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    Monographic report (Medical imaging and nuclear medicine)
    Molecular imaging: key carrier of translational medicine
    HUANG Gang, LIU Jian-jun
    2010, 30 (9):  1021. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.001

    Abstract ( 2094 )   PDF (3407KB) ( 1698 )  

    Molecular imaging, undoubtedly, leads the development of medical imaging in the 21st century, and serves as a bridge between molecular biology and clinical medical sciences. Molecular imaging helps to interrogate and explore the mechanisms of diseases and potential targets of drugs at cellular and molecular levels in vivo in four dimensions and translate achievements of basic biology into clinical practice as the key carrier of translational medicine, which revolutionarily influences the model of modern medical sciences.

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    Preparation of gene-loaded ultrasound contrast agent and its in vitro and in vivo enhancement effects
    LI Dian-cheng, ZHU Jia-an, GUO Wei, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1024. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.002

    Abstract ( 1633 )   PDF (5320KB) ( 1541 )  

    Objective To prepare a new ultrasound contrast agent, and investigate its characteristics and in vitro and in vivo enhancement effects. Methods Two kinds of liposome, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), were selected to prepare ultrasound contrast agent by film dispersion method, and its appearance, morphology and particle diameter were observed. The gene-loaded capability of prepared ultrasound contrast agent was compared with SonoVue ultrasound contrast agent, PBS and hydration liquid. The in vitro and in vivo enhancement effects of prepared ultrasound contrast agent were observed. Results The prepared ultrasound contrast agent was ball-shaped, with regular and uniform morphology and mean particle diameter of 6.969 μm. The gene-loaded capability of prepared ultrasound contrast agent was better than that of SonoVue ultrasound contrast agent, while there was no significant difference between SonoVue ultrasound contrast agent and PBS and hydration liquid. In vitro ultrasound imaging revealed that the enhancement time of prepared ultrasound contrast agent under Skeletal muscular mode was 18 min, that under contrast mode was 14 min, and dense echo with favourable enhancement effects was found under both modes. In vivo ultrasound imaging (contrast mode) revealed that imaging of inferior caval vein and middle-inferior segment of abdominal aorta began to develop 1 s and 3 s, respectively after injection of contrast agent into rat tail vein, with dense echo for both. Conclusion Liposome-coated microbubbles are stable with favourable gene-loaded capability, and may serve as a new ultrasound contrast agent for loading genes or drugs.

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    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound study of mechanism of unilateral testicular torsion and detorsion on injury of contralateral testes
    CHEN Lin, LIU Zhen-hua, ZHAN Wei-wei, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1028. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.003

    Abstract ( 1638 )   PDF (10601KB) ( 1527 )  

    Objective To explore the mechanism of unilateral testicular torsion and detorsion on injury of contralateral testes injury with contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Methods Fifteen male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, torsion group, and torsion and detorsion group, with 5 rabbits in each group. Contralateral testis samples were obtained after three times of real-time ultrasound visualization in each group, and parameters of timeintensity curves, pathological changes and biochemical parameters of contralateral testes were analysed. Results ①The perfusion intensity of contralateral testes increased immediately after unilateral testicular torsion, and were characterised by the increase of enhancing intensity (EI)(P<0.05). ②The perfusion time of contralateral testes significantly increased after detorsion, and mainly presented as increased washout time (WT)(P<0.05). ③Apoptotic indexes (AI) of reproductive cells significantly increased after torsion or detorsion (P<0.05), and AI after detorsion were significantly higher than those after torsion (P<0.01). ④Both torsion and detorsion decreased content of nitrogen monoxidum (NO), activity of nitricoxide synthase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and were more significant after detorsion (P<0.01). Conclusion The injury of contralateral testes with unilateral testicular torsion may results from ischemia-reperfusion injury factors of ipsilateral testes and blood perfusion enhancement of contralateral testes together.

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    Ultrasound combined with enhancement CT in preoperative vascular evaluation for pediatric liver transplantation recipients
    ZHANG Shi-jun, LI Feng-hua, GU Li-hong, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1035. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.004

    Abstract ( 1843 )   PDF (6282KB) ( 1428 )  

    Objective To investigate the application of ultrasound and enhancement CT in evaluation of portal vein and hepatic artery anomalies in pediatric patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation. Methods Thirty-three pediatric patients selected for living donor liver transplantation underwent examinations of ultrasound and enhancement CT before operation, surgical findings and gross pathology were served as golden standard, and the accuracy of ultrasound and enhancement CT in evaluation of portal vein and hepatic artery anomalies was determined. Results Hepatic artery and portal vein were surgically confirmed patent in all these 33 patients. There were significant differences in the accuracy of diagnosis of portal vein patency between ultrasound and enhancement CT (100% vs 63.6%, P<0.05). The accuracy of diagnosis of hepatic artery by ultrasound and enhancement CT was 100% and 100%, respectively. The partial pressure of oxygen and mean flow velocity of hepatic artery in hepatofugal flow group were significantly higher than those in hepatopetal flow group (P<0.05), and the wave pattern of artery-type was significantly higher than that of wall-type and wave-type (P<0.05). The sensitivity of ultrasound in detection of patent umbilical vein was 76.9%, and that of CT was 92.3%. CT could detect the other collateral circulation around the liver. The sensitivity of CT in diagnosis of hepatic artery variations was 83.3%, while ultrasound could not detect the variations of arteries. Conclusion Ultrasound has a high value in evaluation of direction and wave pattern of portal vein flow, and has higher accuracy in detection of portal vein patency than CT. Enhancement CT performs better in detection of hepatic artery variation and patent umbilical vein, and ultrasound and enhancement CT may complement with each other in evaluation of vascular anomalies for pediatric patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation.

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    Clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of primary tumors of multiple bone metastatic tumors
    CHEN Gang, ZHANG Miao, HU Jia-jia, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1039. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.005

    Abstract ( 1649 )   PDF (4522KB) ( 1483 )  

    Objective To explore the clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of primary tumors of multiple bone metastatic tumors. Methods The results of detection of primary tumors by 18F-FDG PET/CT in 77 patients with multiple bone metastatic tumors were retrospectively analysed, and comparisons were conducted with pathological findings. Results In all the 77 patients, 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed 44 suspected primary tumors, among whom 40 were confirmed by surgical or pathological examinations, and the other 4 were false positive cases. In the 37 patients without primary tumors detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT, one was diagnosed as gastric Signet ring cell carcinoma by pathological examination after operation, and primary tumors were not found in the other 36 patients during the follow up. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of primary tumors were 97.6%, 88.9% and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT has definite value in detection of primary tumors of multiple bone metastatic tumors.

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    Clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of unexpected gastrointestinal lesions with high uptake
    ZHANG Miao, CHEN Gang, WANG Chao, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1043. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.006

    Abstract ( 1851 )   PDF (5314KB) ( 1406 )  

    Objective To explore the clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of unexpected gastrointestinal lesions with high uptake. Methods The clinical data of 4 188 patients examined by 18F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively analysed. Patients with unexpected gastrointestinal lesions with high uptake suspected of malignant tumors examined by 18F-FDG PET/CT, and without corresponding clinical symptoms and imaging abnormalities were selected. Forty-five out of 4 188 patients were enrolled, and the results of PET/CT examinations were compared with pathological findings. Results Unexpected gastrointestinal lesions with high uptake were detected in 45 out of 4 188 patients (1.1%). Among the 45 patients, 40 were confirmed by pathological examinations, and the other 5 were lost to follow up. Among the 40 patients, there were 23 cases (57.5%) of malignant lesions, 2 cases (5%) of benign lesions (precancerous lesions) and 15 cases (37.5%) of inflammatory lesions. SUVmax of gastrointestinal tumors group (9.8±4.5) was significantly higher than that of inflammatory lesions group (6.5±2.5)(P<0.05). Conclusion The possibility of unexpected gastrointestinal lesions with high uptake detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT to be malignant ones is higher, and attention should be paid to the early detection and timely treatment of gastrointestinal tumors without symptoms.

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    Value of ultrasound of articular cartilage of knee in rheumatoid arthritis
    ZHAO Lian, LI Feng-hua, WANG Yan, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1047. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.007

    Abstract ( 1707 )   PDF (4661KB) ( 1321 )  

    Objective To investigate the value of ultrasound in diagnosis of diseases of articular cartilage of knees in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Forty-three patients with RA were selected, and were divided into disease course<5 year group (n=19), disease course 5 to 10 years group (n=12)and disease course>10 year group (n=12). Besides, another 20 healthy volunteers were served as control group. Articular cartilages of knees were observed by gray scale ultrasound in each group. Forty-three patients with RA underwent X-ray examinations, among whom 19 also received MRI examinations. Results The thickness of medial condyle of articular cartilage of knees in control group was (1.8±0.6) mm, lateral condyle was (1.9±0.6) mm, median sulcus was (2.5±0.7) mm, and that in patients with RA was <1.2 mm, <1.3 mm and <1.5 mm, respectively. The detection rates of diseases of articular cartilage by ultrasound in disease course <5 year group, disease course 5 to 10 years group and disease course >10 year group were 21.1%, 58.3% and 91.7%, respectively, and there were significant differences among groups (P<0.01). For the 43 patients with RA (86 knee articulations) the detection rate of diseases of articular cartilage by ultrasound was 41.9%, that by X-ray examinations was 0, and there were significant differences between these two examinations (P<0.01). In 19 patients undergoing both ultrasound and MRI examinations, the detection rates of diseases of articular cartilage by ultrasound and MRI were 26.3% and 47.4%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between these two examinations (P>0.05). Conclusion The pathological changes of articular cartilage in patients with RA could be better detected by ultrasound than X-ray. Both ultrasound and MRI could be used to detect diseases of articular cartilage of knee in patients with RA.

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    Diagnostic value of ultrasound in carotid artery involvement in Takayasu's arteritis
    WU Chun-hua, LI Feng-hua, DU Jing, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1051. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.008

    Abstract ( 1882 )   PDF (5372KB) ( 1508 )  

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound in carotid artery involvement in Takayasu's arteritis. Methods The ultrasonographic features of carotid arteries in 25 patients clinically diagnosed as Takayasu's arteritis were retrospectively analysed. Common carotid arteries, external carotid arteries and internal carotid arteries were examined by colour doppler ultrasound to observe the distribution of carotid lesions, and the inner diameters and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries were measured. The stenosis and obstruction of carotid arteries were differentiated, and were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings. Results In 25 patients, 39(78%) common carotid arteries, 4(8%) external carotid arteries and 7(14%) internal carotid arteries were involved. In 39 involved common carotid arteries, diffused thickness of IMT was detected in 37 cases, and local thickness of IMT in 2 cases. There was one case of dissecting aneurysm, with IMT of 1.8 mm to 5.7 mm and different degrees of stenosis and obstruction. There was no significant difference in the diagnosis accordance rate of stenosis and obstruction between ultrasound and DSA (χ2=0.4224,P>0.05). Conclusion Colour doppler ultrasound can demonstrate the characteristics of carotid artery wall and reveal the hemodynamic abnormalities of carotid artery, which is helpful in the diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis.

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    Analysis of influencing factors for therapeutic effects of 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism
    HOU Sha-sha, WANG Hui, FU Hong-liang, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1055. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.009

    Abstract ( 2385 )   PDF (4630KB) ( 1471 )  

    Objective To analyse the influencing factors for therapeutic effects of 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism. Methods One hundred and sixty-four patients undergoing 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism were followed up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The information of patients including general conditions, clinical findings, laboratory data and results of thyroid function tests were collected, and retrospective analysis was carried out with binary Logistic regression analysis. Results Multi-variate binary Logistic regression analysis revealed that exophthalmos (F=5.171, P<0.05), free thyroxine (FT4)levels(F=4.714,P<0.05)and 24 h 131I uptake rate before treatment (F=4.314,P<0.05)were major influencing factors for therapeutic effects of 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism. The positive and negative prediction accuracy of therapeutic effects were 87.8% and 45.5%, respectively, and the total prediction accuracy was 70.7%. Conclusion The dose of 131I administered in the therapy of hyperthyroidism depends on exophthalmos, FT4 levels and 24 h 131I uptake rate before treatment. Influencing factors should be comprehensively considered in individual therapy so as to decrease the incidence of failure and reach the optimal therapeutic effect.

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    Clinical features and imaging diagnosis of bone metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer
    QIU Zhong-ling, XU Yan-hong, SONG Hong-jun, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1059. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.010

    Abstract ( 2378 )   PDF (4435KB) ( 1493 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and imaging diagnosis of bone metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods The rate of bone metastases, age, clinical symptoms and signs, pathological types, metastatic sites and other concomitant metastases of 106 patients with bone metastases from DTC treated by 131I were retrospectively analysed. The sensitivities of MRI, 131I whole body scan, X-ray, CT and 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the detection of bone metastases from DTC were compared. Results The rate of bone metastases was 8.43%(106/1 258), and most of the bone metastases were osteolytic lesions. Ribs, ilia and thoracic vertebrates were the most common sites of bone metastases from DTC. Bone metastases served as the initial presentation in 19.81% of patients, and multiple bone metastases were commonly occurred. The sensitivities of MRI, 131I scan, CT, X-ray and 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of bone metastases were 96.59%, 93.84%, 66.49%, 47.46% and 38.19%, respectively, and there were significant difference in sensitivities between 131I scan and X-ray, CT and 99mTc-MDP bone scan (P<0.05). Conclusion Bone metastases from DTC are characterized by multiple osteolytic lesions. MRI and 131I whole body scan are more sensitive in the diagnosis of bone metastases form DTC than CT, 99mTc-MDP bone scan or X-ray.

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    Correlation of pain experience during mammography with factors of breast density and breast compressed thickness
    BAI Jia-yuan, HE Zhi-yan, DONG Jia-ni, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1062. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.011

    Abstract ( 1910 )   PDF (5683KB) ( 1385 )  

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of pain experience during mammography, and explore its correlation with factors of breast density and breast compressed thickness. Methods One hundred and sixty-three women were performed X-ray mammography by 4 radiographers in Shanghai for the purpose of general physical examinations, and each woman was surveyed with a 21-item questionnaire immediately after examination, which included questions about pain intensity, breast density and breast compressed thickness during mammography. The obtained data were statistically analysed. Results Pain experience was reported in 65.6% of women, with the percents of women with mild, moderate and severe pain experience of 53.3%, 33.6% and 13.1%, respectively. In moderate to severe pain group, the percent of breast density greater than 50% was 24.0%. There were significant differences in breast compressed thickness of cranio-caudal view among different levels of pain (χ2=211.184,P<0.001). With the increase of breast compressed thickness, pain intensity also showed an increasing trend. There were significant differences among the pain levels caused by 4 radiographers during mammography (χ2=24.867,P=0.015). Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of pain experience associated with mammography, which may deter women from regular mammography examinations and breast cancer screening. The factor of breast density can predict a painful mammographic experience. Controlling over breast compression is acceptable in women whose breasts are particularly sensitive. Besides, attitude improvement and regular training for radiographers are favourable measures to reduce the pain experience during mammography.

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    Research of functional neuroimaging of cancer-related post-traumatic stress disorder
    NI Jian-ming
    2010, 30 (9):  1067. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.012

    Abstract ( 1798 )   PDF (5269KB) ( 1193 )  

    With the rapid development of modern medical techniques, the survival time of patients with cancer has been greatly extended, and chronic stress injury induced by cancer (cancer-related post-traumatic stress disorder, PTST) has aroused increasingly more attention. There were significant differences between cancer-related PTST and traditional PTSD. Modern neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and single proton emission computed tomography (SPECT), are powerful tools for research of mechanisms of tumor-related mental disorders. The application of neuroimaging in research of tumor-related PTSD is reviewed in this paper.

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    Progress of application of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in assessment of response of tumor to neoadjuvant chemotherapy
    ZHANG Min
    2010, 30 (9):  1072. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.013

    Abstract ( 1693 )   PDF (4425KB) ( 1375 )  

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly widely used in the treatment of cancer, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT play a role in the early assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, including tumor restaging, drug selection and prognosis prediction, which facilitate the design of therapeutic regimen and reduction of ineffective therapy.The progress of application of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the assessment of response of tumor to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is reviewed in this paper.

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    Characteristics of high frequency color Doppler ultrasound images of thyroid papillary microcarcinoma
    ZHU Cai-xia, ZHAO Lian, JIN Ye
    2010, 30 (9):  1076. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.014

    Abstract ( 2184 )   PDF (3760KB) ( 1313 )  

    Objective To analyse the characteristics of high frequency color Doppler ultrasound images of thyroid papillary microcarcinoma. Methods The clinical data of 57 cases which underwent high frequency color Doppler ultrasound examinations before operation and were confirmed as thyroid papillary microcarcinoma by pathological examinations after operation were collected, the characteristics of ultrasound images were retrospectively described and analysed. Results Among the 57 cases, 52 were diagnosed as thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (cervical lymphadenectasis in 7), 2 were diagnosed as thyroid adenoma and 3 were diagnosed as nodular goiter by ultrasound before operation. The coincidence between ultrasound diagnosis before operation and pathological diagnosis after operation was 91.2%. Sixty-eight nodes with diameter of 4 to 10 mm were found by two dimensional ultrasound, among which 61 (89.7%) presented low echo, 57 (83.8%) had microcalcification, 49 (72.1%) had irregular margin and 45 (66.2%) exhibited irregular morphology. Color Doppler ultrasound revealed small amount of dotted blood flow signal in 55 nodes (80.9%), with no obvious blood flow signal around nodes. Conclusion High frequency color Doppler ultrasound images of thyroid papillary microcarcinoma were characterised by low echo nodes with irregular morphology, irregular margin and microcalcification in nodes, and should be differentiated from thyroid adenoma and nodular goiter.

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    Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection in treatment of IFAP with femoral arteriovenous fistulas
    NIU Yong-hua, LI Feng-hua, DU Jing, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1079. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.015

    Abstract ( 1467 )   PDF (3038KB) ( 1147 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of ultrasound-guided thrombin injection (UGTI) in the treatment of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (IFAP) with femoral arteriovenous fistulas. Methods Thirty-two patients with IFAP after coronary artery intervention were selected, among whom 9 were complicated with femoral arteriovenous fistulas. All patients were treated with UGTI, and underwent ultrasound examinations 3 d, 14 d and 30 d after treatment. Results Successful treatment was achieved in 31 patients, while the other patient failed and subjected to surgery. No recurrence of IFAP and no complications were found during follow up in 31 cases. Conclusion UGTI has a high clinical value for the treatment of IFAP, and is a safe and effective therapy for those complicated with femoral arteriovenous fistulas.

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    One case report of nodular goiter (Ⅲ) complicated with hyperthyroidism treated by 131iodine
    NIE Xiu-li, JIANG Ying, YAN Wei-li, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1081. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.016

    Abstract ( 1132 )   PDF (2926KB) ( 1262 )  

    One cured case of nodular goiter (Ⅲ) complicated with hyperthyroidism managed by multiple 131iodine treatment is reported. Multiple 131iodine treatment is necessary for patients with nodular goiter (Ⅲ) complicated with hyperthyroidism, and it may be safe and effective to use anti-thyroid drugs and individualized dosage of 131I during the treatment.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Effects of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha on degradation of extracellular matrix of articular chondrocytes and related mechanism
    HUANG Jin-gang, TONG Hai-jun, LIU Hong-qiang, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1084. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.017

    Abstract ( 1609 )   PDF (8108KB) ( 1183 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on the degradation of extracellular matrix of articular chondrocytes, and explore the related molecular mechanism. Methods Primary articular chondrocytes were isolated from rat articular chondrocytes, and were stimulated by IL-1β and TNF-α alone or in combination. IL-1β stimulation group, TNF-α stimulation group and IL-1β and TNF-α stimulation group were established, and control group without any stimulation was also established. After treatment for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, the changes of extracellular matrix of articular chondrocytes were observed by inverted microscope, and Real-time PCR was employed to detect the expression of metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), Aggrecanases-1 (Adamts-4) and Aggrecanases-2 (Adamts-5) mRNA. Results After treatment for 48 h and 72 h, it was observed by microscope that there was no significant difference in degradation of extracellular matrix of articular chondrocytes between control group and TNF-α stimulation group, while extracellular matrix of articular chondrocytes in IL-1β stimulation group and IL-1β and TNF-α stimulation group was unstained and degraded with expanded cell spaces. Compared with control group, the expression of MMP-13, Adamts-4 and Adamts-5 mRNA in IL-1β stimulation group significantly increased after treatment for 24 h (P<0.01), and decreased after treatment for 48 h and 72 h. There was no significant difference in the expression of MMP-13, Adamts-4 and Adamts-5 mRNA between IL-1β stimulation group and IL-1β and TNF-α stimulation group after treatment for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h (P>0.05). Conclusion IL-1β can directly degrade extracellular matrix of articular chondrocytes through up-regulation of expression of MMP-13, Adamts-4 and Adamts-5, while TNF-α can not directly degrade extracellular matrix of articular chondrocytes.

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    In vivo and in vitro activities of Leptospira interrogans |collagenase
    XU Jing, CHEN Xiao-ying, GUO Xiao-kui, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1090. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.018

    Abstract ( 1826 )   PDF (6398KB) ( 1129 )  

    Objective To detect in vivo and in vitro activities of Leptospira interrogans (L.interrogans) collagenase in order to identify the role of collagenase (LA0872) of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai in the pathogenesis of hemorrhage caused by pathogenic leptospira. Methods Recombinant la0872 was cloned and expressed in E.coli, and enzyme activity was detected by gelatin zymography. The differences in collagenase gene, transcription and enzyme activity among three leptospira strains with different virulence (L.interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai, avirulent variant strain of L.interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai and L.biflexa serovar montevalerio strain Monte Valerio) were compared. Furthermore, the changes of serum collagenase activities of guinea pigs and gerbils infected by L. interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai were detected. Results Recombinant la0872 was successfully identified with collagenase activity. There was no significant difference in collagenase gene, transcription and enzyme activity among three leptospira strains with different virulence. There was no significant difference between the serum activities of collagenase of guinea pigs and gerbils with infection by L.interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai and those without infection (P>0.05). Conclusion It is the first time to express L.interrogans collagenase and identify its activity, however, its role in leptospirosis hemorrhage still needs to be further studied.

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    In vitro culture and growth characteristics of rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells
    ZHENG Hui, XUE Song, LIAN Feng, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1095. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.019

    Abstract ( 1965 )   PDF (8582KB) ( 1242 )  

    Objective To observe in vitro culture and grow characteristics of rabbit artery  smooth muscle cells. Methods Digestive and adherent method was applied for the primary culture of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) deriving from rabbit thoracic aorta, and cells were passaged. The cultured cells were observed and identified by inverted microscopy and immunofluorescence method. Viability, growth ability, proliferation ability and migration ability of passage cells were determined by trypan blue exclusion method, growth curve, MTT assay and wound healing assay. Results VSMC of primary culture grew out of the edge of tissue pieces after incubation for 5 d. The passage cells maintained typical “hill” and “valley” pattern of growth observed by light microscope. Positive staining of α-actin in cell cytoplasm was revealed by immunofluorescence. Cell viability was 96%, the growth curve of VSMC resembled “S” in shape, the significant change of optical density was detected after culture for 3 to 5 d, and the scarification width value changed markedly in VSMC treated by serum starvation for 24 h. Conclusion The cultured rabbit artery smooth muscle cells are characterised by contractile phenotype and better viability, with higher proliferation activity after growth for 3 to 5 d and migration ability within 24 h after scarification, which may provide favourable experimental material for the research of cardiovascular diseases.

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    Experimental study of pathological changes of capillary vessels with venous hypertension
    QI Yan-qing, ZHANG Lan, ZHANG Ji-wei
    2010, 30 (9):  1101. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.020

    Abstract ( 1713 )   PDF (7428KB) ( 1088 )  

    Objective To establish the suitable animal model for pathological study of venous hypertension, and investigate the role of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) in capillary endothelial cells in the inflammatory reaction of venous hypertension. Methods SD rat femoral arteriovenous fistula venous hypertension model and iliac vein coarctation venous hypertension model were established, and negative controls and blank controls were also prepared. The changes of area of blood capillary lumens in muscle and subcutaneous tissues in hind limbs of rats were observed by HE staining and immunohistochemical staining, and the changes of expression of DARC in capillary endothelial cells were detected with selected rat models. Results The area of blood capillary lumens in muscle and subcutaneous tissues in hind limbs of rat femoral arteriovenous fistula venous hypertension model was much larger and more sustained than that of rat iliac vein coarctation venous hypertension model at different time points after model establishment. The expression of DARC in capillary endothelial cells of rat femoral arteriovenous fistula venous hypertension model increased with time after model establishment. Conclusion Rat femoral arteriovenous fistula model is more suitable for pathological study of venous hypertension, and the expression of DARC in capillary endothelial cells is related with inflammatory reaction of venous hypertension.

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    Miniature pig model of combined traumatic brain injury and acute intracranial hypertension with hemorrhagic shock
    LUO Wei, LI Xue-yuan, LI Jia, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1106. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.021

    Abstract ( 1939 )   PDF (7561KB) ( 1007 )  

    Objective To establish the miniature pig model of combined traumatic brain injury and acute intracranial hypertension with superimposed hemorrhagic shock so as to simulate the human local traumatic brain injury and acute epidural hematoma and superimposed hemorrhagic shock, and analyse the morphological changes. Methods Unilateral brain frontal lobes were injured by simplified controlled cortical impact devices in 16 miniature pigs, epidural balloon method was adopted to induce acute intracranial hypertension, and modified Wigger shock model was employed to cause hemorrhagic shock. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were observed at the time points of before model preparation (T01), immediately after blood withdrawal (T0), and 15 min (T15), 30 min (T30) and 60 min (T60) after blood withdrawl. O2 suturation of jugular venous blood (SjvO2) was monitored at T01 and T60. Two miniature pigs were randomly selected, and cranial CT and MRI examinations at coronal plane were performed before model preparation and 6 h after model preparation. Two miniature pigs were randomly selected 6 h after model establishment for cranial gross pathological examination, observation with HE staining and ultramicrostructure observation. Results MAP and CPP were significantly lower and ICP was significantly higher at T0 than those at T01 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between MAP, ICP and CCP of T15, T30 and T60 and those of T0 (P>0.05). SjvO2 at T60 was significantly lower than that at T01 (P<0.05). Imaging examinations revealed traumatic subdural hemorrhage, midline shift and contralateral cerebral ventricle dilation. It was observed by HE staining that there were significant edema in traumatic lesions and adjacent tissues, infiltration of inflammatory cells, pericapillary hemorrhage, petechial hemorrhages in the white matter and cortical laceration. Ultramicrostructure observation revealed a series of changes in the tissues of traumatic lesions, adjacent tissues and contralateral cerebral tissues, including necrosis and degeneration of neurons, myelinolysis of axons, mitochondrial swelling and distension of endothelia. Conclusion The miniature pig model of traumatic brain injury combined with acute intracranial hypertension and hemorrhagic shock, established successfully with controlled cortical impact, epidural balloon and blood withdrawal, can effectively simulate human local traumatic brain injury and acute epidural hematoma and superimposed hemorrhagic shock, and can monitor the cerebral perfusion and balance of supply and demand of cerebral oxygen.

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    Establishment of rat model of cleft lip and palate combined with unilateral alveolar cleft and its stability
    XU Yue, CHEN Zhen-qi, WU Jun, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1111. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.022

    Abstract ( 1739 )   PDF (6752KB) ( 1759 )  

    Objective To establish a rat model of cleft lip and palate combined with maxillary bone defect (unilateral alveolar cleft), and investigate its stability. Methods SD rats (7 weeks old) were selected, and 4 mm×4 mm ×3 mm alveolar cleft of upper mandible on the right was prepared to establish the rat model of cleft lip and palate combined with maxillary bone defect. Model rats were divided into control group (no treatment in bone defect area, n=10) and experiment group (bone wax packing for bone defect area, n=10). Model samples were prepared immediately after operation and 4 weeks and 8 weeks after operation in two groups, three dimensional reconstruction was conducted with microcomputed tomography (MicroCT), new bone formation in bone defect area was observed and quantitively detected, and the stability of model in two groups were analysed and compared. Results MicroCT three dimensional image reconstruction illustrated that large amount of new bone filled the bone defect area 8 weeks after operation in control group, and the bone defect area significantly decreased. However, only small amount of new bone formation was found in experiment group, and the bone defect area was not significantly decreased. Quantitive analysis revealed that the percents of new bone formation 4 weeks after operation in control group and experiment group were 54.35% and 16.53%, respectively, and those of 8 weeks after operation were 93.12% and 29.30%, respectively, with significant differences between two groups(P<0.05). Conclusion The rat model of cleft lip and palate combined with maxillary bone defect (unilateral alveolar cleft) was successfully established, and bone defect area filled by bone wax packing can significantly increase the stability of the model.

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    Methionine induces ApoE gene knockout mice to establish vulnerable aortic plaque model
    XU Zhi-hong, LU Guo-ping, XI Rui, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1115. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.023

    Abstract ( 1969 )   PDF (11353KB) ( 1529 )  

    Objective To induce vulnerable aortic plaque model in atherosclerosis of homocysteine by 2% (wt/vol) L-methionine in ApoE gene knockout mice. Methods Sixty 6-week old C57BL/6J ApoE gene knockout mice were randomly divided into three groups, with 20 rats in each group. Same amount of drinking water was administered to rats in control group, rats in high methionine group were intragastrically administrated with 2%(wt/vol) L-methionine, and those in extremely higher methionine group were intragastrically administrated with 3%(wt/vol) L-methionine. Besides, another 20 normal rats were served as normal control group. Serum homocysteine and lipid changes were detected one month and two months later, and the changes of plaque size, thickness of fibrous cap, collagen ratio and inflammatory infiltration degree were measured by HE, EVG elastic fiber staining and collagen staining of plaque and anti-MAC3 monoclonal antibody labeling. Cell apoptosis in aortic tissues was determined by TUNEL method. Results High methionine dose-dependently and time-dependently induced the development of vulnerable aortic plaque in atherosclerosis in ApoE gene knockout mice. Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibited  increasement of vacuole and lysome, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum and deformation of mitochondria. The endothelial cells were edematous and deforming. The apoptosis cells existed simultaneously in the lipid core. Conclusion High methionine diet could induce hyperhomocysteinemia in ApoE gene knockout mice, which may promote the development of vulnerable plaque in atherosclerosis. Proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells coexisted in plaque.

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    Construction of DNA vaccine encoding ubiquitinated HBcAg against hepatitis B virus
    SHEN Nan, YU Yong-sheng, PAN Qing-chun, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1121. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.024

    Abstract ( 1786 )   PDF (5332KB) ( 1486 )  

    Objective To construct DNA vaccine encoding ubiquitinated hepatitis B virus core antigen (HbcAg) against hepatitis B virus. Methods Gene encoding mutant ubiquitin (Ub) was amplified by RT-PCR from the liver of BALB/c mice, and HBcAg gene fragment was amplified from the plasmid pADR containing the genome of hepatitis B virus by PCR. Ub-HBcAg fusion gene was spliced by recombinant PCR. After purification and collection, Ub-HBcAg was connected with pUCm-T vector to construct the recombinant plasmid pUCm-Ub-HBcAg. After identification of pUCm-Ub-HBcAg by enzyme digestion analysis, Ub-HBcAg was inserted into eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(-) to construct the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid Ub-HBcAg-pcDNA3.1(-), which was identified through sequencing. Results Gene encoding HbcAg and gene encoding mutant Ub were amplified. Ub-HBcAg fusion gene eukaryotic expression plasmid Ub-HBcAg-pcDNA3.1(-) was confirmed through sequencing. Fusion gene Ub-HBcAg was inserted into the right direction of plasmid pcDNA3.1(-), the mutant gene fragment was confirmed to accord to expectation, and there was no other difference between the target gene and published gene in GenBank. Conclusion DNA vaccine encoding ubiquitinated HBcAg against hepatitis B virus has been successfully constructed.

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    Effects of normovolemic dilution on coagulation function of hemorrhage in rabbits
    GAO Min, ZHANG Fu-jun, YU Bu-wei, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1125. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.025

    Abstract ( 1706 )   PDF (4282KB) ( 1442 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of different resuscitation fluids on coagulation function of normovolemic hemodilution and autologous blood transfusion after hepatic hemorrhage. Methods Models of normovolemic hemodilution and autologous blood resuscitation after hepatic hemorrhage were established in 18 New Zealand rabbits, and were randomly divided into H group (Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4), G group (Gelofusine) and RL group (Ringer lactate) according to different resuscitation fluids (n=6 in each group). Blood samples were collected from femoral arteries after anesthesia and before hemodilution (T0), 10 min after normovolemic dilution (T1) and 60 min after autologous blood resuscitation after hepatic hemorrhage (T2). Coagulation function was tested, and thromboelastograph (TEG) measurements were conducted. Besides, time of survival and volumes of blood loss were monitored in each group within 120 min of resuscitation after hepatic hemorrhage. Results Parameters of coagulation function at T1 and T2 time points were significantly different from those at T0 time point in H group (P<0.05). There were also significant differences in TEG measurements between T1 time point and T2 time point in H group (P<0.05). Time of survival was shorter, and volume of blood loss was larger in H group. There was a decrease tendency of mean artery pressure (MAP) during autologous blood transfusion after hepatic hemorrhage in H group, and was significantly different from those of G group and RL group (P<0.05). Conclusion Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 has a greater inhibitive effect on coagulation function than Gelofusine and Ringer lactate.

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    Significance of expression of 14-3-3 zeta protein in gastric cancer
    ZHANG Ben-yan, YUAN Fei, XIAO Jia-cheng, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1129. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.026

    Abstract ( 1823 )   PDF (4991KB) ( 1462 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in gastric cancer and its clinical significance. Methods Tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemical staining were used to investigate the expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in 100 cases of gastric cancer tissues and 76 cases of para-cancer gastric mucosa tissues. The correlation between expression of 14-3-3ζ protein and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with gastric cancer were analysed.ResultsFor 100 cases of gastric cancer tissues, 79 (79.00%) expressed 14-3-3ζ protein, while few cells expressed 14-3-3ζ protein in normal gastric mucosa. The positive expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in papillary adenocarcinoma (100%) and tubular adenocarcinoma (86.75%) was significantly higher than those in mucinous adenocarcinoma (42.86%) and signet-ring cell carcinoma (0) (P<0.05). By Lauren's classification, the positive expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in intestinal type gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in diffuse type gastric cancer (90.91% vs 73.13%)(P<0.05). By infiltration degree of gastric cancer, the positive expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in muscular layer (78.57%) and serosa layer (81.93%) was significantly higher than that in mucosa layer (0) and submucosa layer (0) (P<0.05). The positive expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in advanced gastric cancer was 81.44%, while 14-3-3ζ protein was not expressed in all the 3 cases of early gastric cancer (P<0.05).  Conclusion The expression of 14-3-3ζ protein is significantly correlated with the histological classification and infiltration degree of gastric cancer tissues. 14-3-3ζ protein may be used as a marker for prognosis evaluation and as a potential target of biotherapy for gastric cancer.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Changes of event related potential component N400 in first episode schizophrenia before and after risperidone treatment
    CHEN Xing-shi, XU Yi-feng, TANG Yun-xiang, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1133. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.027

    Abstract ( 2027 )   PDF (5081KB) ( 1564 )  

    Objective To explore the relationship between event related potential (ERP) component N400 changes and syndromes and treatment in first episode schizophrenia (FES), and investigate the mechanism of N400 changes. Methods Chinese sentences with matching (congruent) or mismatching (incongruent) ending words were used as stimuli, and ERP component N400 was recorded by Runjie WJ-1 ERP instrument (China) in 56 patients with FES (FES group) and 62 healthy controls (NC group). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Patients in FES group were treated by single antipsychotic drug risperidone, and N400 was monitored after treatment for 3 months and 12 months in both groups. Results Compared with NC group, N400 latencies in Cz, Pz and Fz prolonged, and N400 amplitudes decreased in FES group. In Cz of FES group, the prolonged N400 latency was positively correlated to the general psychopathological score in PANSS (r=0.319, P<0.05), and the decreased N400 amplitude was negatively correlated to the positive score and total score of PANSS (r=-0.425,P<0.01;r=-0.348,P<0.05). Compared with those before treatment, no significant changes were found in PANSS score, N400 latencies and N400 amplitudes in FES group after treatment for 3 months (P>0.05). Twelve months after treatment, psychiatric symptoms in FES group relieved, and the total PANSS score decreased to 29.5±3.3, with a score-reducing rate >50%. Improved N400 indexes were also observed, with shortened N400 latencies and enlarged N400 amplitudes (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Cognitive and linguistic disorders can be found in patients with FES, and N400 changes may be a state marker for schizophrenia.

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    Expression of Survivin, Fas and FasL in cervical cancer and their relationship
    WU Su-fang, ZHANG Jia-wen, QIU Min, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1138. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.028

    Abstract ( 2017 )   PDF (6636KB) ( 1491 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of Survivin, Fas and FasL in tissues of different cervical lesions, and analyse the relationship between the expression of Survivin and that of Fas/FasL in tissues of cervical cancer. Methods The expression of Survivin, Fas and FasL in tissues of 47 cases of cervical cancer, 25 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 20 cases of chronic cervicitis and 20 cases of normal cervix was detected by immunohistochemical staining (SP method), and the relationship between the expression of Survivin, Fas and FasL and clinical pathologic characteristics of cervical cancer was analysed. Besides, the relationship between the expression of Survivin and that of Fas/FasL in tissues of cervical cancer was explored by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results The positive expression rate of Survivin was 68.1% in tissues of cervical cancer, which was significantly higher than those in tissues of normal cervix (0%), chronic cervicitis (15.0%) and CIN (36.0%) (P<0.05). The positive expression rate of Fas was 48.9% in tissues of cervical cancer, which was significantly lower than those in tissues of normal cervix (90.0%), chronic cervicitis (85.0%) and CIN (80.0%) (P<0.05). The positive expression rate of FasL was 93.6% in tissues of cervical cancer, which was significantly higher than those in tissues of normal cervix (0%), chronic cervicitis (50.0%) and CIN (68.0%)(P<0.05). The expression of Survivin was correlated with clinical staging and lymphnode metastases of cervical cancer (P<0.05). The expression of FasL was correlated with lymphnode metastases, clinical staging and pathological grading of cervical cancer (P<0.05). The expression of Survivin was negatively correlated with that of Fas in tissues of cervical cancer (r=-0.517,P<0.01), and was positively correlated with that of FasL (r=0.381,P<0.01). Conclusion The up-regulation of expression of Survivin and FasL and down-regulation of expression of Fas may take part in the carcinogenesis and development of cervical cancer, which may be the mechanism by which tumor cells evade the immune surveillance. The expression of FasL may be one of the prediction indexes for disease progression and prognosis in cervical cancer.

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    Establishment of Trans-vivo delayed type hypersensitivity assay and its clinical application
    ZHANG Ming-ming, ZHOU Pei-jun, SHAO Kun, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1143. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.029

    Abstract ( 1916 )   PDF (4285KB) ( 1378 )  

    Objective To establish trans-vivo delayed type hypersensitivity (trans-vivo DTH) assay for evaluation of immune response status in renal transplant recipients. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from donors (n=13) and recipients (n=13) by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Sub-cell antigens were prepared by ultrasonication of PBMC from donors. PBMC from recipients, recall antigen EBV antigens and donor antigens were injected into the foot pads of CB-17 SCID mice accordingly. For negative control group, 7-9×106 PBMC from recipients were injected. For donor antigen reactive group, 7-9×106 PBMC from recipients and 10 μg donor antigens were injected. For positive control group, 7-9 ×106 PBMC from recipients and 10 μg EBV antigens were injected. For linked immune suppression group, 7-9×106 PBMC from recipients, 10 μg EBV antigens and 10 μg donor antigens were injected. The thickness of foot pads of mice was measured before injection and 24 h after injection, and the change of thickness of foot pads was calculated. The net change of thickness ≥ 63.5×10-3 mm in positive control group was considered to be valid. Results Trans-vivo DTH assay in monitoring of 13 living related renal transplant recipients revealed that 8 patients (62%) were sensitized pattern, 3 patients (23%) were regulator pattern, and the other 2 patients (15%) were non-regulator pattern. Conclusion Response to donor antigens in living related renal transplant recipients can be monitored by trans-vivo DTH assay.

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    Impact of bilateral ovariectomy on bone mineral density and body composition in peri-menopausal women
    TAO Min-fang, RONG Rong, WU Qing-kai, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1146. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.030

    Abstract ( 1955 )   PDF (3423KB) ( 1381 )  

    Objective To investigate the impact of bilateral ovariectomy on bone mineral density, body composition and sex hormones levels in peri-menopausal women. Methods Thirty-three peri-menopausal women undergoing bilateral ovariectomy in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University from January 1st to December 31st 2009 were selected (ovariectomy group), and another 35 women of natual menopause visiting climacteric clinic during the same period were served as control group. Bone mineral density, fat mass, lean mass and sex hormone levels were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and chemiluminescence method, respectively 6 and 12 months after menopause. Results Six and twelve months after menopause, there was no significant difference in bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass between two groups (P>0.05). The estrodiol (E2) level in ovariectomy group was significantly lower than that in control group six months after menopause [(14.79±22.17)U/L vs (32.74±31.02 U/L)](P<0.05), and there were significant differences in E2 levels and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels between two groups 12 months after menopause [E2:(8.09±4.38)U/L vs (25.92±3.53)U/L;FSH:(64.88±18.39)U/L vs (40.69±31.63)U/L](P<0.05). Conclusion Bilateral ovariectomy in peri-menopausal women may lead to significant changes of E2 and FSH levels within 12 months, while the decreased E2 level does not have significant impacts on bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass.

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    Effects of lipoic acid pretreatment on oxidative stress induced by intravenous iron supplement in patients with peritoneal dialysis
    WANG Pei, LIU Zhang-suo, LIANG Xian-hui
    2010, 30 (9):  1149. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.031

    Abstract ( 1900 )   PDF (3372KB) ( 1306 )  

    Objective To observe the effects of lipoic acid pretreatment on acute oxidative stress induced by intravenous iron supplement in patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Methods Forty patients with CAPD received single intravenous iron supplement (Fe group) and intravenous iron supplement with lipoic acid pretreatment (Lipoic+Fe group), and the intermission between these two treatment was more than 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before (0 min) and 10, 60, 120 and 240 min after intravenous iron supplement, and the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and level of serum malondiadehyde (MDA) were detected by visible range spectrophotometer. Another 20 healthy volunteers were served as control group. Results Compared with control group, the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in Fe group and Lipoic+Fe group at 0 min time point decreased, while the level of MDA increased (P<0.05). After intravenous iron supplement in two groups, the activity of SOD and GSH-Px decreased and reached the valley at 60 min time point, and the level of MDA increased and reached the peak at 60 min time point. The activity of SOD and GSH-Px was significantly higher and the level of MDA was significantly lower at each time point in Lipoic+Fe group than those in Fe group (P<0.05). Conclusion Acute aggravation of oxidative stress may be induced by intravenous iron supplement in patients with CAPD, which may be alleviated by lipoic acid pretreatment.

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    Relationship between vascular endothelial function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    GUO Ying, LI Yan-qin, LIU Bin, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1152. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.032

    Abstract ( 1960 )   PDF (3767KB) ( 1279 )  

    Objective To explore the relationship between vascular endothelial function and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Fifty-two patients with COPD in stable phase visiting Department of Respiratory Medicine, Renji Hospital from May 2008 to March 2009 were selected, and were divided into mild group (n=12), moderate group (n=12), severe group (n=14) and extremely severe group (n=14). Besides, another 26 healthy volunteers were served as control group, and were subdivided into healthy smoking control group (n=13) and healthy non-smoking control group (n=13). Pulmonary function tests were performed in all subjects. Concentrations of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1), serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum nitric oxide (NO) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and NO2-/NO3- nitrate reductase assay. Results The concentrations of serum NO and VEGF in COPD groups were significantly lower than those of healthy non-smoking control group (P<0.05). The concentrations of serum NO and VEGF were positively related to forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (r=0.767,P<0.01;r=0.658,P<0.01). The concentrations of plasma ET-1 in COPD groups were significantly higher than those in healthy control groups (P<0.05). The concentration of plasma ET-1 was negatively related to FEV1 (r=-0.816,P<0.01). Conclusion There exists vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients with COPD, which is closely related to disease severity.

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    Therapeutic effects of Fifty Ying acupuncture combined with point injection in treatment of hypothyroidism
    YUAN Min, JIANG Ying, GUAN Liang, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1156. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.033

    Abstract ( 1736 )   PDF (4922KB) ( 1648 )  

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of Fifty Ying acupuncture with point injection of nucleotide and casein injection in treatment of hypothyroidism. Methods Thirty-seven patients with hypothyroidism were divided into asthenic splenonephro-yang group (n=22) and asthenia of both yin and yang group (n=15) according to traditional Chinese medicine classification method, and all the patients were treated with Fifty Ying acupuncture with point injection of nucleotide and casein injection. The thyroid functional parameters of serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH) were detected and compared, and the therapeutic effects between two groups were compared. All the patients underwent superior thyroid artery examinations by color Doppler flow imagining (CDFI), and the distribution of blood flow and flow velocity in thyroid were observed before and after treatment. Results Compared with those before treatment, serum FT3 and FT4 levels significantly increased after treatment(P<0.01), while serum sTSH level significantly decreased (P<0.001). The effective rates of treatment in asthenic splenonephro-yang group and asthenia of both yin and yang group were 90.9% and 80.0%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05). It was observed by CDFI that heart rates increased significantly, blood flow signal was intense and peak flow velocity significantly increased after treatment. Conclusion Fifty Ying acupuncture with point injection of nucleotide and casein injection may significantly improve the thyroid function of hypothyroidism, which may be associated with the regulation of excess and deficiency, and the balance between yin and yang.

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    Review
    Research progress on genetics of Behcet's disease
    XUE Ting-jun
    2010, 30 (9):  1160. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.034

    Abstract ( 1611 )   PDF (3940KB) ( 1187 )  

    Behcet's disease, also named as Behcet's syndrome, always involves oral mucosa, eyes and genitals. It is an autoimmune disease with undetermined etiology. The occurrence of Behcet's disease varies in regions and races, and exhibits the tendency of familial aggregation. Therefore, the researches on genetics of Behcet's disease play an important role in the early diagnosis and exploration of novel treatment methods. The research progress on genetics of Behcet's disease is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of vascular protection mechanism of adiponectin
    ZHANG Ling-juan
    2010, 30 (9):  1164. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.035

    Abstract ( 1651 )   PDF (3920KB) ( 1118 )  

    Adiponectin is an abundant plasma protein secreted from adipocytes that elicits protective effects in the vasculature and myocardium. Adiponectin suppresses oxidative stress, inhibits inflammatory signaling cascades, ameliorates microvascular circulation and regulates angiogenesis via multiple signal pathways. The research progress of vascular protection mechanism of adiponectin is reviewed in this paper.

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    Thermal ablation therapy for breast cancer
    NIU Ling-chuan
    2010, 30 (9):  1168. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.036

    Abstract ( 1923 )   PDF (4391KB) ( 1394 )  

    Breast cancer is one of the common malignant tumors with serious harm for women. The growing demand for improved quality of life and physical beauty stimulates the changes of treatment modalities, and the thermal ablation therapy for breast cancer has been fully developed. The common ablation therapies include radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation and high intensity focused ultrasound ablation.The principles, guidance and monitoring technology, clinical application and complications of different ablation techniques are introduced in this paper.

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    Effects of adipose tissue distribution evaluated by CT before operation on early surgical outcomes of gastric cancer
    ZHU Zheng-lun
    2010, 30 (9):  1172. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.037

    Abstract ( 1679 )   PDF (3913KB) ( 1126 )  

    There is a close relationship between intra-abdominal adipose tissue distribution and early outcomes of gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for gastric cancer. However, the common body surface measurement related to obesity can not accurately reveal the intra-abdominal adipose tissue distribution. The newly-developed multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) can quantitatively measure the adipose tissue distribution. The effects of adipose tissue distribution evaluated by MDCT before operation on early surgical outcomes of gastric cancer are reviewed in this paper.

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    Brief original article
    Study of myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation in lung of tumor-bearing mice
    ZHONG Hua, HAN Bao-hui
    2010, 30 (9):  1176. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.038

    Abstract ( 2259 )   PDF (3226KB) ( 1527 )  

    Objective To observe the expression of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung tissues of tumor-bearing mice. Methods Twelve C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into experiment group and control group, with 6 mice in each group. 3LL cells (0.3×106) cultured in vitro were injected into tail vein of mice in experiment group, and mouse lung tissues were obtained three weeks after tumor formation. Lung single cell  suspension was made with mixture of enzyme, and the expression of MDSCs (GR1-FITC and CD11b-PE double positive staining) was detected by flow cytometry. PBS was injected into tail vein of mice in control group, and the following treatment was the same as that in experiment group.ResultsMDSCs were highly expressed (19.92%±6.08%) in lung tissues of mice in experiment group (GR+CD11b+ double positive staining), that in control group was 7.06%±2.67%, and there were significant differences between two groups (P<0.001). Conclusion MDSCs are highly expressed in lung tissues of mice with lung cancer.

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    Analysis of surgical management of 53 infants and children with congenital heart diseases
    ZHANG Wei, WANG Qiang, WANG Lian-qun, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1179. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.039

    Abstract ( 1803 )   PDF (2165KB) ( 1064 )  

    Objective To explore the experience of surgical management of infants and children with congenital heart diseases. Methods The clinical data of 53 infants and children with congenital heart diseases treated by surgery were retrospectively analysed. Among the 53 patients, 2 underwent palliative operation, and the other 51 were performed anatomic correction, among whom 2 received emergency operation. Results Among the 53 patients, 1 patient died of lung infection complicated with multi-organ dysfunction 8 d after operation. There were 3 cases of low cardiac output syndrome, 1 case of renal failure, 1 case of delayed pericardial tamponade and 1 case of sternal dehiscence after operation. Conclusion Early surgical treatment should be performed on infants and children with congenital heart diseases, and preoperative diagnosis, timing and approach of operation and perioperative management are the keys to successful operations.

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    Case report
    One case report of traumatic progressive bilateral epidural hematomas of posterior cranial fossa
    LIANG Yu-min, WU Hai-bo, BAO Ying-hui, et al
    2010, 30 (9):  1181. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2010.09.040

    Abstract ( 1581 )   PDF (4730KB) ( 1281 )  

    This paper reported a case of traumatic progressive bilateral epidural hematomas of posterior cranial fossa. The progressive bilateral hematomas which caused obstructive hydrocephalus were confirmed on second CT scanning 14 h after injury, which occurred in the impact location where only occipital linear fracture and thin epidural hematoma were seen on the initial CT scanning 1 h after injury. However, the patient only complained headache, and no abnormal neurological sign was found. The hydrocephalus disappeared after emergent evacuation of hematomas by occipital para-midline approach, and the patient had favourable recovery. On basis of literature review, some issues about this case were discussed in this paper.

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