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    28 July 2017, Volume 37 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Preparation of chitosan-gelatin porous microspheres by high voltage electrostatic method combined with freeze-drying and ionic cross-linking method
    HUANG Fang, RUI Wen-bin, XU Dan-feng, ZHU Yu, SHEN Bai-yong, PENG Cheng-hong
    2017, 37 (7):  885. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.001?

    Abstract ( 550 )   PDF (9334KB) ( 989 )  
    Objective · To prepare chitosan-gelatin porous microspheres by high voltage electrostatic method combined with freeze-drying and ionic cross-linking method and investigate the factors that influence the formation of porous medium.  Methods · Porous chitosan microspheres and chitosangelatin porous microspheres were prepared using high voltage electrostatic method combined with freeze-drying and ionic cross-linking method, with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) as crosslinking agent. Factors that affect the porous structure and pore size of porous microspheres were compared, such as different chitosan-gelatin ratio, freezing temperature, curing time with saturated STPP in 85% ethanol solution. The morphology, surface and internal structure, particle size of the porous chitosan microspheres and chitosan-gelatin porous microspheres were observe by using light microscope, scanning electron microscope and hematoxylin-eosin staining.  Results · Microspheres prepared by freeze-drying with an electrostatic and ionic cross-linking method have open, interconnected and highly macroporous, with good spherical surface. Saturated STPP ethanol solution (85% ethanol) was chosen as the crosslinking agent to prevent destruction of the porous structure. The order of freeze and crosslinking, cross-linking time and the second freezing temperature, can influence the pore size of porous microspheres. Gelatin and chitosan can form polyelectrolyte complexes, and can also be used as porogen in porous structure.  Conclusion · The preparation of porous chitosan-gelatin microspheres via this method has a large pore size (diameter 100-200 µm), suitable for cell growth and the migration.
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    Association study of CFH gene polymorphisms with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population
    GENG Rui-jie, BAO Chen-xi, LU Yan-hua, CHENG Xiao-yan, ZHU Ming-huan, JIA Si, ZHAO Jing, ZHANG Chen, Lü Qin-yu, YI Zheng-hui
    2017, 37 (7):  891. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.002

    Abstract ( 649 )   PDF (6164KB) ( 734 )  
     Objective · To investigate the correlation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of complement factor H (CFH) gene with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.  Methods · The genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies of 5 SNP loci (rs800292, rs1061170, rs10801555, rs10922096 and rs2019727) in CFH gene were compared between 418 patients with schizophrenia (case group) and 655 normal people (control group) by SNaPshot technique.  Results · All SNP loci were well genotyped in the subjects. Correlation analysis showed that rs1061170 locus allele frequency distribution difference between case group and control group was statistically significant (corrected P=0.045), while genotype and allele frequencies of other SNP loci were not significantly different (all corrected P>0.05). The frequency of haplotype C-A-T-A-A (rs800292-rs1061170-rs10801555-rs10922096-rs2019727) in case group was different from that in control group (corrected P=0.013).  Conclusion · The allele polymorphisms of rs1061170 and the haplotype C-AT-A-A of rs800292-rs1061170-rs10801555-rs10922096-rs2019727 may be associated with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.
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    Construction of C-shaped cartilage with electrospun gelatin/polycaprolactone nanofibrous membranes and 3D printed supporter#br#
    ZHANG Heng-yi, FENG Bei, GE Yang, GAO Man-chen, BAI Jie, FU Wei, XU Zhi-wei
    2017, 37 (7):  896. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.003

    Abstract ( 599 )   PDF (6574KB) ( 870 )  
     Objective · To construct C-shaped cartilage rings by rabbit auricular cartilage-derived chondrocytes combing with both electrospun gelatin/ polycaprolactone(GT/PCL) nanofibrous membranes and 3D printed supporters for repairing tracheal cartilage defects.  Methods · Primary chondrocytes were isolated from rabbit auricular cartilage with methods of trypsin enzyme digestion and collagenase enzyme digestion. After proliferation in vitro, the chondrocytes of passage 2 were harvested for further experiments. Ultrafine composite fibers of GT/PCL were fabricated via electrospinning. The electrospun GT/PCL membranes were tailored into rectangle shape, the length of which is 12 cm and the width is 2.5 cm. Chondrocytes were seeded on membrane at a density of 1×108 cells/mL. Then the membrane were rolled onto a 3D printed supporter of poly(DL-lactide-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) material to construct a C-shaped cartilage-like complex. After 8 weeks of subcutaneous incubation in vivo, gross inspection and paraffin section staining were applied for evaluation.  Results · After 8 weeks of culture in vivo, mature cartilage-like tissue were formed with open-cylindrical bellow appearance and pecific mechanical property. C-shaped rings arranged at regular intervals on the inner surface of tissue, which were similar to the normal structure of tracheal cartilages. Histological and immunohistological staining showed a large number of typical lacunar structures and extracellular matrix secretions.  Conclusion · It is feasible to construct tissue engineered C-shaped cartilage tissue by combing chondrocytes with GT/PCL membrane and 3D printed PLCL supporter for tracheal cartilage repair.
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    Pathological damage of optic nerve in mice by the application of TACI-Ig#br#
    HAN Lu, YANG Hong, LI Mei, ZHU De-sheng, LI Ze-zhi, LIU Ming-yuan, GUAN Yang-tai
    2017, 37 (7):  901. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.004

    Abstract ( 667 )   PDF (7604KB) ( 601 )  
    Objective · To eliminate the effects of intraperitoneal injection of transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor-Ig (TACI-Ig) on the opitc neuritis and the integrity of myelin sheath in mice.  Methods · Twenty-four C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, which were blank control group, saline control group, low-dose (0.4 mg/kg) TACI-Ig group and high-dose (4 mg/kg) TACI-Ig group, with 6 mice in each group. All groups were received intraperitoneal injection every other day. The saline control group received 0.2 mL saline injection in the same way, and the blank control group was not given any intervention. After 20 d of treatment, the eyeballs and optic nerve tissues were collected from each mouse under anaesthesia, embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and Luxol fast blue (LFB), respectively.  Results · H-E staining indicated that optic nerve fibers arranged closely both in blank and saline control groups and the staining of tissues was uniform. The optic nerve structure of low-dose TACI-Ig group was similar to blank and saline control groups, while in high-dose of TACI-Ig group, the infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed. The inflammatory cell infiltration scores were not significantly different in all groups (P=0.610 3). The retinal structures of all groups were clear and distinct to observe, and single ganglion cells arranged tightly with complete cell shape, visible nucleus and uniform distribution. There was no difference in the retina structure among 4 groups. LFB staining indicated that there was no significant loss of the optic nerve myelin in 4 groups by microscope observation (P=0.473 6).  Conclusion · Low-dose (0.4 mg/kg) TACI-Ig injection wouldn’t damage the normal structure of optic nerves and retinal ganglion cells, meanwhile high-dose (4 mg/kg) of TACI-Ig injection might cause minor infiltration of inflammatory cells into retina.
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    Construction of a new alcoholic liver disease mouse model
    HUANG Dong-dong, WO Lu-lu, RUAN Xin, XU Ya-qian, GONG Yi-ming, YANG Lin-xi, LI Xue-chuan, KANG Yue-ning, HE Ming
    2017, 37 (7):  906. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.005

    Abstract ( 1046 )   PDF (9792KB) ( 1096 )  
    Objective · To establish a reliable alcoholic liver disease mouse model (ALDNM) that mimics the drinking pattern of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) patients.  Methods · Using the self-designed feeding tubes and liquid diet, ALDNM model was developed through chronic feeding combined with acute gavage of ethanol based on Lieber-DeCarli model and Gao-Binge model. C57BL/6 mice were administered with control liquid diet for adaptation for first 5 d, and then divided into pair-fed group and ethanol-fed group (10 mice each group). Ethanol-fed mice were fed with the liquid diet in which ethanol accounts for 30% of total energy, while the pair-fed mice were fed with the control diet for 10 d. At the 16th day, ethanol-fed mice and pair-fed mice were respectively gavaged a single dose of 31.5% ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin, and euthanized 9 h later. Sera and livers were collected. The general physiological condition, hepatic tissue pathological changes and serum indexes between Lieber-DeCarli models and ALDNM models were compared. The liver lipids of ALDNM mice were determined by Oil red O (ORO) staining and hepatic triacylglyceride (TAG) test. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), fatty acid synthase (Fas), long chain fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6) and stearyl-CoA desaturase (Scd1) were detected by real-time PCR in ALDNM models. Western blotting was used to detect the changes of phosphorylated signal transduction and transcriptional activator (p-STAT3) in the livers.  Results · Lieber-DeCarli model mice were generally in poor condition, and there was no significant change in serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) compared to pair-fed group. However, in ALDNM models, H-E staining showed that the hepatocytes of ethanol-fed mice were extremely swollen with round volume, increased cytoplasm and filled with large amounts of fat vacuoles. ORO staining analyses showed obvious microsteatosis in the liver cells from all ethanol-fed mice. The hepatosomatic index, liver TAG content, serum GPT and GOT of ALDNM models were significantly higher than those in the pair-fed group, while the serum HDL significantly decreased compared to the pair-fed group. Moreover, the expression levels of both lipid synthesis pathways and inflammatory signaling pathways related genes in livers significantly increased in the ethanol-fed mice of ALDNM model.  Conclusion · ALDNM model was successfully constructed. This model is cost- and time-efficient. Moreover, ALDNM model mimics the drinking pattern and pathogenesis of ALD patients with the advantages of stable food intake, good repeatability, and obvious liver damage.
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    CaMKKβ promotes mouse macrophage M2 polarization by activating AMPK/JAK2/STAT3 signaling
    KONG Xiang-xin, LIU Hui-fang, CHEN Feng-ling
    2017, 37 (7):  914. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.006

    Abstract ( 1086 )   PDF (9594KB) ( 1034 )  
     Objective · To investigate the role and mechanism of CaMKKβ in RAW264.7 macrophage M2 polarization induced by interleukin-4 (IL-4). 
     Methods · IL-4 induced RAW264.7 polarization was measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to analyze the total and phosphorylated protein levels of CaMKKβ, AMPK, JAK2 and STAT3 during polarization. A lentiviral vector carrying an shRNA targeting the CaMKKβ gene was successfully constructed. The expression of M1 and M2 markers and the expression of phosphorylated AMPK, JAK2, STAT3 were detected by RTPCR and Western blotting respectively. The protein activity of AMPK, JAK2 and STAT3 were selectively blocked, and then the effect of IL-4 on macrophage polarization was detected by RT-PCR.  Results · IL-4 significantly polarized RAW264.7 cells towards M2 macrophages (P<0.05), and the phosphorylated protein expression of CaMKKβ, AMPK, JAK2, STAT3 was significantly increased (all P<0.05). The expression of M2 markers induced by IL-4 was decreased and the phosphorylation of AMPK, JAK2 and STAT3 was also decreased after knockdown of CaMKKβ by shRNA (all P<0.05). The polarization of macrophages to M2 was decreased after the activities of AMPK, JAK2 and STAT3 proteins were blocked respectively (all P<0.05).  Conclusion · CaMKKβ promotes IL-4 induced M2 macrophage polarization via activation of AMPK/JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
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    Effects of bromodomain containing protein 4 specific inhibitor JQ-1 on human hypertropic scar#br#
    HU Yan-ge, HAO Jian, ZHANG Di, YANG Chuan-feng, SONG Chen-lu, FANG Yong
    2017, 37 (7):  924. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.007

    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (7022KB) ( 603 )  
     Objective · To investigate effect and the possible molecular mechanism of JQ1, a specific inhibitor of bromodomain containing protein 4, on human hypertropic scar.  Methods · Primary fibroblasts were isolated from human hypertrophic scars and treated with JQ-1 of different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, and 12.5 μmol/L) for 48 h. Then CCK-8 kit and wound healing assay were used to measure proliferation and migration of the fibroblasts. ELISA was adopted to detect the levels of collagen type  Ⅰ (COL Ⅰ) and TGF-β1 after JQ-1 treatment for 24 h. Thirty-six nude mice were used for hypertrophic scar models. Human hypertrophic scars (1.0 cm×1.0 cm×0.5 cm) were grafted subcutaneously at the backs of nude mice to establish scar animal models. After 4 weeks, the nude mice were averagely divided into two groups, i.e. JQ-1 group and DMSO group, which were respectively injected with 0.5 μmol/L
     JQ-1 and 0.1% DMSO each mouse every day. COL Ⅰ / Ⅲ and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were examined by immunohistochemical method and sirius red staining.  Results · Cell experiments showed that JQ-1 with the concentration of 0.5 μmol/L and above significantly inhibited proliferation of fibroblasts (P<0.01). JQ-1 inhibited migration of fibroblast (P<0.01). JQ-1 inhibited secretion of COL Ⅰ and TGF-β1 of fibroblasts (P<0.01). Animal experiments showed that concentration and proportion of COL Ⅰ / Ⅲ in JQ-1 group decreased compared to DMSO group (P<0.05). α-SMA protein expression in JQ-1 group also decreased (P<0.05).  Conclusion · JQ-1 can inhibit proliferation, migration, secretion of COL Ⅰ , and production of TGF-β1 of human scar fibroblasts in vitro; it can also inhibit secretion of COL Ⅰ / Ⅲ and fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation in the human hypertrophic scars in nude mice.
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    Construction of recombinant mycobacteriophage TM4RpfE#br#
    DU Li-juan, YANG Ting, XU Li, XING Ai-ying, LIU Zhong-quan, ZHANG Zong-de, GUO Shu-liang
    2017, 37 (7):  930. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.008

    Abstract ( 617 )   PDF (7667KB) ( 689 )  
    Objective · To construct recombinant mycobacteriophage TM4-RpfE to lay a foundation for experimental research about how to eradicate Mycobacterium tuberculosis in combination with anti-tuberculosis drugs, and how to shorten treatment for tuberculosis ultimately.  Methods · Electrotransformation was used to introduce pJV53 plasmid into Mycobacterium smegmatis to prepare recombinant engineering bacteria. After amplification of hsp60-RpfE fusion gene by overlap PCR, a long gene fragment (homologous +hsp60-RpfE+homologous, HHRH) was amplified by multi-step overlap PCR. The DNA of mycobacteriophage TM4 and HHRH fragment were cotransfected  into the recombinant engineering bacteria by electrotransformation, then the recombinant phage from the single primary plaques were confirmed by PCR and sequencing. SDS-PAGE was used to analyze the protein expression in recombinant phage.  Results · The hsp60-RpfE fusion gene at the length of 901 bp and HHRH fragment at the length of 1 873 bp were identified by overlap PCR. The PCR product produced 955 bp and 301 bp DNA bands in the first generation plaques colony. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a specific protein band at 21 000 in the recombinant phages.  Conclusion · The recombinant mycobacterium phage TM4-RpfE was successfully constructed and the expression of target gene RpfE was initially verified.
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    Inflammatory mechanism of estrogen in the pain modulation of ovariectomized mice#br#
    WANG Zhi, SONG Xiao-xing, ZHANG Fu-jun
    2017, 37 (7):  936. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.009?

    Abstract ( 504 )   PDF (8670KB) ( 538 )  
    Objective · Giving the ovariectomized (OVX) mice exogenous estrogen replace therapy (ERT) so as to explore the inflammatory mechanism of estrogen in the pain modulation of OVX mice.  Methods · Twenty-four 12-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were randomized into three groups: sham group (S), ovariectomy+placebo group (P), ovariectomy+estrogen group (E). The ERT began from one week after OVX and last for four weeks. Paw withdraw threshold (PWT) and paw withdraw latency (PWL) were measured at one day before OVX, and three days, one week, two weeks, three weeks, four weeks and five weeks after OVX. Concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in serum were measured at three days and five weeks postoperatively. Five weeks after operation, the lumbar intumescentia of spinal cord was taken and the expression of p38 was analyzed by Western blotting.  Results · All the OVX mice’s PWTs or PWLs were decreased after operation compared with non-operation mice; PWTs and PWLs were significantly different from group S separately from one week and three days after OVX (P<0.01). The inflammatory cytokines of OVX mice were significantly higher than group S (both P<0.01) at three days after OVX. Western blotting results showed that the p38 of group P was significantly higher than that of group S after five weeks postoperatively (P<0.01). By receiving ERT, both PWTs and PWLs of group E increased slightly and were significantly different from group S (P<0.01) at four and five weeks after OVX. At five weeks after OVX, inflammatory cytokines of group E were significantly lower than group P (P<0.01) but still much higher than group S (P<0.01). Meanwhile the content of p38 in group E was less than that in group P (P<0.01). The p38 in group E was still more than group S, however it was no longer significantly different from group S (P>0.05).  Conclusion · Estrogen may reduce concentrations of inflammatory cytokines through the p38 MAPK pathway and plays an important role in the pain modulation of OVX mice.
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    Effect of mitochondria permeability transition pore on H9c2 myocardial cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide#br#
    GUO Zhu-ying, XU Mang-hua, HE Wei, WANG Shi-ting
    2017, 37 (7):  942. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.010?

    Abstract ( 404 )   PDF (9953KB) ( 676 )  
    Objective · To observe mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and apoptosis of H9c2 myocardial cell stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and to explore the anti-apoptotic effect of combined application of cyclosporine A (CsA) and ryanodine (Rya).  Methods · The H9c2 cells were divided into Control group, LPS group, LPS+CsA group, LPS+Rya group, and LPS+CsA+Rya group. The mPTP opening state, Ca2 + concentration within cell and mitochondrial, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΦm), cell apoptosis, expression of Bax and Bcl-2 at mRNA and protein levels, and activity of caspase 3 were determined respectively.  Results · mPTP opened after being stimulated by LPS for 24 h, which increased the fluorescence intensity for Ca2+ in cytosolic and mitochondria by 298% and 231% respectively, induced about 1/3 cell apoptosis, improved the activity of caspase 3 approximately twice, and enhanced expression of Bax mRNA (P=0.008). The combined use of CsA and Rya effectively inhibited mPTP opening, increased the enhancement of fluorescence intensity for Ca2+ in both cytosolic and mitochondria, maintained normal ΔΦm, reduced LPS-induced apoptosis, inhibited the activity of caspase 3, and decreased Bax mRNA expression level induced by LPS in the myocardial cells.  Conclusion · mPTP plays an important role in in LPS-induced myocardial apoptosis, whereas the combination of CsA and Rya can alleviate it effectively.
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    Study on detection biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease based on plasma immune and inflammatory proteins#br#
    HE Lu, WANG Ying, WANG Ying, XU Wei, CHEN Sheng-di, ZHAO Jian, DING Jian-qing
    2017, 37 (7):  950. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.011

    Abstract ( 576 )   PDF (7121KB) ( 708 )  
     Objective · To explore plasma immune and inflammatory proteins that could serve as potential screening markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD).  Methods · Healthy controls (n=19) and AD patients (n=19) were enrolled. Plasma samples were collected and 70 kinds of immune and inflammatory proteins were detected. The immune and inflammatory proteins associated with AD were screened by Mann-Whitney U test and partial correlation analysis. Discriminant analysis was used to develop multi-protein combined algorithm to distinguish plasma samples of AD patients from those of healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy for the multi-protein combined algorithm.  Results · Among the 70 proteins analyzed, 23 were significantly higher in AD patients (P<0.05), among which 19 were strongly correlated with AD (P<0.05). These 19 proteins were analyzed with Wilks' lambda stepwise analysis to develop discriminant algorithm for detecting plasma samples of AD. Finally, the discriminant algorithm established by 11 plasma immune and inflammatory proteins (EGF, GRO, MDC, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-4, TARC, SCF, TRAIL, CTACK, GCP2) was found to have an optimal diagnostic efficacy (AUC=0.994). The optimal cutoff value of the algorithm was -0.609. When the optimal cutoff value was obtained, the sensitivity of the equation could reach 100% and the specificity could reach 94.7%.  Conclusion · The discriminant equation composed of the above 11 plasma immune and inflammatory proteins has the potential to assist AD screening.
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    Correlation of serum acute amyloid A level and activity of Behcet’s disease#br#
    ZHOU Zhen-yuan, LIN Yan-wei, SHEN Nan, LU Yu
    2017, 37 (7):  955. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.012?

    Abstract ( 408 )   PDF (4703KB) ( 818 )  
     Objective · To investigate correlation of serum acute amyloid A (A-SAA) level and activity of Behcet's disease (BD).  Methods · Blood samples from patients with active BD (n=40), remission BD (n=15), Takayasu disease (TA, n=12), rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=25), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n=25) and healthy donor (HD, n=25) were collected. Serum A-SAA, ESR, and CRP levels were detected and compared among groups. The correlation between A-SAA and its downstream IL-8 or International Society for Behcet's disease (ISBD) disease activity scores was analyzed as well.  Results · Serum A-SAA level was significantly increased in the patients with active BD [(115.70±87.78) mg/L], as well as patients with RA and TA, which levels were (68.72±61.50) mg/L and (96.25±87.41) mg/L respectively, but remained unchanged in SLE patients. Moreover, serum A-SAA level was found correlated with ISBD score as well as IL-8 level.  Conclusion · A-SAA can work as a detection index for evaluating BD activity.
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    Comparison analysis of clinical characteristic of non-organic dyspnea and asthma both with a complaint of dyspnea#br#
    YAO Tao, AO Min, PENG Yin-yin, JIANG Li-sha, GUO Shu-liang
    2017, 37 (7):  959. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.013

    Abstract ( 616 )   PDF (7561KB) ( 723 )  
    Objective · To investigate and compare the clinical characteristic of non-organic dyspnea and asthma both with complaint of dyspnea.  Methods · Seventy-four consecutive patients with non-organic dyspnea, and 74 age-, height-, weight and sex-matched patients with asthma were recruited for investigation in the study. The self-assessment surveys were conducted for the two groups by means of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Nijmegen Questionnaire and Athens Insomnia Scale. The words for describing dyspnea, clinical symptoms ,effective sleep hours and items of pulmonary function test were collected and analyzed  Results · Non-organic dyspnea patients tended to describe psychogenic aspects. Asthma patients tended to describe airflow limitation. Non-organic dyspnea group mainly performed psychogenic symptoms. The sleeping time in non-organic dyspnea group was significantly lower than that in asthma group(P<0.05). The score of anxiety, depression, Nijmegen Questionnaire, Athens Insomnia Scale, FEV1, FEV1%Pred, FVC%Pred, FEV1/FVC in non-organic dyspnea group were significantly higher than those in asthma group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in FVC between two groups(P>0.05).  Conclusion · The non-organic group feel more anxiety, depressed and insomnic than the asthma group. Lung function test of asthma group is offen abnormal. To discriminate non-organic dyspnea with asthma, clinicians should pay more attention to emotion, sleep, somatoform symptoms, medical history and so on, and do pulmonary function test, improve the understanding of the characteristics of the two diseases, decrease misdiagnosis and wrong diagnosis.
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    Predictive value of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in prognosis of acute ischemic stroke
    YUE Dan-dan, WEI Zhen-yu, CHEN Xin, WANG Jia-yan, LU Wen-mei, ZHONG Ping, WU Dan-hong
    2017, 37 (7):  964. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.014

    Abstract ( 589 )   PDF (6838KB) ( 534 )  
    Objective · To study the change of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients within one week after attack, and the correlation of cEPCs with the prognosis.  Methods · Ninty-two patients with AIS (AIS group) and 20 patients with risk factors (Risk group) were recruited. The proportion of cEPCs (CD34+KDR+ cells) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of AIS patients was measured  by flow cytometry (FCM) on the first day of admission and the seventh day after attack. Functional recovery was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on the 90th day after onset. The cEPCs percentages of AIS patients with different mRS were compared to analyze their correlation.  Results · Compared with Risk group, cEPCs percentage of AIS group on the 1st day of admission was lower (P=0.016). In AIS group, compared with poor prognosis group (mRS>2), cEPCs percentage of good prognosis group on the 7th day after onset (mRS ≤ 2) elevates (P=0.002). The result of multiple linear regression showed that cEPCs percentage on the 7th day after onset was positively correlated with mRS on the 90th day (t=4.608, P=0.011).  Conclusion · The percentage of cEPCs in peripheral blood of AIS patients decreases significantly during the acute phase. The percentage on the 7th day after onset is correlated with prognosis of AIS patients.
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    Application of two-dimensional ultrasound combined with four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of uterine space-occupying lesion
    LIU Dan, ZHOU Hong-gui, LI Ming-xing, ZHANG Yu, PENG Li-qing
    2017, 37 (7):  969. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.015?

    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (5389KB) ( 777 )  
     Objective · To evaluate the clinical value of two-dimensional ultrasound combined with four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of uterine space-occupying lesion.  Methods · A total of 75 patients with uterine space-occupying lesion were enrolled in this study from March 2015 to February 2016 at Hospital of Southwest Medical University. Patients received both two-dimensional ultrasound and four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound to determine the location, number and nature of the lesions, as well as the clinical staging of malignant lesions, then the diagnostic accuracy was evaluated.  Results · Among 75 patients, there were 26 cases with endometrial carcinoma, 21 cases with hysteromyoma, 16 cases with metropolypus, and 12 cases with uterine adenomyosis. The diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional ultrasound combined with four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound for the uterine space-occupying lesion was 88.0%, which was significantly higher than that of two-dimensional ultrasound (64.0%) (P<0.05). What's more, the diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional ultrasound combined with four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound for the clinical staging of endometrial carcinoma was 88.5%, which was significantly higher than that of two-dimensional ultrasound (61.5%) (P<0.05).  Conclusion · Two-dimensional ultrasound combined with four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound is more effective to improve the diagnostic accuracy of uterine space occupying lesion and clinical staging of endometrial carcinoma in comparison with two-dimensional ultrasound, which will favor the clinical strategy for the treatment of uterine space-occupying lesion.
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    High-risk factors of infection of multidrug resistance Klebsiella pneumonia and analysis of therapeutic effects#br#
    LIU Yang, ZHENG Dan-dan, HAN Yi-chao, SHI Wei-yang, DAI Er-kuan, LI Min, ZHENG Bing
    2017, 37 (7):  973. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.016

    Abstract ( 2209 )   PDF (7126KB) ( 738 )  
    Objective · To analyze high-risk factors of infection of multidrug resistance Klebsiella pneumonia (MDR-Kpn) and difference of therapeutic effects for different treatments.  Methods · One hundred and ten MDR-Kpn strains were collected from a hospital. K-B slip diffusion method was utilized to detect the drug susceptibility of all the strains. Based on electronic medical records system, MDR-Kpn infected group included 51 patients and control group was picked out, including 51 patients as well (by1:1 ratio basing on the infected group according to the rules of under the same department, similar basic disease and all the patients in the control group isolated with the strain of Kpn). Thirty-nine clinical information of MDR-Kpn infected and control groups are collected to make single-factor analysis of high risk factors of the infection with MDR-Kpn. Multi-factor analysis was utilized between MDRKpn infected and control groups. The lasting time of different antibiotics used in MDR-Kpn infected patients were made statistics between effective and inefficacy patients.  Results · Drug susceptibility test showed that sulfonamide, phosphonomycin and amikacin, were the three most sensitive antibiotics for 110 MDR-Kpn strains. 12 clinical information, such as blood transfusion、sputum suction、invasive ventilation were all high-risk factors for the infection of MDR-Kpn (P<0.05). The lasting time during with carbapenems (P=0.025) was statistically different between effective (n=28)and noneffective group (n=23) of MDR-Kpn infection patients.  Conclusion · Controlling and eliminating high-risk factors do help to protect and decrease the infection of MDR-Kpn. Using carbapenems correctly has great influence on prognosis.
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    Preliminary exploration of redesigning positive blood culture specimen processing flow#br#
    CHEN Feng, LI Yuan-rui, LIU Ying, YU Jing, HUAGNFU Yu-chan
    2017, 37 (7):  978. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.017?

    Abstract ( 741 )   PDF (9324KB) ( 928 )  
    Objective · To directly detect the bacteria in positive blood culture specimens by the separation gel tube combined with Microflex™ matrixassisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), perform direct antimicrobial susceptibility test based on the results of mass spectrometry, and preliminary explore the redesign of conventional positive blood culture specimen processing flow.  Methods · 449 positive-alarm blood culture specimens of monobacterial infections in clinical microbiology laboratory of Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016 were collected and prepared according to the new positive blood culture specimens processing flow. The new redesigned processing flow included smear staining and microscopy, separation gel/mass spectrometry direct identification, bacteria film/mass spectrometry identification, pure colony/mass spectrometry identification, direct antimicrobial susceptibility test, and conventional antimicrobial susceptibility test, etc. According to the results of microscopic examination, identification test, and antimicrobial susceptibility test, level Ⅰ direct microscopic examination report, positive blood culture level Ⅱ (direct identification/bacteria film identification or direct antimicrobial susceptibility) report, and level Ⅲ final report were provided sequentially.  Results · With the new redesigned processing flow, bacterial specieslevel identification reports for 82.2%, 95.8%, and 100% of positive blood samples could be obtain at 10 am and 17 pm on the current day and 10 am in the next morning, respectively, and be sent to clinical departments. Initial antimicrobial susceptibility reports for the bacteria that were considered as clinical significant pathogens by preliminary assessment could be provided in the next day of blood culture positive alarm with a higher coincidence rate as compared to the results of traditional antimicrobial susceptibility tests.  Conclusion · The time from blood culture positive alarm to the provision of initial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility reports is shorter by 1-2 d for the redesigned processing flow than for the traditional one, which can provide fast and accurate etiologic diagnosis evidence for bloodstream infections for clinicians and is important for improving early diagnosis and treatment of clinical bloodstream infections.
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    Clinical analysis on tricuspid valve replacement for secondary tricuspid regurgitation late after left-sided valve surgery#br#
    LI Wei,GU Wei-li, ZHANG Wei, FANG Liang
    2017, 37 (7):  987. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.018

    Abstract ( 760 )   PDF (8916KB) ( 766 )  
     Objective · To analyse the outcomes of tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) for secondary tricuspid regurgitation (STR) late after left-sided valve surgery during perioperative period and mid-term follow-up, investigate mechanisms of STR and surgical risk factors.  Methods · A total of 85 consecutive patients who underwent the TVR surgery were analyzed. The perioperative and mid-term clinical outcomes were retrospectively investigated. The data were divided into bioprosthesis group (n=50) and mechanical prosthesis group (n=35) according to the prosthesis used, and divided into right anterolateral thoracotomy(RALT) group (n=51) and sternotomy(S) group (n=34) according to the surgical incision.  Results · In-hospital mortality was 8.2% (7/85). There was no significant difference in the mortality with different choice of bioprosthetic or mechanical valve (4/50 vs 3/35, χ2=0.009,P=1.000); while there was significant difference between S group and RALT group (6/34 vs 1/51,χ2=6.642, P=0.015). Seven cases all died of right heart failure and severe low cardiac output syndrome. Five (5.9%) cases died in perioperative within 30 in-hospital days and 2 (2.4%) cases died after 30 in-hospital days. Seventy-four cases were followed up. With the follow-up of (31.5±23.1) months, there were 4 case of late deaths(5.4%), all of whom were mechanical prosthesis, of whom 3 died in cardiac related death and 1 died in later period bowel cancer. Seventy cases survived in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-II with no coagulated accident and redo-TVR.  Conclusion · The perioperative and mid-term clinical outcomes are satisfied in timely and reasonable TVR with the standard follow-up for STR late after left-sided valve surgery. Right anterolateral incision is recommend for isolated TVR.
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    Analysis of clinical characteristics of decompensated cirrhosis patients with intestinal obstruction and related risk factors#br#
    SONG Ya-lan, LUO ling, ZHANG Yun-zhi
    2017, 37 (7):  993. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.019

    Abstract ( 655 )   PDF (6402KB) ( 1317 )  
    Objective · To analyze the clinical characteristics of decompensated cirrhosis patients with intestinal obstruction and related risk factors.  Methods · Clinical data of 1 783 decompensated cirrhosis patients treated between March 2010 and March 2016 were collected. Of them, 128 (7.18%) patients with intestinal obstruction were screened as the observation group and 128 patients without intestinal obstruction were randomly selected as the control group. Clinical data of two groups were retrospectively investigated, clinical characteristics were compared and analyzed, and related risk factors were analyzed with the Logistic regression analysis.  Results · The clinical symptoms of decompensated cirrhosis patients with intestinal obstruction were hidden and misdiagnoses or delayed diagnoses were common. The incidences of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, vomiting, stop exhaust defecate, ascites, electrolyte disorders, fever, and spontaneous peritonitis were significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The results of univariate analysis showed that age, history of abdominal surgery, white blood cell count, serum sodium, serum potassium, neutrophil percentage, and serum albumin were risk factors for decompensated cirrhosis patients with intestinal obstruction. The results of multivariate analysis indicated that age, history of abdominal surgery, white blood cell count, serum sodium, serum potassium, neutrophil percentage, and serum albumin were independent risk factors for decompensated cirrhosis patients with intestinal obstruction.  Conclusion · Decompensated cirrhosis patients with age ≥ 50 years old, a history of abdominal surgery, the abdominal cavity infection, low potassium, hyponatremia, and lower serum albumin are likely to develop the intestinal obstruction.
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    Comparison of efficacy of video-assisted thoracic surgery and conventional lung volume reduction surgery for the treatment of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis
    MAO Yi-ming, WEI Chang-jiang, WU Chang-jiang, QIN Yuan, LU Jia-hao, LU Wen-qiang
    2017, 37 (7):  997. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.020

    Abstract ( 544 )   PDF (8923KB) ( 1022 )  
    Objective · To compare the efficacy of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and conventional lung volume reduction surgery for the treatment of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a meta-analysis.  Methods ·  Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and nonrandomized control studies of VATS (the VATS group) and conventional lung volume reduction surgery (the thoracotomy group) for treating patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were collected from databases, including Web of Science, EMbase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM disc, WanFang Data, and VIP. The latest literature was published in November 2016. The assessment included the quality of literature and RevMan5.3 software was used to perform the meta-analysis.  Results · Of 779 retrieved articles, 12 studies involving 966 patients were included according to the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analysis showed that the operation time of bilateral LVRS was longer in the VATS group than in the thoracotomy group, but the difference in the operation time of single LVRS between the two groups was not statistically significant. The difference in the duration of chest tube drainage for bilateral LVRS between the two groups was not statistically significant, while the duration of chest tube drainage for single LVRS was significantly shorter in the VATS group than in the thoracotomy group. The amount of intraoperative blood loss postoperative drainage was significantly smaller in the VATS group than in the thoracotomy group. Postoperative pulmonary function and blood gas analysis showed that the 6 min walking distance was longer in the VATS group than in the thoracotomy group. The differences in FEV1 and PaO2 between the two groups were not statistically significant, as well as the difference in postoperative complications between the two groups.  Conclusion · Comparing to conventional lung volume reduction surgery, Video-Assisted thoracic lung volume reduction surgery is a better choice. However, randomized control trials with higher quality and larger scale are required for verification this conclusion due to limitations of the quality and samples of these studies.
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    Effect of a novel chitosan-silver nitrate gel dressing on anti-septic and wound healing#br#
    YANG Chuan-feng, PENG Yin-bo, HAO Jian, SONG Chen-lu, HU Yan-ge, YAO Min
    2017, 37 (7):  1004. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.021

    Abstract ( 835 )   PDF (7684KB) ( 495 )  
    Objective · To investigate the effects of a novel chitosan-silver nitrate gel (CSNG) dressing on anti-septic in wound healing.  Methods · By using the ion membrane, the release rate of the new composite materials of silver ion was tested in vitro. Meanwhile, the anti-septic effects of CSNG on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were tested by colony counting. The rat wound healing model was used to detect the ability of new material to kill MRSA in vivo.  Results · Compared with control group, the release of silver ions of CSNG was much slower. Sterilization experiment showed that CSNG killed the MRSA, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans much more efficiently, compared to that in the other treatments. Animal experiments also showed that CSNG promoted the rats of wound healing.  Conclusion · Combining chitosan with silver nitrate and supplementary material could develop a novel chitosan-silver nitrate gel material, which not only has the obvious effects on antibacterial, but also on promoting wound healing.
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    A clinical comparative study of rubber ring versus dental floss combined with hemoclipping assisted endoscopic submucosal dissection on gastrointestinal tumor#br#
    CHEN Xiang-bo, XU Ting-ting, WU Qiu-li, ZHENG Qing-feng
    2017, 37 (7):  1010. 
    doi: ]10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.022?

    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (6168KB) ( 836 )  
    Objective · To investigate and compare the curative effect of rubber ring and dental floss combined with hemoclipping assisted endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) on gastrointestinal tumors.  Methods · A total of 54 patients with gastrointestinal tumors were collected. Twenty-seven patients in rubber ring group accepted ESD assisted by rubber ring with hemoclipping, and the other 27 patients in dental floss group accepted ESD assisted by dental floss with hemoclipping. Duration of the operation, installation time of the traction device, detachment frequency of hemoclipping, injury of mucosa, one-time complete resection rate, and complication rate were analyzed as key indicators.  Results · The detachment frequency of hemoclipping in rubber ring group was significantly less than that in dental floss group (t=4.418, P<0.05). There was no injury of mucosa in rubber ring group, while, three patients had mucosa injury in dental floss group. There was no statistically significant difference on duration of operation, installation time of traction device, one-time complete resection rate, and complication rate between two groups. After 2 ~ 12 months of follow-up, the wound healed well in all patients in rubber ring group. No evidence of tumor recurrence was noted.  Conclusion · Compared with dental floss, rubber ring combined with hemoclipping is superior in assisted ESD, especially in the right half colon. It is an effective assist device with little trauma and adjustable direction.
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    Clinicopathologic features of 9 cases of adult rhabdomyosarcoma#br#
    SHI Yong-heng, LONG Man-mei, LIU Qiang, CHEN Xiao-yu
    2017, 37 (7):  1015. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.023

    Abstract ( 591 )   PDF (6107KB) ( 509 )  
     Objective · To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of adult rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).  Methods · The clinical and pathological data, immunohistochemical test results of 9 RMS were analyzed retrospectively.  Results · The information of 6 males and 3 females were collected in this research, whose average age was (46.89±20.09) years old. The tumors had a wide range distribution. The subtypes of histology included 6 cases of embryonal RMS, 1 case of alveolar RMS, 1 case of spindle cell RMS and 1 case of pleomorphic RMS. Immunohistochemically study showed that 6 cases were myogenin positive, 4 cases were MyoD1 positive and 8 cases were desmin positive. During the follow-up period of the 7 cases, only 2 patients survived free of tumors, 2 patients presented with tumor recurrence and metastasis after the operations, and 3 patients died of tumor.  Conclusion · In this study, embryonal RMS is the most common type, and immunohistochemistry test is helpful to diagnosis of RMS.
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    Analysis of prognosis of aged esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy
    WANG Yu-ming, QIAN Xiao-zhe, CAO Zi-ang, ZHAO Xiao-jing, YE Qing
    2017, 37 (7):  1020. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.024

    Abstract ( 488 )   PDF (6353KB) ( 913 )  
    Objective · To investigate factors affecting the prognosis of aged esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy.  Methods · Clinical data of 103 aged patients ( ≥ 80 years old) undergoing esophagectomy were collected. Effects of age, sex, clinical manifestations, pre-operative diseases, postoperative complications, T stage, lymph node metastasis, maximum diameter and location of the tumor, and surgical methods on the post-operative survival were analyzed.  Results · 1, 3, and 5 years survival rates of 103 patients were 63.2%, 15.9%, and 2.7%, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis indicated that the post-operative survival was significantly higher in patients with T1 and T2 stages than in patients with T3 stage. The 3 and 5 y survival rates of patients with T1 stage were 50% and 25%, respectively. Results of Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that T stage, maximum diameter of tumor, postoperative complications, and lymph node metastasis were independent factors affecting the post-operative survival.  Conclusion · Esophageal cancer patients aged over 80 years with smaller tumor diameters, less postoperative complications, and negative lymph node metastasis have a longer postoperative survival period. Esophagectomy for patients with earlier stages (T1 and T2) can achieve an ideal post-operative survival period.
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    Clinical and pathologic features of gastric malignancies from Ruijin Hospital during 2005—2014#br#
    ZHU Qi, JIANG Ying, YU Ying-yan, HUANG Xia
    2017, 37 (7):  1025. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.025

    Abstract ( 495 )   PDF (5147KB) ( 654 )  
     Objective · To analyze clinical and pathological characteristics of gastric malignancies from a single center of Ruijin Hospital, and provide references for making healthy policy on gastric tumors.  Methods · The data sources were from hospital in-patients database including demographic information, family history, clinicopathological information, and census registering information during 2005 to 2014. The demographic data and clinicopathological data were analyzed.  Results · The total number was 3 315 cases with gastric malignancies (2 184 male patients and 1 131 female patients). It was about 2 times as high in males as in females. The patient age was between 18 to 98 years old (mean 59.71 years old). Based on pathologic diagnosis, 3 122 cases (94.2%) were gastric adenocarcinoma, others were gastrointestinal stromal tumors (5.5%), neuroendocrine tumor (0.2%) and malignant lymphoma (0.1%). Out of patients with gastric carcinoma, about 4.46% of cases ran in families.  Conclusion · Over 94% cases of gastric malignancies are gastric carcinomas. Specific risk profiles of gastric carcinomas include age, gender and family factors.
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    Choice of smoking cessation methods and its influencing factors in moderate-to-severe nicotinedependent population
    JIANG Ya-ling, DU Ling-yan, ZHOU Jian-ping, ZHOU Ling, DAI Ran-ran, LI Qing-yun
    2017, 37 (7):  1029. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.026?

    Abstract ( 457 )   PDF (5877KB) ( 466 )  
    Objective · To analyze the choice of smoking cessation methods and its influencing factors in moderate-to-severe nicotine-dependent population.  Methods · A retrospective clinical analysis was conducted for 170 moderate-to-severe nicotine-dependent smoking-quitters (Fagerström scale ≥ 4). Different smoking cessation methods (pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacotherapy) and abstinence rates of the selected population (7 d point prevalence abstinence rates and sustained abstinence rates 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment) were compared and possible influencing factors were analyzed.  Results · The differences in choosing the smoking cessation method in moderate-to-severe nicotine-dependent population with different ages, levels of education, and employment status were statistically significant (P=0.000). The Logistics regression analysis showed that the level of education was the major factor for choosing the smoking cessation method (P=0.006). The 7 d prevalence abstinence rate was much lower for pharmacotherapy than for non-pharmacotherapy 1 month after treatment (P=0.000) and was much higher for pharmacotherapy than for non-pharmacotherapy 3 and 6 months after treatment (P=0.000). The sustained abstinence rate was much higher for pharmacotherapy than for non-pharmacotherapy 3 and 6 months after treatment (P=0.002, P=0.000).  Conclusion · For moderate-to-severe nicotine-dependent smoking-quitters, attention should be paid to the formulation and implementation of personalized strategies. The choice of smoking cessation methods depends on the age, level of education, and employment status. Reasonable pharmacotherapies can significantly increase the abstinence rate.
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    Advances in differences between ApoE -/- and LDLR -/- atherosclerotic model mice#br#
    WANG Jian-ru, LIU Ping
    2017, 37 (7):  1033. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.027

    Abstract ( 656 )   PDF (7130KB) ( 693 )  
    Animal models are very important tools to study the pathogenesis, pathology and treatment of atherosclerosis. Animal models for studying atherosclerosis include rodents, rabbits, pigs and nonhuman primates. Among them, ApoE -/- mouse and LDLR-/- mouse are currently the most widely used. They can form atherosclerotic lesions, but in some respects there are significant differences. In this paper, the differences between the two model mice in lipid metabolism, plaque formation and pathology, lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, microRNA expression and regulation were reviewed.
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    Modified electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of mental disorders during pregnancy#br#
    JIA Si, YI Zheng-hui
    2017, 37 (7):  1038. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.028?

    Abstract ( 454 )   PDF (6658KB) ( 792 )  
    The treatment of mental disorders during pregnancy is challenging. Modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) has become one of the important and powerful treatment methods, which is safe with a rapid onset of action and fewer side effects, benefiting for patients in acute stage especially for those with suicidal ideation. This article mainly discusses the superiority of MECT in the treatment of mental disorders in pregnancy, as well as the treatment principle in women and fetus. Through pretreatment evaluation and closely monitoring of therapeutic efficacy during and after treatment, the complications of pregnant women and fetuses, such as vaginal bleeding, premature labor and fetal arrhythmia, can be effectively minimized. Taken together, MECT seems to be a safe and effective measure in treating mental disorders during pregnancy.
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    Neural mechanism and evaluation of decision-making function in obsessive-compulsive disorder#br#
    ZHOU Yue, JIN Hai-yan, SUN Bo-min, ZHANG Chen-cheng, ZHAN Shi-kun
    2017, 37 (7):  1042. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.029

    Abstract ( 529 )   PDF (7193KB) ( 483 )  
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling, mental disorder, which has been linked to significant abnormalities in certain brain areas, including the orbital frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Neuroimaging studies have also shown that brain areas related to the decision-making function include the orbital frontal cortex and the dorsal prefrontal lobes. Furthermore, the association between OCD and decisionmaking function has been consistently demonstrated from a neurobiological perspective. Clinically, impaired decision-making ability is commonly observed in OCD patients, and there is a correlation between OCD and abnormal decision function. Decision-making tasks are typically divided into two types, decision-making under risk and decision-making under ambiguity, with the former commonly evaluated using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the latter using the Game of Dice Task (GDT). In this article the neural mechanism and evaluation methods of decision making in OCD were reviewed.
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    Roles of exosomes in tumor diagnosis and treatment#br#
    ZHENG Tian-yu, DU Jun, CHEN Ning, NI Pei-hua, XUE Hui-ping
    2017, 37 (7):  1046. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2017.07.030

    Abstract ( 663 )   PDF (8577KB) ( 620 )  
     Exosomes are nanosized membrane microvesicles secreted by various living cells. They contain proteins, lipids, RNA, and a variety of other biological macromolecules. Exosomes play an important role in many pathological and physiological processes, such as antigen presentation in the immune system, repair of damaged tissues, and growth and migration of tumors. Tumor-derived or tumor-associated exosomes play a vital role in regulating the occurrence and development of tumors. The analysis and detection of exosomes in tumors is helpful for the early diagnosis of tumors and provide new treatment methods. This article reviews exosomes’ origin, composition, and functions in the development, migration, diagnosis, and treatment of tumors and provides new ideas for the treatment of tumors.
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