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    Outstanding international article
    One-two punch model for the precision treatment of liver cancer
    The research group of QIN Wen-xin
    2019, 39 (11):  1223. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.001

    Abstract ( 563 )   PDF (3865KB) ( 253 )  
    Liver cancer remains difficult to treat, owing to a paucity of drugs that target critical dependencies; broad-spectrum kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide only a modest benefit to patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The induction of senescence may represent a strategy for the treatment of cancer, especially when combined with a second drug that selectively eliminates senescent cancer cells (senolysis). Here, using a kinome-focused genetic screen, we show that pharmacological inhibition of the DNA-replication kinase CDC7 induces senescence selectively in liver cancer cells with mutations in TP53. A follow-up chemical screen identified the antidepressant sertraline as an agent that kills hepatocellular carcinoma cells that have been rendered senescentinhibition of CDC7. Sertraline suppressed mTOR signalling, and selective drugs that target this pathway were highly effective in causing the apoptotic cell death of hepatocellular carcinoma cells treated with a CDC7 inhibitor. The feedback reactivation of mTOR signalling after its inhibition is blocked in cells that have been treated with a CDC7 inhibitor, which leads to the sustained inhibition of mTOR and cell death. Using multiple in vivo momodels of liver cancer, we show that treatment with combined inhibition of CDC7 and mTOR results in a marked reduction of tumour growth. Our data indicate that exploiting an induced vulnerability could be an effective treatment for liver cancer.
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    Original article (Basic research)
    Biological characteristics and gene profile analysis of two kinds of mofetal liver stromal cells
    WANG Yun-han1, CHI Ya-nan1, YANG Guan-heng2, FAN Shu-yue1, MA Ji1, XUE Yan1, 2, ZENG Fan-yi1, 2
    2019, 39 (11):  1226. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.002

    Abstract ( 502 )   PDF (8682KB) ( 278 )  
    Objective · To explore the differences in morphology, molecular characteristics and biological functions of different types of mofetal liver stromal cells. Methods · E13.5 mofetal liver stromal cells were obtainedadherent culture, and different cell types were distinguishedmorphology and of surface markers, such as CD44, CD29, CD106, CD45 and Sca-1. Then microarray assay was conductedMoGenome 430 2.0 Array and analyzed at P3 or -2 to identify differential genes. Canonical pathway and biological function analyses were performedusing ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA software). Results · Spindle-like (CD45+CD106-CD29+CD44+Sca-1-) and fibroblast-like (CD45-CD106+CD29+CD44+Sca-1-) fetal liver stromal cells were isolated in this study according to the cell morphology. The 1 485 highly-expressed genes in spindle-like cells mainly involved in immune and inflammation-related signaling pathways; while the 3 374 highly-expressed genes in fibroblast-like cells mainly involved in extracellular matrix formation and cellular adhesion. Conclusion · Mofetal liver stromal cells have strong heterogeneity in biological characteristics and functions, especially in hematopoietic promoting capability.
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    Pharmacokinetic studies of DDDA3, a promising dual inhibitor of cholinesterases in rat plasmaHPLC-MS/MS
    HU Meng-wei1, LI Miao-miao1, HUANG Wan-ying1, WANG Yu1, HU Yong-bo1, ZHANG Rui1, HOU Li-na1, CHEN Hong-zhuan1, ZHANG Yong-fang1, WANG Ling2, TAN Wen2, XU Jian-rong1, WANG Hao1
    2019, 39 (11):  1233. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.003

    Abstract ( 433 )   PDF (7987KB) ( 210 )  
    Objective · To perform the pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of DDDA3, a dual inhibitor of both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, into provide experimental evidence for the evaluation of in vivo activity against Alzheimers disease (AD) and the formulation optimization. Methods · A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of DDDA3 was developed and validated. This method was applied to pharmacokinetic studies of DDDA3 in rat plasma. Protein precipitation approach was used to prepare plasma samples. To lower the detection limit, the concentration step was utilized. The samples were analyzed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 3.5 μm) with the mobile phase composed of methanol and water (75:25volume, containing 0.1% formic acid and 10 mmol/L ammonium formate) and determinedpositive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Results · The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL and the linear range was 0.5-500 ng/mL. The absolute oral bioavailability of DDDA3 in SD rats was 78.4%. Conclusion · DDDA3 has high potentials as anti-AD agents, with good oral bioavailability, fast absorption rate, and long-lasting blood concentration; however, the formulation should be optimized to improve the solubility.
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    Changes of skin mechanical properties and reof denatured dermis after deep second-degree burn in rats
    WANG Zhi-yong1, WANG Xi-qiao2, LIU Ying-kai2, DONG Jiao-Yun2, SONG Fei2, CAO Xiao-zan2, LU Shu-liang2
    2019, 39 (11):  1239. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.004

    Abstract ( 403 )   PDF (5297KB) ( 287 )  
    Objective · To investigate the changes of skin mechanical properties after deep second-degree burn, and study the feasibility of composite transplantationusing denatured dermal acellular matrix. Methods · The deep second-degree burn models in SD rats were constructed, and then the full skins were harvested after 3 h and 3 d, respectively, to compare the skin modulus of elasticity and ultimate load with normal skins. In addition, the structural differences of the dermal matrix were also compared. The composite transplantations were conductedusing the normal or denatured dermal acellular matrix, and then the general and histological structures of living skin grafts were observed. Results · The moduli of elasticity of the normal skins and the skins 3 h and 3 d after burn in SD rats were (8.7±6.4) MPa, (7.2±2.7) MPa and (2.7±0.3) MPa, respectively. The ultimate loads were (107.1±41.7) N, (81.5±10.8) N and (42.2±7.0) N, respectively. Both indexes were significantly reduced in the skins 3 d after burn compared to the normal ones (PConclusion · The early denatured skin tissue after deep second-degree burn maintains the similar mechanical properties and histological structure to the normal skin, which is a potential source of acellular dermal matrix for composite transplantation.
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    Modulation of nuclear receptor-binding factor 2 on the activity of autophagy initiation complex PI3KC3-C1
    LI Xing, WEI Jia-le, TANG Zai-ming, ZHONG Qing, LIU Xiao-xia
    2019, 39 (11):  1243. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.005

    Abstract ( 624 )   PDF (6445KB) ( 266 )  
    Objective · To study the effects of different phosphorylation levels of nuclear receptor-binding factor 2 (NRBF2) on the activity of class Ⅲ phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex Ⅰ (PI3KC3-C1), and find a type of PI3KC3-C1 with the highest kinase activity as a target for the screening of autophagy-specific inhibitors. Methods · First, in vitro protein purification system was established to obtain quaternary NRBF2-free PI3KC3-C1 and quinary PI3KC3-C1 containing different phosphorylation levels of NRBF2. The integrity of the complex was determinedgel filtration chromatography. The different kinase activity of purified PI3KC3-C1 was detected in vitro, and thus the effect of phosphorylation of NRBF2 on PI3KC3-C1 activity was observed. Results · The purified PI3KC3-C1 had good purity and yield. The five-membered PI3KC3-C1 containing NRBF2 showed higher kinase activity than the quaternary protein complex, and PI3KC3-C1 containing the continuous dephosphorylated NBRF2 had the highest kinase activity. Conclusion · NRBF2 does exist as one of the components of PI3KC3-C1. The presence of NRBF2 promotes the kinase activity of PI3KC3-C1, and PI3KC3-C1 containing continuous dephosphorylation of NRBF2 may serve as a new regulatory target for the screening of autophagy-specific inhibitor.
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    Role of group Ⅰ mGluR in low dose ketamine protecting learning and memory function after electroconvulsive shock in depression rats
    LIU Da-wei1, REN Li2, MIN Su2
    2019, 39 (11):  1248. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.006

    Abstract ( 427 )   PDF (8390KB) ( 258 )  
    Objective · To investigate the role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic plasticity in low dose ketamine protecting learning and memory function after modified electroconvulsive shock (MECS). Methods · The 2-3-month-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish depression models with chronic unpredicmild stress. Ten healthy rats were used as the control group (group C), and another 30 depressed rats were randomly divided into group D, group M, and group KM. Group C was not treated, group D was treated with pseudo-MECS after intraperitoneal injection of normal saline, group M was given intraperitoneal injection of propofol, and group KM was given intraperitoneal injection of propofol combined with low-dose ketamine (10 mg/kg). Both group M and group KM underwent MECS. The sucrose preference test was used to evaluate the depression status. The Morris water maze was used to detect the spatial learning and memory function. The of NMDAR1, mGluR1 and mGluR5 proteins in the hippocampus was detectedWestern blotting. Another 36 depressed rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: group DE, group m1E, group m5E, group DE, group m1E, and group m5E. Group DE and group DE were perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid alone. Group m1E and group m1E were perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing mGluR1 blocker. Group m5E and group m5E were perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing mGluR5 blocker. Long-term potentiations (LTP) were detected in group DE, group m1E, and group m5E. NMDAR-mediated field potentials (fEPSPNMDAR) were detected in group DE, group m1E, and group m5E. Results · After treatment, the sucrose preference percentages of group M and group KM increased compared with group D (PPPPPPPPNMDAR of group m1E and group m5E decreased (PConclusion · Ketamine up-regulates NMDAR1 and group ⅠmGluR to enhance the activation of NMDAR in the hippocampus which may be responsible for the protective effects on spatial learning and memory function in depression rats undergoing MECS.
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    Effect of protease activated receptor 2 on colonic motility in diabetes mice
    LI Yu-jia, LU Hong-li, HUANG Xu, XU Wen-xie
    2019, 39 (11):  1255. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.007

    Abstract ( 433 )   PDF (7473KB) ( 175 )  
    Objective · To observe the effect of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) on the colonic motility in diabetic mice and investigate the mechanism. Methods · The momodel of type 1 diabetes mellitus was establishedintraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The smooth muscle strips and segments of colons were isolated. The effects of PAR2 agonist on colonic motility were observedmuscle strip tension contraction and colonic migrating motor complex experiments. The effect of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SK3 channel) antagonist on it was also observed. Results · PAR2 agonist inhibited colonic motility and colonic smooth muscle was more sensitive to PAR2 agonist in diabetic mice. PAR2 agonist-induced inhibition was inhibitedSK3 channel antagonist. Conclusion · PAR2 activity in diabetic mice colons is significantly enhanced, which may inhibit colonic motility through SK3 channel.
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    Mechanism of spinal chemokine C-C motif receptor 2-mediated maintenance of bone cancer pain in rats
    WANG Li-ya1, GAO Po2, ZHOU Ye1
    2019, 39 (11):  1261. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.008

    Abstract ( 399 )   PDF (9183KB) ( 176 )  
    Objective · To investigate the mechanism of spinal chemokine C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2)-mediated maintenance of bone cancer pain (BCP) in rats. Methods · Fifty-four SD rats were divided into BCP group, sham operation group, BCP+INCB3344 (CCR2 specific antagonist) group, and BCP+vehicle control group. Walker256 breast cancer cells were injected into the tibia medullary cavity of rats in the BCP group to establish the BCP model, while the rats in the sham operation group were injected with the same amount of saline. The rats in the BCP+INCB3344 group received intrathecal injection of INCB3344 on the 14th day after the establishment of BCP model, while the BCP+vehicle control group rats were injected with the same amount of vehicle. The mechanical pain thresholds of BCP group rats and sham operation group rats were measured to judge the success of BCP model. The s of CCR2 in the dorsal horn of spinal cord in the sham operation group rats and the BCP group rats were detectedWestern blotting. The effects of intrathecal administration of INCB3344 on the mechanical pain threshold of BCP rats were observedmechanical pain behavior test. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to investigate the differences of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionicacid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced currents of spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of rats in the BCP group, the BCP+INCB3344 group and the BCP+vehicle control group. Results · Compared with the sham operation group, the mechanical pain threshold of BCP group rats reduced significantly on the 14th day after operation (P0.000), and the of CCR2 in ipsilateral spinal cord of BCP group rats increased significantly (P0.009). After intrathecal injection of INCB3344 for 4 h, the mechanical pain threshold of BCP+INCB3344 group rats was significantly increased (P0.002). The frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs and the amplitude of AMPA and NMDA-induced currents in SG neurons of BCP group rats were significantly higher than those of the sham operation group rats (all P0.000), while intrathecal administration of INCB3344 could significantly inhibit the above-mentioned indices in the BCP+INCB3344 group (all PP0.001) and amplitude (P0.020) of sEPSCs in SG neurons in BCP rats. Conclusion · CCR2 expressing in the spinal cord mediates the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission efficacy in the spinal dorsal horn of BCP ratsenhancing the functions of AMPA and NMDA receptors, which may be an important mechanism for the maintenance of BCP.
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    Effects of miR-760 targeting c-Myc on biological characteristics of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma TE-10 cells
    YANG Xue-tao, WANG Xiao-wen, WU Qing-chen
    2019, 39 (11):  1268. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.009

    Abstract ( 452 )   PDF (9566KB) ( 331 )  
    Objective · To detect the effects of miR-760 on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) TE-10 cells and to analyse the underlying mechanism. Methods · The mRNA and protein levels of miR-760 and c-Myc in five ESCC cell lines (normal esophageal epithelial cells as control) and 14 pieces of ESCC tissue specimens (paracancerous tissues as control) were detectedusing reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. TE-10 cells were transfected with miR-760 mimics, miR-760 inhibitor (miR-mimics/miR-inhibitor group) and corresponding negative controls (mimics-NC/inhibitor-NC group), in which the over and inhibition efficiency of miR-760 and the of c-Myc were verifiedRT-qPCR. The effect of miR-760 on the proliferation of TE-10 cells was assessedCCK-8 and colony formation assay. Changes of cell cycle distribution and proportion of apoptotic cells were measuredflow cytometry. Expression levels of cell cycle-, apoptosis-, migration-, and invasion-associated proteins as well as c-Myc were analyzedWestern blotting. The targeting relationship between miR-760 and c-Myc was verifiedusing the dual luciferase reporter assay. Results · The s of miR-760 were down-regulated and the s of c-Myc mRNA and protein were up-regulated in five ESCC cell lines compared with those in the normal esophageal epithelial cells. In 14 cases of ESCC tissue specimens, the s of miR-760 were down-regulated but the s of c-Myc were up-regulated compared with those in the cancer-adjacent tissues. The proliferation ability of TE-10 cells in the miR-mimics group was markedly attenuated, and colony numbers were also decreased. Flow cytometry assay showed that the proportion of cells in G1 phase was notably augmented, and the proportion of apoptotic cells was also increased. The miR-mimics group cells had weaker migration and invasion potential compared with mimics-NC group. Western blotting analysis conformed that levels of cyclin D1, B cell lymphoma 2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and vimentin were decreased, but levels of cleaved-caspase3, E-cadherin and β-catenin were elevated. The miR-inhibitor group showed opposite results compared with the miR-mimics group. The dual luciferase reporter assay validated the direct targeted binding of miR-760 to the 3UTR of c-Myc. Conclusion · miR-760 can suppress proliferation, migration and invasion, and induce apoptosis of TE-10 cellsdirectly targeting c-Myc.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Effect of ovarian granulosa cell androgen receptor splice variant on endocrine hormone levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome
    XU Jing-jing, SHI Chao-yi, LIU Ye, WU Yan-ting, HUANG He-feng
    2019, 39 (11):  1277. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.010

    Abstract ( 537 )   PDF (10255KB) ( 267 )  
    Objective · To investigate the effects of ovarian granulosa cell androgen receptor splice variant insertion isoform (AR-ins) on the levels of sex hormones and insulin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods · Seventy-nine control patients (control group) of normal ovulation and one hundred and fifty-four PCOS patients (PCOS group) who received in vitro fertilization embryo transfer in the Assisted Reproductive Department of the International Peace Maternity & Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Jun. 2017 to Jun. 2018 were recruited. The sociodemographic information, serum basic hormones and insulin data were collected according to medical history record, and the hormone levels were measuredchemiluminescence. The ovarian granulosa cells and follicular fluids of all the patients were collected. Nested PCR was used to identify the androgen receptor splice variant (AR SV) in the ovarian granulosa cells PCOS patients, and then they were divided into two groups, i.e., PCOS Wt group (n39) and PCOS AR-ins group (n115). The levels of sex hormones and insulin in follicular fluids of the three groups were detectedchemiluminescence. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. The sociodemographic information, the levels of sex hormones and insulin in serum and follicular fluid of the three groups were comparedOne-way ANOVA, Welchs ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis H test and chi-square test. Results · Compared with the control group, the levels of serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly lower in the PCOS AR-ins group (P0.000), and the levels of serum total testosterone (TT) (P0.000), insulin (P0.001) and FAI (P0.000) were significantly higher in the PCOS AR-ins group. Compared with the control group and the PCOS Wt group, the differences of SHBG, TT, insulin levels and FAI in the follicular fluid in the PCOS AR-ins group were statistically significant (all PConclusion · PCOS patients with AR-ins have high androgen and insulin levels in serum, and this effect is more pronounced in the ovarian local microenvironment.
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    Clinical value of low attenuation area ratio and lung volume on CT in evaluating severity of spirometric abnormality
    PANG Shuai1, 2, CAI Xiao-ting1, 2, CHENG Ting1, 2, ZHANG Neng-chong3, NI Jin-hua2, 4, CHENG Qi-jian1, 2
    2019, 39 (11):  1284. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.011

    Abstract ( 656 )   PDF (9551KB) ( 297 )  
    Objective · To explore the clinical value of the ratio of low attenuation areas (LAA%) and lung volume calculated according to chest CT in evaluating the severity of spirometric abnormality. Methods · The patients who underwent chest CT scan and lung function test at the same time January 2010 to July 2014 in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were retrospectively enrolled. LAA% and lung volume were calculatedMyrian software. The correlation analysis was performed between post-bronchodiation forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or its percentage of predicted value (FEV1%pred) and LAA% or lung volume. Multi-variable models for post-bronchodiation FEV1 and FEV1%pred were developed based on LAA%, lung volume, gender, height, and weight. The ROC curves were depicted and the diagnostic values of LAA%, lung volume, and models were compared. The cut points were chosen according to Younden indexes and specificity. Results · A total of 1 150 patients were included in summarization group. LAA% was negatively correlated with post-bronchodiation FEV1 and FEV1%pred. Lung volume was positively correlated with post-bronchodiation FEV1. The regression models of post-bronchodiation FEV1 and FEV1%pred were FEV1-2.700+0.111×lung volume-0.216×ln (LAA%+0.1)-0.025×age+0.154×gender+0.034×height and FEV1%pred65.582+4.014×lung volume-7.508×ln (LAA%+0.1)-10.264×gender, respectively. The regression model performed better than LAA% and lung volume in estimating the degree of post-bronchodiation FEV1 decrease. LAA% and the regression model performed better than lung volume in estimating the degree of post-bronchodiation FEV1%pred decrease. The sensitivity was 75.6% and the specificity was 90.6% in estimating post-bronchodiation FEV1%pred1.61% as the criteria. The sensitivity was 58.9% and the specificity was 81.4% in estimating post-bronchodiation FEV1Conclusion · The regression models of post-bronchodiation FEV1 and FEV1%pred were obtained based on lung volume and LAA% on chest CT. LAA% and lung volume can roughly estimate the severity of spirometric abnormality.
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    3D aesthetic evaluation of lip position influenceddifferent malar prominences for facial attractiveness
    LIN Min1, 2, 3, WU Chuan-xing1, 2, XIE Cong-man1, 2, ZHANG Lin1,2,3, REN Ai-shu1, 2, 3
    2019, 39 (11):  1293. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.012

    Abstract ( 478 )   PDF (6952KB) ( 161 )  
    Objective · To research the effect of malar prominence on the attractiveness of lip position. Methods · A woman conforming to the Holdaway analysis method was selected and 28 3D head models with different malar prominences and lip positions were obtained3D MAX software. Then orthodontists (professional group, n42) and laypeople (nonprofessional group, n100) were chosen to score the head modelsvisual analogue scale (VAS). Results · In the case of different malar prominence, the highest scores in the professional group were -2 mm and 0 mm in lip position, but the lip position with high scores in the nonprofessional group varied with the increase of malar prominence; -2 mm in malar prominence was the highest score in the professional group and the nonprofessional group, and +4 mm scores in malar prominence were the lowest in both groups. In the concave profile, the scores of the nonprofessional group were higher than those of the professional group, while in the convex profile, the results reversed. Conclusion · The preference of lip positions among laypeople is affectedthe increase of malar prominence; however, this will not affect the aesthetics of orthodontists. People prefer the slightly concave profile and dislike the protruding malar prominence.
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    Differences of intestinal flora between gestational diabetes mellitus pregnant women and healthy pregnant women
    WANG Lei-lei1, TAO Ye-xuan2
    2019, 39 (11):  1300. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.013

    Abstract ( 554 )   PDF (8338KB) ( 227 )  
    Objective · To investigate the differences of intestinal flora between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women and healthy pregnant women. Methods · In this study, 74 pregnant women the Department of Obstetrics in Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Aug. 2017 to Jan. 2019 were recruited, including 51 GDM pregnant women (GDM group) and 23 healthy pregnant women (healthy group). High-throughput sequencing was performed on bacterial gene sequences the fresh feces of all pregnant womenusing Illumina MiSeq platform. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and LDA EffectSize (LEfSe) were used to detect the α diversity and abundance of intestinal flora of the two groups. Results · Compared with the healthy group, the intestinal flora richness of pregnant women in the GDM group was significantly higher (P0.027). Porphyromonadaceae and Alcaligenaceae in Family, and Bacteroides in Genus of microbiota in the GDM group were significantly higher (all P in Order, Lachnospirace in Family, and Neisseria, Streptococcus, Butyricicoccusm, Gardnerella and Atopobium in Genus of microbiota in the healthy group were significantly higher (all PConclusion · There are significant differences of intestinal flora between GDM pregnant women and healthy pregnant women.
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    Clinical study of two-trocar laparoscopy-assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt in the treatment of hydrocephalus
    FU Xue-liang1, ZHANG Jun-feng1, ZHENG Yan2, WANG Yu2, BAO Ying-hui2, CUI Hua2, HUA Rong1
    2019, 39 (11):  1306. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.014

    Abstract ( 412 )   PDF (7202KB) ( 218 )  
    Objective · To compare the clinical outcomes between two-trocar laparoscopy-assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt (LAVPS) and conventional open ventriculoperitoneal shunt (OVPS), and explore the clinical practice and experience of the placement of distal catheter in two-trocar LAVPS. Methods · A total of 308 patients with hydrocephalus who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) January 2016 to December 2018 in the Department of Neurosurgery at Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, there were 90 patients in the LAVPS group (Group L), and the two-trocar method and the original suture loop method were adopted to place the distal catheter in the right hepato-diaphragmatic space. For the other 218 patients in the conventional OVPS group (Group O), the laparotomy approach was adopted to put the distal catheter into the left lower abdominal cavity through the midline incision. The operation time and complications of the distal catheter between the two groups were compared. Results · Compared with Group O, the mean operation time was significantly reduced in Group L (54 min vs 90 min, P0.000), and the incidence of distal catheter complications was also significantly decreased (0 vs 9.6%, P0.002). In Group L, only one case of visceral injury, one case of distal catheter migration and one case of proximal catheter obstruction occurred. The incidences of infection and obstruction of the distal catheters were 0 in Group L, significantly lower than those in Group O (0 vs 4.6%, P0.039; 0 vs 5.0%, P0.030). In Group O, 10 cases of distal catheter infection, 11 cases of obstruction, 4 cases of visceral injury and 2 cases of incisional hernia occurred. Conclusion · The modified two-trocar LAVPS, of which the distal catheter was guideda suture loop method and placed in the right hepato-diaphragmatic space, is a safe, economical and simple surgical procedure that is more effective in treating hydrocephalus of various origins than conventional OVPS.
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    Anesthetic management of 55 children with anterior mediastinal tumors
    HUANG Kai*, SUN Yuan*, ZHANG Yun-qian, ZHAO Di, SHEN Sai-e
    2019, 39 (11):  1311. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.015

    Abstract ( 569 )   PDF (6544KB) ( 253 )  
    Objective · To summarize the anesthetic management of surgical treatment for children with anterior mediastinal tumors. Methods · The anesthetic management data of 55 children with anterior mediastinal tumors were retrospectively analyzed. Children with mediastinal tumors were divided into safe group (n22), uncertain group (n19) and unsafe group (n14) according to the general anesthesia risk classification table, and different anesthesia strategies were given according to different grades. General data, standardized tumor volume (STV), adverse events related to tumors and extubation time were recorded. Results · The general data of safe group, uncertain group and unsafe group had no statistical difference (P>0.05). There were significant differences in STV and extubation time after operation among the three groups (PConclusion · It is conducive to the management of anesthesia combined with the risk classification of general anesthesia in children with mediastinal tumors. The vital signs should be closely monitored during anesthesia, and adverse events should be detected and handled in time to avoid catastrophic events.
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    Original article (Public health)
    Epidemiological profiles of dental erosion in 3- to 5-year-old children in Shanghai
    GU Qin, ZHU Jia-lin, TAO Dan-ying
    2019, 39 (11):  1315. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.016

    Abstract ( 514 )   PDF (6326KB) ( 234 )  
    Objective · To describe and analyze the epidemiological status of dental erosion in 3- to 5-year-old children in Shanghai. Methods · A cluster, multi-stage random sampling method was applied to 3- to 5-year-old children in Shanghai. Clinical oral examination was performed, and the status of dental erosion was evaluatedOSullivan index, including the involved tooth position, surface and severity. Descriptive analysis was applied for the prevalence of dental erosion and the distribution of tooth position and surface. Results · A total of 1 148 children aged 3 to 5 years old in Shanghai were randomly selected. Among them, 168 children suffered dental erosion, and the prevalence of dental erosion in the sample was 14.6%. A total of 102 males (17.3%) and 66 females (11.8%) showed the condition of dental erosion. The ratio of male and female was 1:0.68, and the prevalence of dental erosion in the male was significantly higher than that in the female (χ26.972, P0.008). The upper second deciduous molar in the dentition was most likely involved (8.6%) and the lower later incisor was least involved (1.7%). The surface of occlusal or incisal surface was more likely involved (37.1%). With regard to the severity of dental erosion, the loss of horizontal enamel was more common (58.4%). Conclusion · The prevalence of dental erosion in the 3- to 5-year-old children in Shanghai is relatively high and it is necessary to raise the awareness of dental erosion prevention.
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    Review
    Research progress in environmental pollution and endocrine disruption of the UV filter benzophenone-3
    LU Qi1, ZHOU Yi-jun1, TIAN Ying1, 2
    2019, 39 (11):  1320. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.017

    Abstract ( 539 )   PDF (7628KB) ( 297 )  
    Benzophenone-3 is the most widely used benzophenone type UV filter, which is lipophilic, light sand bioaccumulative. Benzophenone-3 is widely present in environmental waters and can be detected in humans. Its potential toxicity (especially endocrine disruption) has attracted peoples attention. There are a lot of related data on the exposure of benzophenone-3 in the environment and humans foreign literatures, but there are few studies on related aspects in China. In the view of widespread presence of benzophenone-3 and its endocrine disruption, future researches should focus on its potential toxicity to the population including endocrine disruption and the mechanisms.
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    Advances in the study of T cell immunity in invasive fungal infections secondary to sepsis
    ZHAO Yi-si1, YU Ying-xi1, LIN Shi-hui2, XU Fang1, 2
    2019, 39 (11):  1325. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.018

    Abstract ( 457 )   PDF (7405KB) ( 212 )  
    Invasive fungal infections (IFI) has high morbidity and mortality. It is more common in hospital infections, and especially in sepsis, the risk of secondary IFI is increased. Immunosuppression of sepsis may affect immune function of T cells, and various T cells subsets have different effects on various fungal pathogens of IFI. The review discusses the pathophysiological processes, mechanism and therapeutic methods of T cell immunity in IFI secondary to sepsis, into summarize the role of T cells in IFI secondary to sepsis and introduce the new immunotherapy.
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    Advances in the mesoporous silica-based reactive oxygen species controlled-release nanosystem and its anti-tumor application
    WU Di, QI Jun
    2019, 39 (11):  1329. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.019

    Abstract ( 514 )   PDF (10122KB) ( 204 )  
    Until now, great progress has been made in anti-tumor therapy. A series of novel anti-tumor drugs, such as molecular targeted drugs and monoclonal antibodies, have been emerging one after another, which have benefited a great number of tumor patients in different degrees. However, there are still many dilemmas in clinical anti-tumor therapy at present, for instance, obvious side effects, tumor resistance and so on. In recent years, the nano drug delivery system with mesoporous silica as the carrier has overcome many flaws of traditional anti-tumor treatment to a certain extent, especially the mesoporous silica nanosystem for controlling reactive oxygen species generation which has excellent tumor targeting property and biocompatibility, and minimal injury effects on normal tissue cells. So it has been regarded as one of the most promising agents in clinical applicationplaying significant anti-tumor roles through multiple approaches. This paper reviews this kind of potent nanosystem and its application to anti-tumor therapy.
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    SIRT1 signaling pathway in bone metabolism
    YANG Yi-qi, TANG Ting-ting
    2019, 39 (11):  1335. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.020

    Abstract ( 744 )   PDF (9226KB) ( 360 )  
    Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterizedlow bone mass and deteriorated bone microstructure, which could be related to the disorders of energy metabolism and bone senescence. Silent mating-type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase that regulates cell senescence, energy metabolism and bone remodeling. SIRT1 could be activated not onlyadenosine 5-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and casein kinase 2 (CK2), but alsosmall-molecular drugs such as resveratrol. All these kinases and drugs can affect bone metabolism. Recent findings indicate that SIRT1 signaling pathway plays a direct role in bone metabolism, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This paper reviews the structure and function of SIRT1, and the role of SIRT1 in bone metabolism, and discusses the potential of SIRT1 signaling pathway as a new therapeutic target in osteoporosis.
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    Body composition analysis in pregnant women and its clinical applications
    OU Hong-hui, LI Hua-ping
    2019, 39 (11):  1341. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2019.11.021

    Abstract ( 884 )   PDF (6145KB) ( 298 )  
    The maternal components are constantly changing with gestational weight gains during pregnancy. Body composition analysis is a method for evaluating the maternal body composition accurately during pregnancy, models of which consist of fat mass, extracellular water, intracellular water, inorganic salts and protein basically. Among various methods to body composition analysis, bioelectrical impedance analysis is an important method for pregnant women. Many studies have reported about clinical applications based on correlations between maternal individual components and gestational diseases. This article reviews the researches on clinical applications of body composition analysis to pregnant women.
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