 )  
    Objective To determine the anti-tumor effect of the novel docetaxel (DOC) loaded transferrin modified liposome (DOC-TF-LP) on rat glioma cell line C6. Methods LP
    was prepared by film-ultrasonic method. Cellular uptake by brain capillary endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and C6 glioma cells was observed by fluorescence quantitative experiment. The anti-proliferation efficiency of DOC-TF-LP was evaluated by MTT assay. Tumor spheroids were used to evaluate the targeting efficiency and anti-tumor ability of DOC-TF-LP. Results Efficiency of TF-LP cellular uptake by C6 glioma cells was 3.2 times of LP (P<0.05). Efficiency of TF-LP cellular uptake by bEnd.3 was 2.6 times of LP (P<0.05). The anti-proliferative activity of DOC-TF-LP were higher than those of DOC-LP and DOC (P<0.05). Fluorescence intensity of TF-LP was higher than that of LP after incubation with C6 tumor spheroids. Gross tumor volumes decreased to 80%, 65%, and 38% after incubation with DOC, DOC-LP, and DOC-TF-LP, respectively. Conclusion Compared to DOC and DOC-LP, DOC-TF-LP could more persistently inhibit the proliferation of C6 cells and C6 tumor spheroids. Thus, DOC-TF-LP, as a new nanometer drug, has a special application value for the therapy of glioma.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Significance of thromboelastography in the monitoring of maternal coagulation disorders in preeclampsia
    MAO Ya-jing, YANG Zu-jing
    2013, 33 (12):  1612. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.012

    Abstract ( 1312 )   PDF (279KB) ( 933 )  

    Objective To study the values of thromboelastography (TEG) in detection of coagulation function and obstetric hemorrhage risk in severe preeclampsia patients. Methods Fifty-eight patients were divided into severe preeclampsia group (platelet count≥100×109/L)(n=44) and severe preeclampsia with thrombocytopenia group (platelet count<100×109/L)(n=14)according to platelet count in time of admission. And 33 normal late pregnant women were randomly selected as control group. All patients and pregnant women underwent TEG, blood routine examination, and coagulation test. Results There was no significant differences among TEG parameters between severe preeclampsia group and control group (P>0.05). But compared to the two groups, in severe preeclampsia with thrombocytopenia group, there were smaller α angle, shorter MA value, and lower CI value (P<0.05). In each group, MA value and the CI value were positively correlated with the platelet count (P<0.05). Conclusion TEG may be used as a useful indicator to observe the state of blood coagulation of preeclampsia combined with thrombocytopenia, in which the status was low with high risk of bleeding.

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    Significance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with U wave inversion
    WANG Xue-mei, ZHANG Hui-li, SUN Ping-wei, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1616. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.013

    Abstract ( 692 )   PDF (272KB) ( 966 )  
    Objective To investigate whether ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with inverted U waves before gynecologic operation is helpful to identify undiagnosed hypertension. Methods Fifty-four patients with U wave inversion received ambulatory blood pressure monitoring before gynecologic operation. The correlations among U wave inversion, 24-hour average blood pressure, diurnal blood pressure, nocturnal blood pressure, nocturnal systolic pressure, nocturnal diastolic pressure, and circadian rhythm were analyzed. Results For 24-hour average blood pressure, normal and elevated patients were 16 (29.6%) and 38 (70.4%)(P<0.01). For nocturnal blood pressure, normal and elevated patients were 12 (22.2%) and 42 (77.8%)(P<0.01). For systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and circadian rhythm, normal and abnormal ratios were also significantly different (P<0.01). Conclusion Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with U wave inversion is helpful to identify patients with undiagnosed hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension and to achieve better blood pressure control.
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    Clinical analysis of adverse reactions of ankylosing spondylitis patients treated by different TNF-inhibitors
    ZHOU Lan-lan, DING Yu
    2013, 33 (12):  1620. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.014

    Abstract ( 787 )   PDF (390KB) ( 892 )  
    Objective To study immunologic mechanisms induced by different TNF-inhibitors in ankylosing spondylitis treatment. Methods A total of 180 patients with ankylosing spondylitis received TNF-α inhibitors were collected. Distribution of different TNF-inhibitors and adverse reactions of patients were observed. Results Three kinds of TNF-inhibitors were used. Among the patients, 50 were treated with Infliximab; 50, with Adalimumab; and 80, with Etanercept. The adverse reaction rates were 14%, 13%, 4%, and 6% in Infliximab, Etanercept (domestic), Etanercept (imported), and Adalimumab, respectively. The humanized TNF-inhibitor was safer than the human-mouse chimeric TNF-inhibitor. Conclusion The human-mouse chimeric TNF-inhibitor was more likely to induce adverse reactions, which might be related to its immunogenicity.
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    Comparative study of treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with Huachansu Injection and AD Injection
    ZHU Li-min, SHEN Ke-ping, ZHOU Hao, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1625. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.015

    Abstract ( 769 )   PDF (451KB) ( 1199 )  
    Objective To study the effect of huachansu (HCS) injection and AD injection on treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Methods Sixty patients with advanced colorectal cancer were randomly assigned into 2 groups. The HCS group (30 cases) was treated with HCS injection and basal therapy; and the AD group (30 cases) was treated with AD injection and basal therapy. All the patients received 4 treatment courses which were of 10 d and 2 weeks off as one course. The traditional Chinese medicine syndrome, quality of survival, NK and T cells, serum CEA and CA199 levels were observed. Results In AD group, patients got remarkable improvement in joy for hot and pressing, fatigue, sallow complexion, and pale tongue with fat tongue body and white fur after treatment, and there were significant differences compared to HCS group (P<0.05). The improvement rate and total effective rate were 46.67% and 76.67% in AD group, which were better than 23.33% and 63.33% in HCS group (P<0.05). For improvement of immune function, the immunological indexes of CD3, CD4, the percentage of NK cells and CD4/CD8 of patients in two groups improved markedly in comparison to before treatment (P<0.05), but there were no statistical differences between two groups (P>0.05). However, the of serum tumor markers of CEA and CA199 had better improvement in HCS group (P<0.05). Conclusion In treatment on advanced spleenqi deficiency colorectal cancer patients, HCS injection and AD injection had good curative effect. AD injection improved patient's syndromes and quality of life, and HCS injection improve the expression of serum tumor markers CEA and CA199, whose internal mechanism needs further research.
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    Correlation of cardiac output measured by noninvasive cardiac output monitoring and thermodilution
    ZHANG Hai-yan, JIN Shan-liang, DONG Rong
    2013, 33 (12):  1630. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.016

    Abstract ( 832 )   PDF (825KB) ( 1178 )  
    Objective To explore correlation of cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI) measured by noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) and thermodilution (Swan Ganz catheter), and to assess clinical value of NICOM. Methods Thirty-six adult patients undergone off pump coronary artery bypass surgery were selected. CO and CI parameters were measured by NICOM and Swan Ganz catheter simultaneously at nine time points: before incision (T1), opening chest (T2), requiring internal mammary artery (T3), opening pericardia (T4), left anterior descending coronary artery bypass graft (T5), diagonal branches (T6), posterior descending branch (T7), closing pericardial (T8), and closing chest (T9). The correlation of CO and CI parameters were evaluated. Results At T1, T3, T4  time points, the coefficient curve was fit in 0.858, 0.850, and 0.877 of CO, 0.752, 0.819, and 0.804 of CI, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion NICOM may provide accuracy references in perioperative period, which has complete correlation to Swan Ganz catheter.
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    Comparative study between transumbilical sing-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy
    YANG Feng, MO Li-xian, TANG Guang-song, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1634. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.017

    Abstract ( 657 )   PDF (482KB) ( 959 )  
    Objective To study safety and feasibility of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods Eighty patients undergoing LC were randomly divided into single-port group and three-port group (n=40). Operation transfer rate, operation time, blood loss, postoperative ambulation, and postoperative hospitalizing stay were compared between two groups. Incisional pain was measured by visual analogue scale. Results Compared to three-port group, there were no significant differences among the blood loss, incisional pain, postoperative ambulation, prandial time, and postoperative hospitalizing stay between the two groups. The operation time in single-port group [(62±15.5) min] was remarkably longer than that of three-port group [(34±7.8) min](P<0.001). The patients in
    the single-port group were satisfactory for invisible abdominal scar. Conclusion Transumbilical single-port LC is a safe and feasible operation with satisfactory invisible abdominal scar.
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    Original article (Preventive medicine)
    Antagonism of zinc on testicular toxicity induced by arsenic exposure in male rats
    NAN Nan, ZHAN Ping
    2013, 33 (12):  1637. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.018

    Abstract ( 611 )   PDF (942KB) ( 939 )  
    Objective To explore the antagonism effects of different doses of zinc on testicular toxicity induced by arsenic. Methods Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, arsenic group (4 mg/kg NaAsO2), arsenic plus low-dose zinc group (4 mg/kg NaAsO2+8 mg/kg ZnSO4), arsenic plus mid-dose zinc group (4 mg/kg NaAsO2+20 mg/kg ZnSO4), and arsenic plus high-dose zinc group (4 mg/kg NaAsO2+50 mg/kg ZnSO4). Intragastric administration was applied for 60 consecutive days. The testes were observed with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expression of Fas protein was examined by immunohistochemistry staining. The concentration of testosterone in serum was examined by radioimmunoassay. The zinc content in testis was determined by atomic absorbing spectrometry. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Compared to control group, arsenic administration caused remarkable decreases of spermatogenic cells and vacuolization of seminiferous tubular cells, and higher expression of Fas, significant reduction of zinc content, lower testosterone concentration, and significantly aggravated lipid peroxidation were observed in arsenic group (P<0.05). Compared to arsenic group, zinc treatment significantly reduced the expression of Fas, increased serum testosterone level, and alleviated lipid peroxidation (P<0.05). The protective effect of mid-dose zinc was the best. There were no differences in the levels of MDA and LDH between arsenic group and arsenic plus low-dose zinc group. Conclusion Arsenic can lead to testis damage which may cause reproductive functional impairment. Zinc treatment can antagonize the toxicity of arsenic when the dosage of zinc is suitable.
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    Study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude, and premarital sexual intercourse among unmarried female migrant workers in Shanghai
    CAI Bo, SHANG Mei-li, CAI Yong, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1643. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.019

    Abstract ( 647 )   PDF (331KB) ( 859 )  
    Objective To assess the HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude, prevalence of premarital sexual intercourse among unmarried female migrant workers in Shanghai, and to explore factors associated with premarital intercourse. Methods A total of 800 unmarried female migrant workers from three factories were recruited using cluster random sampling. The response rate was 96.1% (769 replies) and 762 (99.1%) were usable questionnaires.  The questionnaire contents were emographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude, and prevalence of premarital sexual intercourse. Logistic regression was used to examine the correlation between premarital sexual intercourse and risk factors. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS related knowledge was 56.4%; the participants against premarital sexual intercourse were 38.1%; and the prevalence of premarital sexual intercourse was 36.1%. Multiple-logistic regression analysis shower that premarital sexual intercourse was associated with four factors: ①age (>25 years group vs <20 years group: OR=2.16, 95%CI=1.12-4.17), ②current residence (rental vs dormitory: OR=3.67, 95%CI=2.03-6.63), ③hometown (east vs mid-west: OR=3.13, 95%CI=1.64-5.97), ④attitude to premarital sexual intercourse (agree vs disagree: OR=9.23, 95%CI=4.90-17.39; neutrality vs disagree: OR=3.85, 95%CI=2.16-6.86). Conclusion Unmarried female migrant workers in Shanghai relatively lack of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, but they have open attitude toward premarital sexual intercourse so the prevalence of premarital sexual intercourse is high. It is necessary to conduct safe sex promotions to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS, other sexual transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy.
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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Patents management of pilot institutions in intellectual property in Shanghai health system
    WU Shi-yu, LI Guo-hong, ZHANG Kan, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1648. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.020

    Abstract ( 694 )   PDF (529KB) ( 838 )  
    Objective To explore status and problems of patents management of pilot institutions in intellectual property in Shanghai health system, and to make suggestion on policy adjustment. Methods The quantitative analysis was performed. The questionnaire for 57 patent administrative staff and 287 research investigators were applied in all 20 institutions. The institutions included 17 pilot institutions in intellectual property (pilot group) and 3 normal institutions (non-pilot group). The questionnaire consisted of basic information of subjects, patents training and management, patents knowledge, patents information utilizing, transfer of patents, and implement of patents. Results The responsibilities of administrative staff were mainly focused on patent application (73.7%). Compared to non-pilot group, the administrative staff from pilot group had better academic degree, professional title, education background, and qualification. There was significant difference of number of attending training of patent knowledge between pilot group and non-pilot group (P<0.05). The training which mostly wanted for administrative staff in pilot group was “patent evaluation”; and for research investigators in both groups was “patent application”. The scoring rate of the exam for basic patent knowledge were 52.4% in administrative staff and 32.3% in research investigators. There were 41.5% research investigators never knew foreign patent data base. There were 73.7% of administrative staff and 67.6% of research investigators asked for government guidelines which should be specific for the patent management in health care system; and 68.4% of administrative staff and 65.5% of research investigators needed the assistance of patent evaluation during the transfer of patents. Conclusion The government should strengthen the awareness and training; improve the system and mechanism of patent management; accelerate the education for versatile professionals with knowledge of intellectual property and medicine; increase production and quality of patents; and establish the platform for transfer of medical and pharmaceutical patents.
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    Practice and exploration of doctor-nurse associated model in community hypertension management
    WANG Su-ping, HUANG Yao-ting, GONG Rui-jie, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1654. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.021

    Abstract ( 676 )   PDF (320KB) ( 779 )  
    Objective To discuss effect of doctor-nurse associated model in community hypertension management, and to provide experiences of implementation of family physician system in Shanghai. Methods Patients with hypertension in Chenjiaxiang Neighborhood Committee were selected to receive doctor-nurse associated model management of family physician system. The blood pressure values were measured and analyzed. Results The blood pressure was controlled effectively 3 months after practice of doctor-nurse associated model management, and there was significant improvement 6 months later. Conclusion Implementation of doctor-nurse associated model reveals the role of “goalkeeper of health” of family physicians, which would configure medical resources more rationally, improve health conditions of residents, and raise residents' satisfaction and trust.
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    Survey on training quality of clinical graduates and residencies
    CHEN Li, FANG Yan, YU Pei-dong, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1658. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.022

    Abstract ( 756 )   PDF (350KB) ( 901 )  
    Objective To investigate the status and problems of training quality of clinical graduates and residencies. Methods Cluster sampling method and self-made questionnaire were employed to survey 95 residencies of 2010 grade. The survey evaluated curricula, practical teaching, education management, mentoring, and studying harvest of training process. And the survey data were compared with the evaluating results of clinical graduates. Results The results revealed that mentoring was given the highest score (4.51±0.56), while the lowest was curriculum (3.84±0.40). The overall score was 4.45±0.50. There was significant difference in evaluating results between clinical graduates and residencies (P<0.05). Compared to residencies, in medical graduates, the evaluation score of curricula was higher. There were higher scores of clinical rotation, assessment and training of clinical skills, mentoring of thesis writing in residencies compared to clinical graduates. The mentoring and practical teaching were significantly influencing factors of residencies. Conclusion The residencies were satisfied with quality of the training. The mode of residency training was helpful to improve graduates' clinical competence. However, the administrative staff should pay more attention to clinical practical teaching and daily process management.
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    Survey and analysis of training effectiveness of professional teachers for rural doctors
    QIN Jian-ye, HUANG Xu-yuan, ZHU Kun, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1663. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.023

    Abstract ( 815 )   PDF (275KB) ( 638 )  
    Objective To investigate motivation, demand, and expectation of physicians in affiliated hospitals who attend teachers' training for rural doctors. Methods Questionnaire survey and random interview were used in this study. The questionnaire consisted of personal information, motivation, affecting factors, and demand in training, and awareness of rural medical education. Some interviewees were selected from different age groups. Among 162 questionnaire, 148 effective copies were withdrawn. Fourteen physicians were interviewed. Results The main motivations included “become the expert or leader”, “improve the quality of teaching theory”, and “enhance career competitiveness”. “Limited energy due to stretched working load” was the most important reason for individual being absent in training. Two issues as barriers in rural doctors training were “lack of understanding of working scope of rural doctors” and “incapability of combining clinical practice with teaching program”. Conclusion In order to promote the effectiveness of teachers' training program, we may focus not only on general clinical teaching ability, but also on the needs of rural doctors.
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    Review
    Advances of effects of chronic low-grade inflammation on pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome
    LIN Zi-jun, TAO Tao, LIU Wei
    2013, 33 (12):  1667. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.024

    Abstract ( 774 )   PDF (464KB) ( 924 )  
    Inflammation is closely related to the occurrence and development of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinology
    metabolic disease in reproductive women. Recent studies showed that PCOS is related to  the situation of chronic low-grade inflammation, which is highly
    correlated to long-term complications of PCOS. However, the new evidences indicated that chronic persistent inflammation may take part in the early
    development of pathophysiology of PCOS, such as interaction between chronic inflammation and hyperandrogenism and insulin resistence. With the early
    detection and treatment of chronic low-grade inflammation of PCOS, it can be a new direction of pathogenesis and treatment of PCOS.
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    Advances of intracerebral neuron damage after status epilepticus
    WANG Xin-lin, GENG Zhi
    2013, 33 (12):  1673. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.025

    Abstract ( 578 )   PDF (313KB) ( 798 )  
    The specific mechanism of intracerebral neuron damage after status epilepticus was complicated. Studies suggested that status epilepticus could cause a series of physiopathologic changes in intracerebral neurons, such as the destruction of blood-brain barrier, the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, calcium influx, brain-specific enzymes, and the release of inflammatory cytokines. These changes could lead to brain neuronal degeneration, loss and necrosis. The new studies on neurons damage after status epilepticus are reviewed in this article.
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    Review of delirium assessment tools in pediatric intensive care units
    TANG Shan-shan, LUO Wen-yi, HSU Lily
    2013, 33 (12):  1677. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.026

    Abstract ( 828 )   PDF (325KB) ( 1102 )  
    Delirium is always associated with high mortality, prolonged length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU), post-ICU cognitive impairment, and other adverse outcomes, so that it arouses medical staffs' concerns for critical patients recently. Both Chinese and American Critical Care Associations have published clinical guidelines of delirium management in adult ICU, which make the diagnosis and treatment of delirium standardization gradually. However, there is still lack of attention and researches in pediatric ICU. Assessment or diagnostic tools for pediatric delirium are still inconsistent. Because children's cognition and behavior are different from adults, there is a limit to directly apply the adult delirium assessment tools (e.g. CAM-ICU) to pediatric patients. In this paper, we reviewed the pediatric delirium assessment tools, and summarized the characteristics and applications of these tools (e.g. pCAM-ICU, PAED), in order to provide references to deliver the assessment of pediatric delirium as soon as possible.
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    Brief original article
    Stress in perioperative period of two different anesthesia methods
    ZHONG Yong, ZHOU Jia, YUAN Lan
    2013, 33 (12):  1681. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.027

    Abstract ( 480 )   PDF (298KB) ( 899 )  
    Objective To explore stress in perioperative period of two different anesthesia methods. Methods According to matching design, 62 patients underwent abdominal surgery were selected and divided into general anesthesia group (group A) and general anesthesia combined with epidural block group (group B) with 31 in each. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), plasma norepinephrine (NE), serum cortisol (Cor), and serum C-reactive protein (CPR) concentration were measured in the beginning of anesthesia (T1), 30 min after beginning (T2), abdominal suture (T3), and 24 h after operation (T4). Operation time and amount of bleeding were recorded.ResultsThere were no significant differences of operation time and bleeding between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared to group A, MABP values were significantly lower in patients of group B in T1, T2, and T3 time points (P<0.05), but MABP values were similar in T4 (P>0.05). The HR values were normal in both groups. In T1, the NE levels of B group were significantly higher (P<0.01), but there were no significant differences of Cor and CRP values.
    In T2, T3, and T4 time points, the NE, Cor, and CRP values were significantly lower in group B than those of group A (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion General
    anesthesia combined with epidural block may reduce perioperative stress response compared to general anesthesia.
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    Technique and method
    Screening of DNA aptamers for recognizing tumor cells by using cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment
    XU Fa-liang, ZHOU Qi, KUANG Yi, et al
    2013, 33 (12):  1684. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.12.028

    Abstract ( 836 )   PDF (615KB) ( 1023 )  
    Objective To establish commonly used technical platform of cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (cell-SELEX) for screening DNA aptamers specifically binding to tumor cells. Methods A random double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) pool was established by PCR, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) library was then separated from dsDNA pool by using avidin coated Sepharose. In order to get DNA aptamers for cancer cells, cell-SELEX and PCR were performed by using cultured gastric cancer cell line as positive screening target while normal gastric mucosal cell line as negative. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to monitor the enrichment efficiency and affinity of aptamers. Cloning, sequencing, and sequence analysis of aptamers by conventional molecular biology techniques were also carried out. Results A random ssDNA pool was successfully established and specific aptamers of tumor cells were got after 12 runs' cell-SELEX. Of 120 positive sequenced clones, 21 aptamers were identified. Accurate alignment of Blastn implied that not any similar sequence to 21 submitted aptamers was found in NCBI data base. Conclusion The article provided a technical platform for obtaining DNA aptamers specifically binding to tumor cells in a relatively short period of time.
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