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    Monographic report (Child healthcare)
    Impact of television-watching and computer-using on sleep patterns and sleep problems of school-aged children in Shanghai
    LI Sheng-hui SHEN Xiao-ming JIN Xing-ming et al
    2009, 29 (7):  763. 
    Abstract ( 2318 )   PDF (4550KB) ( 1717 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of television-watching and computer-using on sleep/wake patterns, sleep duration and sleep problems of school-aged children in Shanghai. Methods A total of 4 108 school-aged children from 10 primary schools of Shanghai were enrolled by multi-stage cluster sampling and surveyed by questionnaires. The information of television-watching and computer-using, family and personal condition was investigated by self-prepared questionnaire, and the Chinese version of Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was employed to survey the sleep behaviors of children. The effects of television-watching and computer-using on sleep/wake patterns, sleep duration and sleep problems were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and Logistic regression analysis. Results The percentage of children who watched television≥2 h per day was 4.1% during weekdays, and that came to 49.2% during weekends. In terms of frequency of computer-using, most children reported “rarely” (88.2%, 0-1 time/week), followed by “often” (11.0%, 2-4 times/week) and “usually” (0.8%, 5-7 times/week). With the age increase, the percentages of children who watched television≥2 h per day and those who “often” used computer gradually increased. It was revealed by multiple linear regression analysis and Logistic regression analysis that television-watching and computer-using were not only positively correlated with later bedtime, later wake time and shorter sleep duration but also significantly associated with sleep problems such as bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep duration disorder, sleep anxiety and parasomnia. Conclusion Television-watching and computer-using exert influences on sleep behaviors of sleep/wake patterns, sleep duration and sleep problems. Concerns about the potential negative effects of television-watching and computer-using on sleep behaviors may help to promote healthy sleep patterns and improve sleep quality.

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    Effects of forepaw sensorimotor deprivation in early life on spatial learning and memory in rats
    ZHANG Yuan-yuan, LI Fei, CAO Xiao-hua, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  767. 
    Abstract ( 2150 )   PDF (5871KB) ( 1555 )  

    Objective To explore the effects of forepaw sensorimotor deprivation in early life on hippocampus-dependent spatial reference learning and memory in rats. Methods Newborn SD rats were randomly assigned to experiment group (deprivation of forepaw sensorimotor function, n=53) and control group(n=55). Rats of postnatal day 13 (PN13) in experiment group were selected, and models of forepaw sensorimotor deprivation were established by microsurgical technique. Open field tests and Morris water maze tests were performed during the time periods of PN25(PN21-31),PN35(PN31-39),PN45(PN41-50) and PN60(PN56-64) to evaluate the locomotor activity and spatial reference learning and memory, respectively. Results In open field tests, there was no significant difference in parameters of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior between the two groups (P>0.05). In Morris water maze tests, control group performed significantly better than experiment group during training sessions and probe tests on PN25 and PN35 (P<0.05). While on PN45, although there was no significant difference between the two groups during training sessions, control group performed significantly better than experiment group during probe tests (P<0.05). Conclusion The deprivation of forepaw sensorimotor in early life has no significant effect on the locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of rats, but can impair the spatial reference learning and memory.

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    Feasibility of clinical application of language sample analysis
    JIN Zhi-juan, JIN Xing-ming
    2009, 29 (7):  772. 
    Abstract ( 2246 )   PDF (4170KB) ( 1398 )  

    Objective To explore the feasibility of language sample analysis in assessment of language development in children in order to provide evidences for its clinical application. Methods The study population consisted of a cross-sectional sample of 50 preschool Putonghua-speaking children aged 4 to 6 years. The data on measurement of utterance length (MLU) and lexical diversity (D) were computed from 20 minutes' conversational language samples, and correlation analysis was conducted among MLU, D, age, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Splited sample analysis by comparing MLU of first one hundred utterances and MLU of last one hundred utterance, D of odd lexicals and D of even lexicals were conducted to test the validity of language sample indictors. Results MLU and D development of the preschool Putonghua-speaking children were positively related to age. MLU, D, age, verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and PPVT were associated with each other (P<0.05 or P≤0.01) except age and VIQ(P>0.05). There were significant correlations between MLU of first one hundred utterances and MLU of last one hundred utterances and between D of odd lexicals and D of even lexicals(P=0.000). Conclusion Language sample analysis proves to be feasible in assessment of language development in preschool children aged 4 to 6 years.

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    Study of influential factors in family on late talkers
    LIU Xiao, JIN Xing-ming, SHEN Xiao-ming
    2009, 29 (7):  775. 
    Abstract ( 1582 )   PDF (3240KB) ( 1659 )  

    Objective To identify the influential factors in family on late talkers. Methods A cluster sampling survey was conducted on Shanghai healthy children aged 24 months to 35 months from 10 districts. Children with vocabularies less than 30 were identified as late talkers. Univariate analysis and Logistic stepwise regression analysis were performed to analyse the related environmental factors. Results There were 2 774 effective samples, and 115 late talkers (4.1%) were identified. Nine risk factors were found out from 26 environmental factors by univariate analysis, among which 5 were further identified by Logistic stepwise regression analysis as significant risk factors: urban life, education of father lower than middle school, using one language, male caregiver and lack of communication between child and caregiver. Conclusion Avoiding risk factors and providing favourable language environment may help to prevent language delay in children.

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    Preliminary analysis of emotion recognition in children aged 7-14 years
    ZHAO Ying-chun, ZHANG Jin-song
    2009, 29 (7):  778. 
    Abstract ( 2238 )   PDF (4548KB) ( 1452 )  

    Objective To explore the characteristics of emotion recognition in children aged 7-14 years. Methods Nine hundred and sixty-one students aged 7-14 years were enrolled to rate the emotion dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance with the scale of Native Chinese Affective Picture System for Children. The relationship among scores of each emotion dimension was analysed, and the differences in age and gender of each emotion dimension were determined. Results For positive pictures (score of valence >6), the score of valence was positively related to that of arousal and dominace (r=0.56, r=0.40, P<0.01). For neutral pictures (score of valence 4-6), the score of valence was negatively related to that of arousal (r=-0.70, P<0.01)and positively related to that of dominance (r=0.69, P<0.01). For negative pictures (score of valence <4), the score of arousal was negatively related to that of dominance (r=-0.95, P<0.01). There were significant differences in scores of emotion dimensions between genders (P<0.05). There were significant differences in scores of arousal and dominance among children with different ages (P<0.01). Age was weakly negatively related to score of arousal (r=-0.18, P<0.01), and was weakly positively related to that of dominance (r=0.10, P<0.01). Conclusion There are significant differences in age and gender for emotion recognition in children, and the ratings are various among pictures with different characteristics, which needs to be considered in further researches.

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    Primary study on executive function in children with Ping-Pong training and swimming training
    ZHANG Jin-song, JI Xing, YAN Chong-huai, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  782. 
    Abstract ( 2617 )   PDF (4113KB) ( 1657 )  

    Objective To investigate the executive function of children with different sports training. Methods Forty children with Ping-Pong training (Ping-Pong group) and 41 children with swimming training (swimming group), aged 6-9 years, completed GO/NOGO task. Behavioral data (reaction time and accuracy) and event related potential component N2 were collected and analyzed. Results The reaction time was significantly faster and accuracy significantly lower of GO task and NOGO task in swimming group than in Ping-Pong group(P<0.05 and P<0.01). There were significant differences in the amplitude of NOGO-N2 on site CPz between swimming group and Ping-Pong group[(-11.36±9.4)μV vs(-7.55±7.99)μV,P<0.05]. Conclusion The inhibitory function of children with Ping-Pong training is stronger than those with swimming training.

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    Investigations on status and requirement of knowledge of reproduction in pregnant adolescents with abortion
    SHEN Li-xiao, JIN Xing-ming, HUANG Hong
    2009, 29 (7):  785. 
    Abstract ( 1614 )   PDF (4062KB) ( 1391 )  

    Objective To investigate the status and requirement of knowledge of reproduction and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)/sexually transmited disease (STD) in pregnant adolescents with abortion in order to conduct proper interventions. Methods Two hundred and ninety-one unmarried pregnant adolescents below 22 years old with abortion completed questionnaires which involved the information on individual social-demographics characteristics, knowledge of reproduction, AIDS/STD and sex-related beliefs, attitudes and partners. Results Among these 291 adolescents, 37.7% experienced first sexual intercourse before 19 years old, 69.1% performed well in the knowledge of reproduction, and 62.6% and 43.5% did well in the knowledge of AIDS and the knowledge of the other STD, respectively. The rate of implementation of contraception was far less than that of awarenesss of contraception(P<0.05). These pregnant adolescents were not enthusiastic for seeking reproductive knowledge, and 45.0% would like to acquire the knowledge from professionals. Conclusion The knowledge of reproduction and AIDS/STD in the pregnant adolescents is not adequate, and they fail to carry out the proper behaviors of contraception. More education should be conducted on AIDS/STD prevention and contraception among pregnant adolescents.

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    Functional improvement in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder after methylphenidate treatment
    MA Jun, JIN Xing-ming, ZHANG Li-shan
    2009, 29 (7):  789. 
    Abstract ( 2401 )   PDF (5535KB) ( 1563 )  

    Objective To explore the improvement of core symptoms and detailed function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after treatment with methylphenidate extended-release tablets, and analyse the relationship between core symptoms reduction and detailed function improvement. Methods One hundred and fifty-six children with confirmed ADHD were rated with Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version Ⅳ (SNAP-Ⅳ)Scale before treatment, then methylphenidate extended-release tablets were orally administered 18 mg once daily for 1 month, and children were rated again by means of SNAP-Ⅳ Scale and detailed function improvement questionnaire. The core symptoms reduction and detailed function improvement were observed, and their relationship was analysed. Results The primary mean scores of each factor in SNAP-Ⅳ Scale decreased significantly after treatment with methylphenidate extended-release tablets(P<0.001). The reduction rate of factor IOWA/I/O was the most significant (>50%), followed by ADHD-H/Im and ADHD-In. The performance of school study, homework doing and social behavioral function was improved, and the detailed function was significantly improved. The reduction rate in ADHD-In factor was significantly correlated with improvement of school study and homework doing(P<0.01). The reduction rate in ADHD-H/Im factor was significantly correlated with improvement of social behavioral function(P<0.05). Conclusion Methylphenidate extended-release tablets play a role in both core symptoms reduction and detailed function improvement in children with ADHD, and core symptoms reduction is related to detailed function improvement to some degree. Methylphenidate extended-release tablets exert different effects on different detailed function.

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    Analysis of family environment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in clinics
    ZHANG Li-shan, JIN Xing-ming, ZHANG Yi-wen
    2009, 29 (7):  794. 
    Abstract ( 2046 )   PDF (4256KB) ( 1282 )  

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of family environment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in clinics, and analyse the risk factors for ADHD. Methods Two thousand two hundred and ninety-six children with inattention, hyperactivity or unfavourable school performance were subjected to diagnosis with DSM-IV criteria in clinics. The characteristics of family environment were investigated by self-prepared questionnaires. The risk factors for ADHD were explored by univariate analysis and nonconditioned multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Results Seven hundred and twenty children were diagnosed with ADHD. There were significant differences in family environment between children with ADHD and those without(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The risk factors for ADHD included discord between parents, parental smoking and maternal depression during pregnancy and after delivery, while older age, female, paternal higher educational background were protective factors for ADHD. Conclusion Unfavourable family environment may be associated with the prevalence of ADHD, and special attention should be paid to the family environment in the treatment of ADHD.

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    Influential factors of human immunodeficiency virus infection in adolescents
    HUANG Feng-rong
    2009, 29 (7):  798. 
    Abstract ( 1522 )   PDF (3930KB) ( 976 )  

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious infectious disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Increasing cases of HIV infection have been detected in adolescents. Intravenous drug abuse and sexual behavior, which are affected by various individual and environmental factors, are the major ways of HIV infection. The current situation and influential factors of HIV infection in adolescents are introduced in this paper.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Construction and application of conditionally replicative adenovirus for selective cytotoxicity in CEA positive colorectal cancer cells
    WANG Meng-yun, WEI Fang, WANG Hui-ping, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  802. 
    Abstract ( 2267 )   PDF (8416KB) ( 1686 )  

    Objective To construct a new conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAds) targeting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) positive colorectal cancer cells. Methods The DNA fragment of the CEA gene promoter was amplified through PCR and cloned into the vector carrying fusion reporter gene EGFP-Luc to construct expression plasmid pCEA-EGFP-Luc. The constructed plasmid pCEA-EGFP-Luc was transfected into CEA positive and negative cells by liposome. The activity of CEA gene promoter was evaluated by detecting the expression of EGFP and luciferase activity. The conditionally replicative adenovirus Ad.CEA-E1A/CMV-TK carrying suicide gene HSVtk was constructed, in which the E1A gene was controlled under CEA promoter. CEA positive(Lovo and SW620)and negative tumor cells(HeLa)were infected with Ad.CEA-E1A/CMV-TK. The selective cytotoxicity of Ad.CEA-E1A/CMV-TK and the synergistic effect of the virus with GCV in CEA positive tumor cells were evaluated by the expression of E1A, cytopathic effect and cell survival rate. Results CEA promoter possesses a good specificity as well as high activity. The expression of E1A only presented in CEA positive tumor cells. After infection with Ad.CEA-E1A/CMV-TK, the cell survival rates of Lovo and SW620 were (36.72±2.49)% and (39.82±4.76)%, respectively, significantly lower than that of Hela[(87.44±2.76)%](P<0.01). When combined with GCV, Ad.CEA-E1A/CMV-TK had better oncolytic effect on Lovo and SW620 cells, with cell survival rates of (17.26±3.65)% and (23.93±5.40)%, respectively, significantly lower than those without GCV\[(36.72±2.49)% and (39.82±4.76)%, respectively](P<0.01). Conclusion Ad.CEA-E1A/CMV-TK under the control of CEA promoter has selective cytotoxic effect on CEA positive colorectal cancer cells, and the effect can be enhanced when combined with GCV.

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    Residual undifferentiated embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies
    FU Wei, PI Qing-meng, SHI Lun-gang, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  808. 
    Abstract ( 2297 )   PDF (6915KB) ( 1341 )  

    Objective To explore the residual undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in embryoid bodies. Methods Mouse R1 and Oct-4-GFP transgenic ESCs were firstly cultured in suspension to form embryoid bodies (EBs). Twenty days later, EBs were digested into single cells and then  re-plated in standard ESC culture condition. The morphology of residual undifferentiated cells in EBs was observed, and surface makers and in vitro redifferentiation potency of residual cells were examined by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining. The residual cells were expanded and subcutaneously injected into nude mice, and the specimens were  harvested from the injection site for histological analysis 6 weeks after injection. Results There were residual undifferentiated ESCs in EBs differentiated for 20 days, which displayed clonal morphology and expressed undifferentiated cell markers of ESCs, including SSEA1, CD31, CD9 and Oct-4. The cells could be differentiated to form EBs again, and could be re-expanded from secondary EBs. The residual cells were able to form teratoma at the injection site, and mature endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm tissues could be found in teratoma tissues. Conclusion There are residual undifferentiated ESCs after differentiation of ESCs into EBs. The residual ESCs can differentiate again in vitro and in vivo, and can residue again in the in vitro differentiation.

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    Research on mechanism of chloroquine phosphate-induced U937 cell apoptosis
    LIU Jia, CHEN Fang-yuan, WANG Hai-rong, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  813. 
    Abstract ( 2068 )   PDF (5667KB) ( 1274 )  

    Objective To observe the effects of chloroquine phosphate on apoptosis of leukemic cell line U937, and investigate whether chloroquine phosphate induces leukemic cell apoptosis by normalizing protein PNAS-2's abnormal subcellular location. Methods Chloroquine phosphate of different concentrations were added into culture fluid of leukemic cell line U937 at logarithmic phase. MTT was used to measure cell proliferation, flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy were applied to detect cell apoptosis, and immunofluorescence technology was employed to observe the effects of chloroquine phosphate on the changes of subcellular location of protein PNAS-2. Results Apoptosis of leukemic cell line U937 was significantly induced by 50 μg/mL chloroquine phosphate, and subcellular location of protein PNAS-2 was changed. Conclusion Chloroquine phosphate can induce apoptosis of leukemic cell line U937, and the mechanism may be related to the normalization of PNAS-2's abnormal subcellular location in U937 cell line. Chloroquine phosphate has the potential to be used in leukemic therapy.

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    Effects of deep brain stimulation on expression of DARPP-32 and its phosphorylated proteins in corpus striatum of rats with dyskinesia
    PU Zheng, LU Li-xia, LIU Zhen-guo
    2009, 29 (7):  817. 
    Abstract ( 1842 )   PDF (4710KB) ( 1682 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-deep brain stimulation (DBS) on expression of dopamine and adenosine 3’5’-nophosphate-egulated phosphor-rotein (DARPP-32) and its phosphorylated proteins in corpus striatum of rat models with levodopa-nduced dyskinesia. Methods The rat models of levodopa-nduced dyskinesia were set up and were given STN-DBS (stimulation group). The expression of DARPP-32 and its phosphorylated proteins in corpus striatum (damage side and normal side) were detected and compared with sham-stimulation group and sham-operation group. Results There was no significant difference in the expression of DARPP-32 total protein in corpus striatum of rats with dyskinesia among three groups (P>0.05). The expression of Phosphor-Thr34-DARPP-32 protein in the damage side of corpus striatum in stimulation group was significantly lower than that in sham-stimulation group and sham-operation group(P<0.05), while the expression of Phosphor-Thr75-DARPP-32 protein in the damage side of corpus striatum in stimulation group was significantly higher than that in sham-stimulation group and sham-operation group(P<0.05). Conclusion DARPP-32 and its phosphorylated proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

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    Construction and identification of recombinant baculovirus vector to coexpress GDNF and EGFP gene
    CHEN Yan-chun, WANG Jun, WANG Shi-li, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  821. 
    Abstract ( 1971 )   PDF (4485KB) ( 1270 )  

    Objective To construct a novel enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) recombinant baculovirus. Methods The target gene(EGFP and GDNF)was cloned into baculovirus transfer vector pFastBacDual, pFB-EGFP-GDNF was constructed and restriction enzyme analysis was conducted. pFB-EGFP-GDNF was transposited with baculovirus shuttle vector (Bacmid) into DH10Bac competent cells, and recombination baculovirus vector Bacmid-EGFP-GDNF was constructed. The plasmid was extracted and PCR was performed for identification. Bacmid-EGFP-GDNF was transfected with Sf9 insect cell package virus by liposomal transfection method. Immunofluorescent staining was employed to detect the expression of EGFP and GDNF protein in Sf9 cells. Results The target gene fragment was correctly cloned into pFastBacDual vector, and recombinant Bacmid was constructed. Bacmid-EGFP-GDNF was successfully transfected, and higher virus titer was obtained. The coexpression of GDNF and EGFP protein in Sf9 cells was identified by immunofluorescent staining. Conclusion The recombinant baculovirus Bacmid-EGFP-GDNF can be successfully constructed, and the protein of EGFP and GDNF is coexpressed in Sf9 cells, which paves a way for the research of GDNF gene therapy.

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    Effects of different concentrations of taurine on rabbit corneal endothelial cells
    GE Jian, XIANG Xing, XU Jian-min, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  825. 
    Abstract ( 1768 )   PDF (3742KB) ( 1090 )  

    Objective To investigate the adverse effects of taurine on rabbit corneal endothelial cells. Methods Six rabbits (12 eyes) were selected, and 6 histologic sections were prepared from each of the eyes. Rabbit corneal endothelial cells were cultured by explant culture method. Cells were innoculated on a 12-well tissue culture plate, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% taurine solutions were added respectively (cells from the right and left eyes of the same rabbit were added the same concentration of taurine solution), and blank control was established. The growth of corneal endothelial cells was observed by inverted microscopy, and cell morphology on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day of culture was observed with Wright staining. Results Corneal endothelial cells cultured with 2%, 4% and 6% taurine solutions and those of blank control formed endothelial cell layers after culture for one week, and the cells exhibited hexagonal or round-like morphology. Corneal endothelial cells cultured with 8% taurine solution appeared to be undergrowth with small cell body on the 4th day, and cell death occurred on the 8th day. Corneal endothelial cells cultured with 10% taurine solution turned out to be undergrowth with small cell body on the 2nd day, and cell death had occurred. The same growth velocity and cell morphology were observed in the corneal endothelial cells from the right and left eyes of the same rabbit. Conclusion Taurine with concentration between 2% and 6% has no adverse effects on the growth of rabbit corneal endothelial cells.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Relationship between SLC12A3 gene Arg913Gln polymorphism and type 2 diabetic nephropathy in Han population of Shanghai
    ZHAO Wei-jing, LIU Li-mei, ZHENG Tai-shan, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  828. 
    Abstract ( 2251 )   PDF (6411KB) ( 1321 )  

    Objective To explore the relationship between Arg913Gln(G→A)polymorphism of solute carrier family 12 member 3 (SLC12A3) gene and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Han population of Shanghai. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight Han ethnic people in Shanghai with T2DM (T2DM group) were divided into non-DN group (DN0 group, n=95) and DN group (n=163) according to 24 h urine albumin excretion rate (AER), and those in DN group were subdivided into microalbuminuria group (DN1 group, n=95) and macroalbuminuria group (DN2 group, n=68). Besides, 82 people with normal results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), without diabetes mellitus and nephropathy were served as controls. PCR-sequencing was used to detect the genotypes of Arg913Gln polymorphism of SLC12A3 gene. Genotypic and allelic frequencies and clinical characteristics were compared among groups. Results Three genotypes (GG, GA and AA) were detected. The frequencies of GA+AA genotype and A allele in T2DM group were higher than those in control group, while there was no significant difference between groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in genotypic or allelic frequencies among subgroups of T2DM group (P>0.05). The level of triglyceride (TG), AER, level of fasting insulin (FINS) and HOMA-IR in patients with GA+AA genotype were significantly higher than those in patients with GG genotype in T2DM group (P<0.05). Conclusion Arg913Gln(G→A)polymorphism of SLC12A3 gene is not significantly associated with T2DM and DN in Han population of Shanghai. The AER of people with GA+AA genotype is significantly higher than that with GG genotype. Arg913Gln (G→A) polymorphism of SLC12A3 gene may predict the risk of increase of albuminuria in patients with T2DM in Han population of Shanghai.

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    Gene expression profiles of peri-implantation endometrium of high responders during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation
    CHEN Qiu-ju, CHENG Li-nan, LI Lu, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  833. 
    Abstract ( 1935 )   PDF (5967KB) ( 1320 )  

    Objective To investigate the gene expression profiles of peri-implantation endometrium of high responders during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Methods High responders with cancelled embryo-transfer during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (high responder group, n=4) and healthy fertile volunteers (control group, n=3)were performed endometrial biopsies during peri-implantation. Histologic changes of endometrium were observed by HE staining, genes of differential expression were screened with microarrays Affymetrix U133A 2.0 and identified by Real-time PCR. The biological process analysis was performed by online biological information analysis tool PANTHER. Results The endometrium was in mid-secretory phase in control group, while development delay was found in some glandular organs in endometrium of high responder group. Three hundred and sixty-four genes of differential expression were screened, among which 233 were up-regulated genes and 131 were down-regulated genes. OPN, PLA2G2, DPPIV, IGFBP5 and SSAT were identified as endometrial function-related genes, whose Real-time PCR findings were positively correlated to gene signal values detected by microarray(r=0.44, P<0.01). PANTHER analysis indicated that genes of differential expression participated in the biological processes of cytokine signal transduction and immunological regulation. Conclusion Ovarian high response affects the gene expression profiles of peri-implantation endometrium, which may be one of the causes of sub-optimal endometrial receptivity.

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    Development of three dimensional facial measurement system based on structured light projection
    XIONG Yao-yang, CHEN Xiao-bo, SUN Jian, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  837. 
    Abstract ( 1615 )   PDF (6259KB) ( 1321 )  

    Objective To construct a system for three dimensional face scanning and measurement. Methods The measurement system was based on the principle of triangulation and the combination of gray-code and phase-shift structured light projection. The system software was developed for Windows XP with the aid of tools such as Visual C++ and Hoops. Results A three dimensional measurement system based on structured light projection was developed. The system hardware was composed of fringe projection unit, image gathering unit, system control unit and mechanical appearance, and the system software was composed of point cloud display and editing module. The lamp house of the system was 12V, the working distance was 900 mm, the scanning time was 5.5 s and the scanning field was 500 mm×400 mm. Conclusion The three dimensional measurement system based on structured light projection is a refined machine with safe light to eyes, and the accuracy and scanning speed are suitable to face scanning.

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    Effects of diclofenac sodium suppositories on emergence agitation after sevoflurane maintenance in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy
    SUN Ying, XU Wen-yin, HU Jie, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  842. 
    Abstract ( 2555 )   PDF (3228KB) ( 1466 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of diclofenac sodium suppositories on emergence agitation after sevoflurane maintenance in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Methods Forty-five patients selected for adenotonsillectomy were randomly divided into three groups (n=15). Patients in group 1 were given diclofenac sodium suppositories 12.5 mg right after intubation, those in group 2 were given diclofenac sodium suppositories 12.5 mg immediately after operation, while those in control group were not treated with diclofenac sodium suppositories before or after operation. The extubation time and time spent in post-anesthctic ICU (PACU) were recorded, the modified Aldrete score and pain score were assessed after entrance into PACU, and pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) scale was administered 10, 20 and 30 min after entrance into PACU. Results There was no significant difference in extubation time and time spent in PACU among three groups(P>0.05). Ten minutes after entrance into PACU, the PAED score of group 1 was significantly lower than those of group 2 and control group(P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between the latter two groups(P>0.05). Twenty and thirty minutes after entrance into PACU, the PAED scores of group 1 and group 2 were significantly lower than that of control group(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the modified Aldrete score right after entrance into PACU among three groups. The pain scores of group 1 and group 2 were signifiantly lower than that of control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Diclofenac sodium suppositories can decrease the incidence and severity of emergence agitation after sevoflurane maintenance in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy.

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    Relationship between computational fluid dynamics simulation and acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry in nasal cavity
    GUO Yu-feng, ZHANG Yu-ning, LIU Shu-hong, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  845. 
    Abstract ( 1948 )   PDF (6162KB) ( 1467 )  

    Objective  To reconstruct a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of human nasal cavity, and make comparison analysis with acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry. Methods  One healthy volunteer was performed CT scanning of nasal cavity, three dimensional CFD model was established by Simplant 10.0 and Gambit 2.3.16, and Fluent 6.3.2 was employed to simulate the airflow of nasal cavity. Acoustic rhinometer was used to assess the area of nasal cavity, rhinomanometry was adopted to measure the airflow and intranasal pressure drop during inspiration, and the results were compared with those obtained from CFD model. Results  Cross section area of nasal cavity obtained from CFD model matches well with that measured by acoustic rhinometer within 30 mm distance from nostril, while the latter was larger than the former beyond 50 mm distance from nostril. The trend of intranasal pressure drop at different airflows measured by CFD model was the same as that measured by rhinomanometry, while the transnasal pressure obtained by CFD model was lower than that recorded by rhinomanometry. Conclusion CFD model can accurately simulate the shape of nasal cavity and measure the parameters of intranasal airflow, which helps to understand the airflow characteristics of nasal cavity.

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    Effects of serum estradiol levels during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation on outcomes of IVF-ET
    LU Xiang, LI Lu, GAO Xiao-hong, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  850. 
    Abstract ( 2969 )   PDF (4420KB) ( 1266 )  

    Objective To analyse the effects of serum estradiol levels during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Methods The clinical data of 472 patients undergoing IVF-ET with GnRH analogues recombinant FSH long protocol were retrospectively analysed. The area under the curve (AUC) of estradiol (E2) level was calculated during COH, and patients were categorized into groups according to the percentile of AUC of E2 (AUCE2) during COH. The general characteristics and parameters related to the outcomes of IVF-ET were compared among groups. Results The 10th percentile and 90th percentile of AUCE2 were 3 347.0 pmol/L and 14 414.3 pmol/L, respectively. Four hundred and seventytwo patients were divided into lower reaction group (AUC E2≤3 347.0 pmol/L, n=48), normal reaction group (14 414.3 pmol/L>AUCE2>3 347.0 pmol/L, n=376) and higher reaction group (AUCE2≥14 413.3 pmol/L, n=48). There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, baseline follicle stimulating hormone level, time of treatment with gonadotropin, endometrium thickness on day of transfer and embryos transferred(P>0.05). Compared with lower reaction group and normal reaction group, the number of oocytes per retrieval and number of embryos frozen were significantly larger(P<0.01)and the mild/severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rate was significantly higher in higher reaction group(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in fertilization rate, cumulative embryo score, high-grade embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate among groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Sustained supraphysiological serum E2 levels during the COH process do not adversely affect the quality of oocytes and embryos, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate to some extent in IVF-ET.

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    Application of hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in diagnosis of peripheral tumor cell infiltration of gliomas
    FAN Yi-ling, WANG Yong, WAN Jie-qing, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  854. 
    Abstract ( 1772 )   PDF (5462KB) ( 1240 )  

    Objective To explore the application of hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H-MRS)in the diagnosis of peripheral tumor cell infiltration of gliomas. Methods Forty patients with glioma were examined by 1H-MRS preoperation, and were divided into low grade glioma group (n=20) and high grade glioma group (n=20) according to postoperative pathological diagnosis. Tumor resection with peripheral tissues marked previously was carried out under the guidance of neuronavigator system. All the pathological sections were divided into positive group and negative group according to the presence or absence of tumor cells, and the differences in pathological findings of peripheral regions (region 1, 2 and 3) and 1H-MRS values were analyzed in these two groups. Results No infiltration was found in the peripheral regions of low grade glioma group except for one case in peripheral region 1, while infiltration was found in all peripheral regions of high grade glioma group. There was no significant difference in 1H-MRS values between positive group (n=24) and negative group (n=36) in patients with high grade glioma (P>0.05). Conclusion 1H-MRS enjoys some advantages over routine radiological examinations in the diagnosis of peripheral tumor cell infiltration of gliomas. Total removal can be expected when combined with neuronavigator system, while there is room for improvement for relevant techniques.

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    Solute clearance characteristics of REXEEDTM series dialyzer during high-flux dialysis
    WANG Yong-mei, ZHANG Wei-ming, WANG Bing-shun, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  858. 
    Abstract ( 2400 )   PDF (4520KB) ( 1448 )  

    Objective To evaluate the solute clearance characteristics of REXEEDTM series dialyzers during high-flux dialysis, and explore the care characteristics. Methods A randomized crossover study of 3×3 Latin square was designed based on different dialyzers. Eighteen patients with regular hemodialysis underwent dialysis with REXEEDTM-15AC dialyzer, REXEEDTM-15UC dialyzer and controlled APS-15U dialyzer, respectively. Blood samples were obtained from the blood flow entrance and exit of dialyzers, levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine, phosphate and β2microglobulin were detected, and solute clearance rates were calculated. Before and after the third dialysis with each dialyzer, blood samples were obtained to measure the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine, and the rates of decrease were calculated. The vital signs of each patient were intensively observed, and the venous pressure and transmembrane pressure were monitored from the dialyzers. Results The urea nitrogen clearance rates of REXEEDTM-15AC dialyzer and REXEEDTM-15UC dialyzer were significantly higher than that of APS-15U dialyzer(P<0.05). The creatinine clearance rate of REXEEDTM-15AC dialyzer was significantly higher than that of APS-15U dialyzer(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of decrease in blood urea nitrogen among different dialyzers of the same patient(>65% for all patients). The vital signs were stable with no adverse events during dialysis, and there was no abnormal findings in laboratory security parameters. Conclusion REXEEDTMseries dialyzers are effective and safe for clinical application. Great importance should be attached to the complaints from patients during dialysis. For those with less ultrafiltration, fluid as well as ultrafiltration should be supplemented to increase the transmembrane pressure.

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    Original article (Preventive medicine)
    Investigations on prevalence and risk factors of |visual hallucination in patients with Parkinson's disease
    WAN Ying, WANG Gang, ZENG Jie, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  862. 
    Abstract ( 2165 )   PDF (5330KB) ( 1404 )  

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of visual hallucination among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and analyse the potential risk factors. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight patients with PD were administered self-prepared visual hallucination questionnaires, and prevalence of visual hallucination was surveyed. The differences in sex, age, disease duration, Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores, Hoehn & Yahr stage, types of medicine used and levodopa equivalent doses (LDE) were compared between the patients with visual hallucination and those without visual hallucination. The prevalence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was investigated in patients with visual hallucination. Results Eighteen patients (14.06%) experienced visual hallucination, among whom 10 (55.56%) experienced visual hallucination no less than one time per day, 11(61.11%) "saw" the shadow of human figure and 15(83.33%)were complicated with RBD. There were significant differences in MMSE scores, Hoehn & Yahr stage, female proportion and usage of dopamine agonists between patients with visual hallucination and those without visual hallucination(P<0.05). Conclusion Visual hallucination is a common non-motor symptom among patients with PD, and cognitive function, disease severity and usage of dopamine agonists may be related to visual hallucination.

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    Investigations on allergens of allergic diseases in children from rural Shanghai
    TAO Jin-hao, CAO Lan-fang, KONG Xian-ming, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  866. 
    Abstract ( 2127 )   PDF (3570KB) ( 1215 )  

    Objective To analyse the distribution characteristics of major allergens initiating allergic diseases in children from rural Shanghai. Methods Eight hundred children with allergic diseases from rural Shanghai (rural case group), 450 children with allergic diseases from urban Shanghai (urban case group) and 100 healthy children from rural Shanghai (rural normal control group) underwent skin prick tests (SPT), and children of rural case group were subdivided into infant group, preschool age group and school age group according to age. The positive rates of allergens and SPT were compared among groups. Results The positive rate of SPT of rural case group was significantly higher than that of rural normal control group (73.38% vs 26.00%, P<0.05), and was significantly lower than that of urban case group (73.38% vs 80.22%, P<0.05). Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were the major allergens in rural case group, with the positive rates of 57.88% and 59.13%, respectively. Except weed and rubber, there were significant differences in positive rates of the other allergens between rural case group and the other two groups(P<0.05). There were significant differences in positive rates of SPT among different age groups of rural children with allergic diseases (P<0.05). Conclusion Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are the major allergens in children with allergic diseases from rural Shanghai, whose positive rates of SPT are lower than those of children with allergic diseases from urban Shanghai. The positive rate of SPT is related to age to some extent.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Investigation and analysis of critical thinking ability in medical students
    ZHANG Ya-qing, LI Li-sha, WU Ping, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  869. 
    Abstract ( 2170 )   PDF (4701KB) ( 2081 )  

    Objective To investigate the critical thinking ability of medical students and its related factors in order to provide evidence for higher medical education reform. Methods A total of 325 medical students were selected by cluster sampling method, and Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory-Chinese Version (CTDI-CV) was adopted for survery. Results The average total score of critical thinking ability of medical students was above 280, and 51.08% of students showed positive critical thinking ability. Among all the seven critical thinking dispositions, average scores of each item were all positive (>40) except that the significance of truth seeking (37.23) and systematicity (39.05) were indefinite. There were significant differences in critical thinking ability between medical students with different gender and academic years (P<0.05). Conclusion The critical thinking ability of medical students is positive, however, there still exist some shortages. An equal relationship between teachers and students should be established, the traditional course system be continuously reformed, a good environment for clinical training be created, and a variety of teaching methods be implemented to further strengthen the critical thinking ability of medical students.

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    Review
    Toll-like receptor 4 and human fibrotic diseases
    HE Zheng-yu
    2009, 29 (7):  873. 
    Abstract ( 1766 )   PDF (4745KB) ( 1259 )  

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the natural receptor of lipopolysaccharide(LPS), plays an important role in the regulation of acute inflammation, intracellular signal transduction and cell apoptosis.TLR4 over expresses in both acute inflammation and fibrotic tissues, which suggests that TLR4 may be essential in acute inflammation and subsequent fibrosis. Nowadays, some progress has been made in the exploration of TLR4 in pathogenesis and treatment of liver cirrhosis and pulmonary fibrosis. TLR4 may become a new target in the treatment of human fibrotic diseases including liver cirrhosis and pulmonary fibrosis. The research status of TLR4 in human fibrotic diseases and its future development are reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of immune tolerance induced by donor specific transfusion in renal transplantation
    HUANG Jun-ling
    2009, 29 (7):  877. 
    Abstract ( 1776 )   PDF (5491KB) ( 1189 )  

    With the development of organ transplantation for nearly half a century, currently the hot issues in clinical renal transplantation have already shifted to the application of low toxicity immunosuppressive drugs and their projects, as well as the research of technique which induces low or no immunity response to the specific donor. At present the main effective strategies of inducing immune tolerance are donor specific blood transfusion and donor specific bone marrow transplantation.This article summarizes the background, mechanism and clinical application of these two strategies.

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    Treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
    LIU Bang-jian
    2009, 29 (7):  882. 
    Abstract ( 1739 )   PDF (4009KB) ( 1153 )  

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in nervous system. However, the pathogenesis is still unkown. Therapeutic options are mainly pathogenetically oriented therapy and symptomatic therapy. With an increasing understanding of the pathogenesis of DPN, many new therapies have emerged. Comprehensive therapy targeting different pathogenesis will be frequently applied in the future. In this article, the common therapy and advance in treatment of DPN are reviewed.

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    Research progress in inhibition of corneal neovascularization by anti-VEGF therapy
    WANG Jia-yin
    2009, 29 (7):  886. 
    Abstract ( 1755 )   PDF (4384KB) ( 1198 )  

    Corneal neovascularization is a significant and sightthreatening complication of many ocular surface disorders, and may cause corneal scar and rejection reaction after corneal grafting. Recent studies have revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in corneal neovascularization, and inhibition of VEGF has become a main strategy for treatment of corneal neovascularization. This article reviews the research progress in inhibition of corneal neovascularization by antiVEGF therapy.

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    Brief original article
    One case report and literature review of primary follicular lymphoma of appendix
    XIE Yun, PAN Yu-lin, JIN Xiao-long, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  889. 
    Abstract ( 1233 )   PDF (5177KB) ( 1624 )  
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    Application of vacuum sealing drainage technique in severe crush injury caused by earthquake
    LI Zhan-yu, JIANG Chen, SUN Zhi-yong, et al
    2009, 29 (7):  892. 
    Abstract ( 1498 )   PDF (3632KB) ( 1167 )  
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    Case report
    One case report of acute leukemia initially presented with occupation of anterior mediastinum
    YANG Chen-min, SHEN Yang, ZHAO Hui-jin
    2009, 29 (7):  895. 
    Abstract ( 1492 )   PDF (1882KB) ( 973 )  
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