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    Editorial
    Development and prospects of nursing education in China
    ZHANG Ya-qing
    2013, 33 (5):  529. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.001

    Abstract ( 1454 )   PDF (171KB) ( 916 )  

    In recent years, the nursing education in China has been developing rapidly and getting mature, which has made great progress in scale and quality. However, the nursing education in future should be developed on be basis of social requirements. Some of these strategies include adjusting and optimizing the nursing education level and structure, defining and clarifying the objectives of different levels of nursing education, strengthening the quality of nursing teaching. These strategies aim to improve the school operation and the quality of nursing education and promote the sustainable development of nursing in China. The current situation, achievements and existing prominent problems of nursing education in China are introduced in this paper, and the future development is prospected.

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    Monographic report (Clinical nursing and management)
    Impact of family management on family functioning of families with chronically ill children
    ZHANG Ying, WEI Min, ZHANG Ya-qing, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  531. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.002

    Abstract ( 1029 )   PDF (514KB) ( 1171 )  

    Objective To investigate the impact of family management on family functioning of families with chronically ill children, and provide evidence for tailored family intervention. Methods A total of 618 primary caregivers for chronically ill children from 7 hospitals in Beijing and Shanghai were selected, and were surveyed with family management measure and Feetham family functioning survey. The influencing factors of family management and family functioning were identified by univariate analysis and correlation analysis, and the variables with P<0.05 in previous analysis were selected to enter the multiple regression model. Results Child´s daily life, condition management effort, family life difficulty, parental mutuality, living in urban area, employed mother, duration of condition (<1 year) and diagnosis (renal disorder or genetic condition) were predictors of family functioning. Conclusion Family management is an important determinant of family functioning. Improving the key aspects of family management may directly affect family functioning.

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    Effects of motor imaginary therapy on balance function recovery in hemiplegic patients after stroke
    ZHANG Hui-ying, JIN Na, ZHANG Ya-qing, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  538. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.003

    Abstract ( 863 )   PDF (358KB) ( 1161 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of motor imaginary therapy on the balance function recovery in hemiplegic patients after stroke. Methods A total of 32 hospitalized hemiplegic patients after stroke were divided into group A and group B based on the odd or even admission number. From the first to the third week, patients in group A were treated with conventional rehabilitation therapy combined with motor imaginary therapy, and those in group B only received conventional rehabilitation therapy. During the fourth and fifth week (washout period), both patients in group A and B did not accept formal conventional rehabilitation therapy and motor imaginary therapy. In the sixth to eighth week, patients in group B received conventional rehabilitation therapy combined with motor imaginary therapy, and those in group A only received conventional rehabilitation therapy. Berg balance scale scoring was employed to evaluate the balance function of patients before treatment and at the end of the third week, fifth week and eighth week after treatment. Results There was no significant difference in the Berg balance scale score before treatment between group A and group B (P>0.05). Three weeks after treatment, the Berg balance scale scores of group A and B were improved (P<0.01), and Berg balance scale score of group A was superior to that of group B (P<0.05). Five weeks after treatment, the Berg balance scale scores of group A and B were better than those of two groups 3 weeks after treatment, while there was no significant difference between these two time points (P>0.05), and there was also no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05). Eight weeks after treatment, the Berg balance scale scores of group A and group B were better than those of group A and group B 5 weeks after treatment (P<0.01), and the Berg balance scale score of group B was superior to that of group A (P<0.01). Conclusion On the basis of conventional rehabilitation therapy, motor imaginary therapy can further improve the balance function in hemiplegic patients after stroke and improve the efficacy of rehabilitation training.

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    Investigation of serum lipid-related knowledge requirement and self-care behaviors of patients with hyperlipidemia
    DU Ming-li, WANG Qiu-li, ZHAO Jun, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  543. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.004

    Abstract ( 750 )   PDF (366KB) ( 921 )  

    Objective To investigate the serum lipid-related knowledge requirement and self-care behaviors of patients with hyperlipidemia so as to provide basis for effective health education. Methods A total of 150 patients with hyperlipidemia were investigated with a self-designed questionnaire for demographic data, serum lipid-related knowledge requirement and self-care behaviors. Results The serum lipid-related knowledge most required by patients was the main harm caused by hyperlipidemia (70.7%), proper dietary management (65.3%) and the relationship between hyperlipidemia and coronary heart diseases (62.7%), while the serum lipid-related knowledge less required was the diagnostic criteria of hyperlipidemia (22.7%), psychological adjustment method (22.0%), the serum lipid parameters and normal range of values (15.3%). Patients were more inclined to acquire knowledge by attending health seminars (81.3%) and reading health education manuals (77.3%) and publicity column (52.0%). In contrast, video and audio (12.7%), short message reminders (30.7%) and email reminders (34.7%) were not popularly accepted. Most of the patients had proper behaviors on alcohol intake (76.0%), smoking (52.0%), fresh vegetables and fruits taking (74.7%), lard intake (65.3%), tea drinking (59.3%) and physical exercises (84.7%). However, 52.0% patients spent no less than 4 h on watching TV, reading, using computers and playing computer games every day. Conclusion Nurses should understand the needs of education and life status of patients. It is important to provide individualized health education to help the patients control serum lipid levels.

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    Nursing strategy for respiratory tract of patients with severe craniofacial trauma in acute stage
    ZHAO Yan, ZHU Ying, RUAN Hong
    2013, 33 (5):  548. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.005

    Abstract ( 795 )   PDF (300KB) ( 1047 )  

    Objective To explore the nursing strategy for respiratory tract of patients with severe craniofacial trauma in acute stage. Methods The clinical data of 151 patients with severe craniofacial trauma were collected, and the clinical manifestations, nursing measures and treatment outcomes were retrospectively analysed. Results Twenty-three patients received tracheotomy due to dyspnea and lower blood-oxygen saturation on admission. Oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal airway insertion were performed for 128 patients, among whom 14 got through the acute stage, and another 71 underwent tracheotomy and intracranial operation due to disease deterioration. Tracheotomy was conducted in 43 patients due to the gradual decrease of blood oxygen saturation (lower than 93%). Conclusion Effective oropharyngeal airway insertion, intensive monitoring of disease condition and proper tracheotomy could decrease the incidence of hypoxemia in patients with severe craniofacial trauma in acute stage.

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    Status quo of adult female urinary incontinence and quality of life in Shanghai
    XU Ling, YANG Yan
    2013, 33 (5):  552. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.006

    Abstract ( 860 )   PDF (350KB) ( 991 )  

    Objective To investigate the state quo of adult female urinary incontinence in a community of Shanghai, and investigate the impact of urinary incontinence on quality of life. Methods Six hundred and twenty-eight adult women in a community of Shanghai were selected, and were surveyed with questionnaires on the state quo of urinary incontinence and quality of life. The questionnaire design referred to the Bristol female lower urinary tract symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS) and incontinence quality of life score (I-QOL). Results A total of 597 effective questionnaires were recovered, with the recovery rate of 95.1%. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 36.5% (218/597), among which pure stress urinary incontinence (SUI), urge incontinence (UUI) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) accounted for 47.7%, 14.7% and 37.6% respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence rates of three types of urinary incontinence among women of different ages (P<0.01). In women with urinary incontinence, 53.7% scored 0 to 5 points in I-QOL, and 17.9% scored 20 points or more in I-QOL. Among three types of urinary incontinence, SUI had a relatively smaller impact on quality of life, and MUI had a larger impact on quality of life. Conclusion Urinary incontinence has become the important voiding disorder in adult women in China, and awareness of urinary incontinence should be enhanced for the timely medical treatment to improve the quality of life.

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    Qualitative research of survival experience of liver transplant recipients
    SHEN Yan, ZHANG Hong
    2013, 33 (5):  556. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.007

    Abstract ( 893 )   PDF (384KB) ( 1016 )  

    Objective To investigate the survival experience of liver transplant recipients.MethodsWith phenomenology method of qualitative research, face-to-face and semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in 17 liver transplant recipients. The data were analysed with Colaizzi method, the valuable information and opinions were extracted, and the theme was refined. Results The experience of life quality in liver transplant recipients was various, but the quality of life was thought to be improved generally. Fourteen themes of 5 levels of quality of life were refined. ① The subjective experience level included 3 themes: increased degree of freedom of life, open-minded attitude to life, and improvement of confidence of life. ② The physiology level included 3 themes: physical change, sexual life with decrease or improvement, and improvement of sleep quality. ③ The psychology level included 3 themes: concern, inferiority, and psychology of gratitude. ④ The society and family level included 3 themes: changed social communication society, better social support system, and good family support. ⑤ The self-care ability level included 2 themes: self-protection to avoid infection, and abidance by medical advice. Conclusion Liver transplantation may improve the quality of life of patients with liver diseases. Medical staff should pay attention to the physiological, psychological and social adaptation ability and self-care experience of liver transplant recipients, take a variety of nursing measures to provide patients with guidance and help so as to improve the quality of life.

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    Predictive study of Braden Q pediatric pressure ulcer risk assessment scale
    LU Ye-feng, LOU Jian-hua, LU Xiu-wen
    2013, 33 (5):  561. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.008

    Abstract ( 1805 )   PDF (350KB) ( 1174 )  

    Objective To evaluate the predictive validity of Braden Q pediatric pressure ulcer risk assessment scale (Braden-Q scale) in severe pediatric patients. Methods The prospective cohort study design was adopted, and 111 samples were collected from intensive care units of three pediatric hospitals in Shanghai with convenience sampling. Two nurses were appointed as the data collector, and were in charge of the scoring of Braden-Q scale and skin assessment. Results Seven patients (6.3%) developed pressure ulcers. The cutoff score of Braden-Q scale was 17 for the risk of pressure ulcer, with the sensitivity of 0.571, specificity of 0.365 and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.547. Conclusion The predictive validity of Braden-Q scale in severe pediatric patients is ordinary, and there is room for improvement.

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    Correlation between occupation identity and caring ability of nursing students
    SUN Ying-tao, GONG Li-min
    2013, 33 (5):  565. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.009

    Abstract ( 888 )   PDF (196KB) ( 975 )  

    Objective To determine the correlation between occupation identity and caring ability of nursing students. Methods A total of 250 nursing students practicing in 4 municipal hospitals in Shanghai were investigated with Nurse´s Career Identity Scale and Caring Ability Inventory Scale. Results The occupation identity of nursing students was in the moderate level, and the caring ability was lower than the norm. The occupation identity was positively correlated to the caring ability, and higher occupation identity led to higher caring ability. Conclusion The caring ability of nursing students is relatively lower as a whole, and schools and hospitals should pay close attention to enhancing the occupation identity of nursing students so as to promote their caring ability.

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    Nursing for vacuum sealing drainage treatment of large destructive injury of lower limbs
    HU San-lian, QIAN Hui-juan, DONG Wen-jun, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  568. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.010

    Abstract ( 806 )   PDF (218KB) ( 1099 )  

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of clinical effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) treatment of large destructive injury of lower limbs, and explore the effective nursing strategy. Methods One hundred and eight patients subject to emergency operation for large destructive injury of lower limbs were treated with VSD on wound after operation, and different numbers of VSD film were used based on the area of wound. The influencing factors of curative effect were analysed. Results Catheter obstruction happened in 22 patients (20.37%), film leakage occurred in 10 patients (9.26%), and drainage tube slipped off in 2 patients (1.85%). Effective nursing measures were taken based on the symptoms to ensure the unobstructed drainage. Conclusion In VSD treatment of large destructive injury of lower limbs, adoption of effective nursing measures can improve the clinical effects of VSD.

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    Survey of foot self-care knowledge and behaviors and analysis of related factors in patients with diabetes mellitus
    FENG Yu-lin, WU Jue-min
    2013, 33 (5):  571. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.011

    Abstract ( 982 )   PDF (363KB) ( 1177 )  

    Objective To investigate the status of foot self-care knowledge and behaviors in patients with diabetes mellitus, and analyse the influencing factors. Methods Two hundred and ninety-two patients with diabetes mellitus were surveyed with self-designed questionnaire on diabetic foot recognition, foot self-care knowledge and behaviors. Results Only 30.5% patients mastered over 60% of correct knowledge and behaviors. Patients showed deficiency in recognition of diabetic foot, knowledge on daily foot self-examination and behaviors, while had some learning on choosing proper shoes and socks. The status of knowledge and behaviors of patients was influenced by the gender, age, education, level of hospital and guidance from diabetes specialist nurses. Conclusion Patients with diabetes mellitus may lack of foot self-care knowledge and proper behaviors. Systematic educational approaches on foot care should be introduced to enhance the awareness and ability of foot self-care.

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    Survey of happiness of nurses in transplantation intensive care unit
    LU Ye-feng, WANG Yan
    2013, 33 (5):  576. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.012

    Abstract ( 843 )   PDF (205KB) ( 836 )  

    Objective To investigate the happiness of nurses in transplantation intensive care unit (ICU) and its influencing factors. Methods The transactional study design was adopted, and the general well-being scale was employed to investigate the happiness of nurses in transplantation ICU and its influencing factors. Results The happiness index of nurses in transplantation ICU was 106.81±6.21. The scores of 3 items (worry on health, satisfaction and interest on life, and total score) in hospital-employed nurses were significantly higher than those in non-hospital-employed nurses (P<0.05), and the scores of 2 items (energy and control of emotion and behavior) in nurses with working experience of no more than 5 years were significantly higher than those in nurses with working experience of more than 5 years (P<0.05). Conclusion The nurses in transplantation ICU have moderate happiness, and employee status and years of working experience are influencing factors.

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    Qualitative study on perceived organizational support of nurses in Shanghai
    WANG Hao-cen, BAO Ling, ZHANG Ya-qing
    2013, 33 (5):  579. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.013

    Abstract ( 823 )   PDF (418KB) ( 1103 )  

    Objective To investigate the experience and demands of organizational support of nurses in Shanghai, and provide reference for establishment of supporting nursing practice environment. Methods The qualitative research based on phenomenology was adopted. Eleven nurses selected from grade two and grade three hospitals received semi-structured interview, and the data were analyzed. Results Four themes of organizational support of nurses were extracted, including personal value, welfare, career development and work-related support. Conclusion Hospital administrators should pay attention to the personal value, enhance the welfare, promote the career development, and improve the practice environment of nurses.

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    Effects of nursing intervention on maintenance hemodialysis adequacy
    ZHANG Min-jia, WANG Yong-mei, JIA Li-ping
    2013, 33 (5):  584. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.04.014

    Abstract ( 623 )   PDF (217KB) ( 1164 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of different nursing interventions on dialysis adequacy of patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Methods Seventy-eight patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis with online clearance monitoring (OCM) rate <1.2 were selected, and were divided into 2 groups based on the internal arteriovenous fistula spacing of 10 cm. Different nursing interventions were performed in two groups, and the OCM rates before and after intervention were observed in two groups. Results Patients in group A (internal fistula spacing >10 cm) treated with an increased blood flow volume from (245±26.65) mL/min to (275±23.61) mL/min were observed to have the elevation of OCM rate from 1.14±0.12 to 1.48±0.21 (P<0.05), and the correlation analysis indicated a significant correlation between increased blood flow and elevated OCM rate. Patients in group B (internal fistula spacing ≤10 cm) treated with an enlargement of internal fistula spacing from (6.67±2.76) cm to (10.43±2.94) cm were observed to have the elevation of OCM rate from 1.12±0.10 to 1.43±0.15 (P<0.05). Conclusion Either increase in blood flow or enlargement in internal fistula spacing can improve the dialysis adequacy of patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

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    Identification of core competencies of anesthesia nursing in China with Delphi method
    HU Jia-le, JIANG Hong, WANG Hui-fen, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  587. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.015

    Abstract ( 821 )   PDF (388KB) ( 1053 )  

    Objective To identify the core competencies for anesthesia nurses to fulfill the scope of practice for anesthesia nursing in China. Methods The draft of core competencies of anesthesia nursing was made with theoretical analysis, literature review, expert semi-structured interview and behavioral event interview, and the ultimate content of core competencies of anesthesia nursing was established by Delphi method. Results There were two rounds of Delphi consultation, with 20 experts involved. The effective rate of questionnaire was 100%, the creditability value was 0.84, and the P value of coordination coefficient test was less than 0.05. There were 60 recommendations from the experts, and 51 were accepted. The content of core competencies of anesthesia nursing was ultimately established, including 3 dimensions, 14 items and 43 indexes. Conclusion The core competencies of anesthesia nursing is established for the first time in China, the scope concentrates on the direct anesthesia nursing care, and the content focuses on not only the knowledge and skills, but also the attitude.

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    Status quo and influencing factors of innovative behavior of nurses
    BAO Ling, ZHANG Ya-qing, ZHANG Ying, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  593. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.016

    Abstract ( 954 )   PDF (290KB) ( 1142 )  

    Objective To investigate the status quo and influencing factors of innovative behavior of nurses so as to provide evidence for improving innovative behavior of nurses and promoting nursing quality. Methods A total of 820 nurses were surveyed by Nurses´ Innovative Behavior Scale, the level of innovative behavior of nurses was evaluated, and the differences in the levels of innovative behavior of nurses with different characteristics were analysed. Results The average score of innovative behavior of nurses was 25.91±6.59. Among three dimensions, idea generation got the highest score (3.13±0.77) and idea promotion got the lowest (2.39±0.81). There were significant differences in the scores of innovative behavior among nurses with different working experience, duties, professional titles and education levels (P<0.05). Nurses with working experience ≥16 years, nurse-in-charge or above as professional title, administrative duties and undergraduate or higher as educational level performed better in innovative behavior. Conclusion There is much room for improvement in the innovative behavior of nurses. Nursing managers should give full support in nursing innovation, encourage nurses to participate in continuing education, build innovation team reasonably, and set nursing positions to the needs, so as to enhance innovative behavior of nurses and improve nursing quality.

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    Nursing care of central venous catheter removal distress syndrome after surgery for lung cancer
    FENG Jing, ZHU Yuan, LIU Xiao-xin
    2013, 33 (5):  597. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.017

    Abstract ( 1029 )   PDF (231KB) ( 994 )  

    This paper reports the nursing care process of one case of central venous catheter removal distress syndrome after surgery for lung cancer. The mortality rate of central venous catheter removal distress syndrome is extremely high. Patients should take supine position and breath holding, and physicians should take gentle movements to prevent the occurrence. In case of central venous catheter removal distress syndrome, great attention should be paid by medical staff. The body position of patients should be changed to Trendelenburg position, the airway patency should be maintained, the vital signs should be monitored, the consciousness and pupil observation should be conducted, the convulsions and anticoagulation nursing should be carried out, the nursing care during transportation should be adopted, and the functional exercise and psychological nursing during stable disease condition should be performed to help the patients out of danger as soon as possible.

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    Emergency treatment of one case of PICC rupture and migration into pulmonary artery
    QIU Xiao-xia, CHENG Jie-jun
    2013, 33 (5):  600. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.018

    Abstract ( 871 )   PDF (385KB) ( 903 )  

    The peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) ruptured and the catheter tips migrated into cardiac chamber and pulmonary artery in one patient. For removal of the PICC, bilateral femoral vein puncture was performed, one 5F-PIG catheter and one guided wire were placed via femoral vein, one PICC tip was dragged into the inferior vena cava and was removed through vascular sheath with gooseneck snare. The PICC was removed successfully, with no infection and hemorrhage of puncture point after treatment.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Numerical simulation analysis of upper respiratory tract after maxillary restoration
    GAI De-qian, WU Ya-dong, JIAO Ting
    2013, 33 (5):  602. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.019

    Abstract ( 746 )   PDF (521KB) ( 872 )  

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of air flow during the inspiratory phase after unilateral maxillary defect restoration by prosthesis with numeric simulation. Methods A patient with unilateral maxillary defect was selected, the upper respiratory tract model after restoration by prosthesis was simulated by means of post-surgery CT data three dimensional reconstruction, and the air flow field was analysed with computer hydrodynamics. Results Numerical simulation illustrated the air flow distribution in upper respiratory tract. The cross section area from the nostril to the pharynx nasalis indicated that there was little difference in the total area between the healthy side and defective side after restoration, and the same condition was found in the average velocity. Conclusion After maxillary defect restoration by prosthesis, the anatomical invalid cavity and the resistance of air flow are reduced, the exposed mucous membrane is protected, and the respiratory function and pronunciation are improved.

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    Effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on hyperthyroidism and liver injury in Graves´|disease mice model
    ZHAO Ze-fei, ZHAO Yong-ju, GU Ming-jun, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  607. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.020

    Abstract ( 1211 )   PDF (297KB) ( 908 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on hyperthyroidism and liver injury in the mice model of Graves´ disease (GD). Methods GD mice model was constructed by immunizing BALB/c mice with thyroid stimulating hormone receptor-A (TSHR-A). Serum thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb), and liver function parameters were measured, and correlation analysis was performed. The mice were intragastrically managed with pure water, low-dose Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (100 mg·kg-1·d-1) and high-dose Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (400 mg·kg-1·d-1) respectively, and the change of serum T4, TRAb, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined. Results Serum ALT, AST and ALP in mice with hyperthyroidism in model group were significantly higher than those in mice without hyperthyroidism in model group and mice in control group (P<0.05). Serum AST and ALP were positively significantly related to serum T4(r=0.585, P<0.05; r=0.744, P<0.05), but were not related to serum TRAb (P>0.05). Serum T4 and TRAb in model mice were not significantly changed after treatment with Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (P>0.05). Serum ALT and ALP in mice with hyperthyroidism in model group treated with low-dose Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides were significantly superior to those in pure water group (P<0.05). Conclusion Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides may not work on hyperthyroidism improvement in GD mice model, but can improve the liver injury caused by hyperthyroidism.

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    Study on expression of CXC chemokine receptors in retina of diabetic rats
    CAO Hai-jing, ZHU Hong, SHI Cai-hong
    2013, 33 (5):  611. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.021

    Abstract ( 1015 )   PDF (1176KB) ( 1060 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression and location of ELR+CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR1, CXCR2 and CXCR4)and ELR-CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR3) in the retina of diabetic rats. Methods Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (M0 group, n=10), diabetes mellitus 2 months group (M2 group, n=10), diabetes mellitus 4 months group (M4 group, n=10) and diabetes mellitus 6 months group (M6 group, n=10). The animal model of diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 1% streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). The retinal morphology was observed with Evans blue perfusion and HE staining, the expression of CXC chemokine receptors in the retina was detected by Western blotting, and the location of CXC chemokine receptors in epiretinal membranes was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Results The expression of ELR+CXC chemokine receptors CXCR1 in M2 group was significantly higher than that in M0 group (P<0.01). The expression of CXCR2 in M4 group and M6 group was significantly higher than that in M0 group (P<0.05), and the expression of CXCR2 in M6 group was significantly lower than that in M4 group (P<0.05). The expression of CXCR4 in M4 group and M6 group was significantly higher than that in M0 group (P<0.01), and the expression of CXCR4 in M6 group was significantly higher than that in M4 group (P<0.05). The expression of ELR-CXC chemokine receptors CXCR3 in diabetes mellitus groups was significantly higher than that in M0 group (P<0.05), and was increased with the age (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that there was no obviously expression of CXCR1 in the retina of each group. CXCR2 was detected occasionally in the inner limiting membrane and inner granular layer in M4 group and M6 group. CXCR3 was detected in the retina of all diabetes mellitus groups, and CXCR3 mainly located around blood vessels and in the inner granular layer. CXCR4 was detected in all diabetes mellitus groups, which mainly located in the inner limiting membrane, and gradually expanded to the inner granular layer. Conclusion The expression and location of CXC chemokines receptors are different in rats with different ages. The expression and location of promoting vascularization factors (CXCR1, CXCR2 nd CXCR4) and inhibiting vascularization factor CXCR3 change with severity of diabetes mellitus, which to some extent can reflect the progress of diabetic retinopathy, and may offer new targets for blocking the progress of diabetic retinopathy at the early period.

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    Effects of topical application of oleic acid on wound healing in diabetic mice
    ZHANG Yong-jun, FANG Yong, YU Wei-rong, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  619. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.022

    Abstract ( 1008 )   PDF (766KB) ( 1075 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of topical application of oleic acid on inflammatory response and wound healing in diabetic mice. Methods The diabetic models were established by peritoneal injection of streptozocin in 84 C57BL/6 mice. One month after model establishment, full-thickness skin wounds with diameter of 1 cm were prepared in the dorsal region of mice. All the mice were divided into oleic acid group (30 mmol/L oleic acid solution) and control group (same amount of solvent instead of oleic acid solution), with 42 mice in each group. The wound sites were digitally photographed to calculate the percentage of wound closure using computer image analysis software. The wound specimens were also obtained for detecting the infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and macrophages (Mφ) using immunohistological technique. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in wound tissues was determined by ELISA. Results From the fifth day after surgery, the percentages of wound closure in oleic acid group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.01). The wound closure time in oleic acid group and control group was (17.2±2.6) d and (19.5±1.9) d respectively (P<0.05). The levels of PMN 12 and 24 h after surgery and those of Mφ 3 and 5 d after surgery in oleic acid group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while the levels of PMN and Mφ 10 and 15 d after surgery in oleic acid group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expression of TNF-α in wound tissues 3 d after surgery and the expression of IL-6 in wound tissues 12 h, 24 h and 3 d after surgery in oleic acid group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in wound tissues 10 d after surgery was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion For the wounds of diabetic mice, oleic acid may accelerate the inflammatory response in the early phase and prevent the persistence of inflammatory response in the later phase to promote the wound healing.

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    Continuous glycometabolism improvement by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in GK rats
    QIAN Bang-guo, ZHANG Rui, HUANG Xiu-zhen, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  624. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.023

    Abstract ( 1063 )   PDF (768KB) ( 965 )  

    Objective To explore the mechanism of continuous glycometabolism improvement by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in GK rats. Methods Twenty-four male GK rats were randomly divided into RYGB surgery group, sham operation diet control group and blank control group, with 8 rats in each group. Besides, 8 Wistar rats were served as normal control group. The body weight of rats was measured regularly. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery in all groups. Six months after surgery, intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed, and plasma insulin was detected in each group. Plasma free fatty acids and triglyceride were determined after the rats were sacrificed 6 months after surgery, and the expression of insulin receptor in the liver was detected by Western blotting. Results The body weight of rats in RYGB surgery group was well controlled after surgery, and the body weight of rats in RYGB surgery group was significantly lower than that in the other groups 6 months after surgery (P<0.05). Oral glucose tolerance tests 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery and intravenous glucose tolerance test 6 months after surgery demonstrated that all the parameters in RYGB surgery group were superior to those in sham operation diet control group and blank control group. Six months after surgery, plasma free fatty acids and triglyceride in RYGB surgery group were significantly lower than those in sham operation diet control group and blank control group (P<0.05), while the expression of insulin receptor in the liver in RYGB surgery group was significantly higher than that in sham operation diet control group and blank control group (P<0.05). Conclusion RYGB surgery plays a role in the continuous glycometabolism improvement in GK rats, which may be associated with the relief of insulin resistance and restoration of islet function promoted by decreased plasma free fatty acids and triglyceride.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Screening and clinical characteristics of mutations/variations of Pax6 gene in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes
    LU Yu-feng, GU Jing, CHEN Hong, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  631. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.024

    Abstract ( 898 )   PDF (384KB) ( 912 )  

    Objective To screen the mutations or variations in paired box 6 (Pax6) gene, and investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus or pre-diabetes. Methods Patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=96) and pre-diabetes (n=26) and non-diabetic controls (n=100) were selected. The mutations or variations in Pax6 gene were screened with PCR product direct sequencing, and the clinical characteristics and distributions of mutations or variations in the gene were compared. Subgroups were divided according to genotypes, and the characteristics of clinical phenotypes were analysed. Results Arg67Arg mutation in exon 6 (aga→agg; A→G, 99.0% and 1.0%) was detected in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus, Thr166Thr mutation in exon 7 (act→acc; T→C, 96.2% and 3.8%) was detected in patients with pre-diabetes, while these two mutations were not detected in the non-diabetic controls. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2hPG) in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than those in non-diabetic controls (P<0.05), while 2hPG, fasting insulin (FINS) and 2 h postprandial insulin (2hINS) in patients with pre-diabetes were significantly higher than those in non-diabetic controls (P<0.05). In comparison with Arg67Arg-AA carrier, AG carriers exhibited significantly decreased 2hINS(P<0.05), decreased tendencies in fasting C-peptide (FCP), 2 h postprandial C-peptide (2hCP) and FINS, and increased tendencies in FPG and 2hPG. Compared with Thr166Thr-TT carriers, 2hCP and 2hINS in TC carriers were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion Arg67Arg and Thr166Thr mutations in Pax6 gene may influence the transcription of insulin gene, decrease the insulin secretion, and result in the abnormal glucose metabolism, which may be associated with the development of early-onset type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes.

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    Clinical characteristics of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors and outcomes of treatment under endoscope
    YU Qing-xiang, ZHENG Zhong-qing, WANG Tao, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  636. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.025

    Abstract ( 842 )   PDF (504KB) ( 1246 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and evaluate the safety and efficacy of treatment under endoscope. Methods The clinical data of 24 patients undergoing endoscopic treatment confirmed as esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors were analysed. Eighteen patients underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and the other 6 received submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER). The demographic information, disease location, ultrasonic endoscopic presentation, histological features, treatment procedure and follow-up findings were analysed. Results Among the 24 patients,70.83% aged no less than 50, and 70.83% were males. The lesions mainly located in the lower part of esophagus, and mostly originated from the muscularis propria. The incidence of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with smooth muscle differentiation was high. Among the 18 patients undergoing ESD, the tumors originated from muscularis propria in 9 and from muscularis mucosa in the other 9, and all tumors were removed completely, while perforation of 0.3 cm occurred in one originating from muscularis propria. Among the 6 patients undergoing STER, all the tumors originated from muscularis propria, and were removed completely.  Patients were followed up for 3 to 42 months, and no residue or recurrence of tumor was detected. Conclusion Endoscopic treatment is effective and safe in management of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and STER is superior to ESD for those originating from the muscularis propria.

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    Clinical characteristics of dead patients with severe acute pancreatitis
    LIU Xiao-ying, HUANG Jie, FEI Jian, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  640. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.026

    Abstract ( 912 )   PDF (300KB) ( 909 )  

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of death in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods The clinical data of 906 patients with SAP were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into death group and survival group based on the outcomes. The age, gender, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ score, Ranson score, CT severity index (CTSI), disease cause, single or multiple organ dysfunction/failure, operation and complications were compared between two groups. Results There were 149 patients in death group and 757 patients in survival group. In death group, 45% patients died within 14 d after disease onset. The mortality of idiopathic SAP (28.0%) was higher than those of biliary SAP (16.6%) and hyperlipidemic SAP (5.5%)(P<0.05). The incidence of multiple organ dysfunction/failure in death group (76.5%) was significantly higher than that in survival group (12.7%)(P<0.05). The highest incidence of complications in death group was severe sepsis (53.0%), which was significantly higher than that in survival group (23.2%)(P<0.05). The incidence of debridement in death group was higher than that in survival group (P>0.05). Conclusion The death of patients with SAP was associated with age, disease cause, multiple organ dysfunction/failure, severe infection and local complications. In order to decrease mortality, it is important to perform individual diagnosis and treatment, and prevent the complications and organ dysfunction promptly.

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    Cox regression analysis of influencing factors of compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator
    REN Lei, XU Hai-qin, DU Jing-bo, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  644. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.027

    Abstract ( 941 )   PDF (450KB) ( 1071 )  

    Objective To evaluate the influencing factors of compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator. Methods A total of 138 patients treated with noninvasive ventilator were investigated, among whom 48 experienced respiratory failure and 130 had obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (including 40 patients complicated with respiratory failure). The related data of patients were collected, and the potential influencing factors of compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator were evaluated, including sex, age, educational background, smoking, body mass index, nasal factors, basic diseases, cognition, type of positive airway pressure, mask type, output pressure of noninvasive ventilator, adverse reactions, psychological status, education pattern, living conditions, economic status, and duration from diagnosis to treatment. The above factors were analysed with Cox regression analysis. Results Age <65 years (HR=2.513, 95%CI:1.222-5.167), higher education level (HR=2.740, 95%CI: 1.765-4.255), type Ⅰ respiratory failure (HR=2.776,95%CI: 1.547-4.982), type Ⅱ respiratory failure (HR=2.545,95%CI: 1.262-5.133), hypertension (HR=2.404,95%CI: 1.550-3.729), cognition (HR=1.641, 95%CI: 1.114-2.416), patient-family education (HR=3.105, 95%CI: 1.687-5.715), high level economic status (HR=1.871, 95%CI: 1.048-3.343) and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP)(HR=2.329, 95%CI: 1.065-5.094) were factors for improvement of compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Education should be conducted on patients with age ≥65 years, lower education level, recognition disorder and continuous positive airway pressure in ventilation, and patient-family education should be carried out to improve the compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator.

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    Relationship between collateral vessels and incidence of myocardial infraction in patients with chronic total coronary occlusion
    LI Ruo-gu, YANG Shuan-suo, TANG Lei, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  651. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.028

    Abstract ( 930 )   PDF (271KB) ( 935 )  

    Objective To investigate the incidence of myocardial infraction in patients with chronic total coronary occlusion, and explore its relationship with collateral vessels. Methods The medical history, myocardial enzyme and electrocardiogram in 256 patients with chronic total coronary occlusion(occlusion duration ≥3 months) were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into myocardial infarction group and non-infarction group, and the basic characteristics, drug therapies, distribution and extent of occluded blood vessels, lesion distribution and severity of unoccluded vessels and the collateral vessel grade of Rentrop classification on coronary artery angiogram were compared between groups. Results There were 138 (53.9%) patients in myocardial infraction group and 118 (46.1%) patients in non-infarction group. There was no significant difference between two groups in age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking history and drug therapies (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the distribution and extent of occluded blood vessels between two groups (P>0.05). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the lesion distribution and severity of unoccluded vessels between two groups (P>0.05). Besides, there was no significant difference in the collateral grade between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion When chronic total coronary occlusion lasts for more than 3 months, there may be no difference in the grade of collateral vessels regardless of the incidence of myocardial infraction of myocardium supplied by the occluded artery.

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    Expression of ApoA-Ⅰ in granulosa cells in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome
    TONG La-juan, QIU Yan, MENG Jiang-ping, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  655. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.029

    Abstract ( 869 )   PDF (314KB) ( 1137 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ (ApoA-Ⅰ) in granulosa cells (GCs) of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Forty women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer were divided into PCOS group (n=20) and control group (n=20), and serum samples on preoperative examination day and GCs samples were collected. The expression of ApoA-Ⅰ protein in GCs was detected by Western blotting, the expression of ApoA-Ⅰ mRNA in GCs was determined by Real-time PCR, and the serum level of ApoA-Ⅰ was measured by immunoturbidimetry. Results The expression of ApoA-Ⅰ protein and mRNA in GCs in PCOS group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.001, P<0.01), and the serum level of ApoA-Ⅰ in PCOS group was also significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of ApoA-Ⅰ is down-regulated in GCs in patients with PCOS.

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    Promoter methylation of RUNX3 gene in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical significance
    ZHANG Hui-jiao, CHEN Tan-gen, LI Jian-guo
    2013, 33 (5):  659. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.030

    Abstract ( 761 )   PDF (329KB) ( 954 )  

    Objective To determine the status of promoter methylation of RUNX3 gene in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical significance. Methods Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was employed to detect the status of promoter methylation of RUNX3 gene in 50 samples of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC group), 50 samples of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN group), and 10 samples of normal cervical tissues (control group). The relationship between promoter methylation of RUNX3 gene and clinicopathological characteristics of cervical squamous cell carcinoma was explored. Results Promoter methylation of RUNX3 gene was found in 27 cases (54%) in CSCC group and 17 cases (34%) in CIN group, while none was observed in control group. There were significant differences in the incidences of promoter methylation of RUNX3 gene among three groups (χ2=11.500, P<0.005), and there were significant differences in the incidences of promoter methylation of RUNX3 gene among CINⅠ group, CINⅡ group and CINⅢ group (χ2=9.655, P<0.05). The promoter methylation of RUNX3 had a significant correlation with differentiation of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis (r=-0.367, P=0.017;r=0.288,P=0.042). Conclusion RUNX3 may function as a tumor suppressor gene in the oncogenesis of CSCC and may serve as a biological indicator of prognosis.

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    Clinical evaluation of polyurethane foam dressing on wound healing of skin graft donor site
    LI Xue-chuan, QIAO Liang, HUANG Xiao-qin, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  663. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.031

    Abstract ( 992 )   PDF (280KB) ( 1025 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of a polyurethane foam dressing on the wound healing of skin graft donor site. Methods A total of 120 hospitalised burn patients with skin graft surgery were randomly divided into Medifoam group (n=60) and gauze group (n=60). Skin graft donor sites in Medifoam group were treated with a polyurethane foam dressing, while those in gauze group were treated with vaseline gauze. The wound healing time of donor sites, degree of pain, infections and cosmetic outcomes of two groups were compared and statistically analyzed. Results There was no significant difference in the infection rate of would between two groups (P>0.05). Compared with gauze group, the time of wound healing of donor sites was significantly shorter (P<0.01), the degree of pain was significantly alleviated (P<0.01), and the pigmentation and scar forming were less obvious in Medifoam group. Conclusion Polyurethane foam dressing has the advantage of relieving pain, accelerating wound healing and reducing pigmentation and scar forming in application in skin graft donor site.

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    Contrast study of accuracy of measurement of left ventricular regional ejection fraction in coronary heart disease with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
    LIU Yi, CHEN Ming, FAN Hui-min, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  667. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.032

    Abstract ( 976 )   PDF (438KB) ( 1086 )  

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of measurement of left ventricular regional ejection fraction in coronary heart disease with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) by contrast with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Methods Left ventricular regional ejection fraction was measured with RT-3DE in patients with coronary heart disease (coronary heart disease group, n=32) and healthy volunteers (normal control group, n=30), and the results were compared with those measured with CMRI. The diagnostic value of RT-3DE in left ventricular regional ejection fraction was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Left ventricular regional ejection fraction of each left anterior descending coronary artery segment measured with RT-3DE was similar to that determined with CMRI in normal control group (P>0.05), and the areas under ROC curve of left ventricular regional ejection fraction from the base to the apical segments were 0.927, 0.902, 0.905, 0.898, 0.911, 0.921 and 0.915 respectively. Left ventricular regional ejection fraction of each left anterior descending coronary artery segment measured with RT-3DE was lower than that determined with CMRI in coronary heart disease group, while there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05), and the areas under ROC curve were 0.872, 0.864, 0.842, 0.885, 0.867, 0.822 and 0.817 respectively. Conclusion RT-3DE can accurately evaluate the regional systolic function of left ventricle in patients with coronary heart disease, and may have the similar clinical significance as CMRI. The value of measuring regional systolic function of left ventricle with RT-3DE in normal people is higher than that in patients with coronary heart disease.

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    Original article (Preventive medicine)
    Prevalence and risk factors for obesity of children aged 7 to 9 in Shanghai
    ZHANG Jun, TAO Ye-xuan, TANG Qing-ya, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  672. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.033

    Abstract ( 1072 )   PDF (335KB) ( 986 )  

    Objective To investigate the correlation of children´s behaviors and parental overweight with obesity of children aged 7 to 9 so as to provide information for the control of childhood obesity. Methods A total of 2 533 students of grade two and three were randomly selected from 9 primary schools in one urban district and one rural district in Shanghai by stratified clustering sampling methods. Physical examinations were carried out, and students were asked to fulfill the questionnaire on behaviors, exercises and diet. The prevalence of obesity and prevalence rates of obesity stratified by age, gender and district were calculated. The risk factors for childhood obesity were preliminarily screened after analysis of behaviors, exercises and diet, and Logistic regression analysis was conducted for further determination of risk factors for childhood obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight in children of this study was 34.14%, and the prevalence of obesity was 18.00%. The prevalence of obesity in boys (22.89%) was higher than that in girls (13.21%)(P<0.01), and the prevalence of obesity in children living in urban area (21.62%) was higher than that of children living in rural area (15.18%)(P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of obesity stratified by age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that good appetite, having meals fast, short sleeping duration, watching television for long duration, preferring meat and poultry to fish and prawns, and parental overweight were the risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity in children aged 7 to 9 in Shanghai is high. Children´s behaviors, diet, exercises and parental overweight are associated with childhood obesity, which may be the risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood obesity should be controlled by health education and obesity intervention.

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    Review
    Research progress of role of JmjC family in tumorigenesis
    WU Bing-hao, WANG Yu-ping, HAN Ze-guang
    2013, 33 (5):  676. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.034

    Abstract ( 1768 )   PDF (384KB) ( 1103 )  

    Tumors are often accompanied by genetic and epigenetic changes. Histone modifications, as the important epigenetic regulation, are frequently involved in the initiation and progression of tumors. Recent studies have revealed that some JmjC domain-containing proteins with histone demethylase activity can remove the histone methyl. JmjC family play an important role in the oncogenesis, the mechanism of which has been the hotspot of tumor epigenetic research. This review introduces the general information of JmjC family members, and discusses their role on tumorigenesis.

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    Role of innate immunity mediated by natural killer cells in chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    FANG Yan, Sandeepkumarkarn, ZHANG Da-zhi
    2013, 33 (5):  681. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.035

    Abstract ( 840 )   PDF (304KB) ( 1057 )  

    Hepatitis C virus is the important pathogen of chronic liver diseases. The innate immunity plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C. Natural killer cells, abundant in liver, mediate innate immunological response, which has been one of the hotspots in the researches in recent years. The research progress of innate immunological response mediated by natural killer cells in chronic hepatitis C infection is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of molecular mechanism in primary hyperaldosteronism
    HUANG Bao-xing, SUN Fu-kang
    2013, 33 (5):  685. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.036

    Abstract ( 833 )   PDF (384KB) ( 1130 )  

    Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of endocrine hypertension. With the deepening of studies, the understanding of the pathogenesis of PA has been greatly improved. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of PA has far-reaching significance for a better understanding and therapeutic strategy of PA. In this paper, the abnormalities of ion channel activity, signaling pathways, and gene expression in PA are reviewed, and new ideas are expected to achieve for further research.

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    Influencing factors of reproducibility on establishment of Olanzapine-induced metabolic disorder animal model
    ZHANG Cheng-fang, Dake Qi, CUI Dong-hong
    2013, 33 (5):  690. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.037

    Abstract ( 874 )   PDF (318KB) ( 873 )  

    Olanzapine-induced metabolic disorders have been increasingly concerned. However, the mechanism is still unknown. The establishment of an appropriate animal model to explore the mechanism is a most important way, and the stability and reproducibility of an animal model are of vital importance. In this paper, the studies on establishment of Olanzapine-induced metabolic disorder animal models are reviewed, and the influencing factors of the reproducibility of animal models are discussed, hoping to provide reference for the related research.

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    Brief original article
    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in evaluation of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma
    ZHU Yu-si, ZHU Xiu-li, DING Jing
    2013, 33 (5):  694. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.038

    Abstract ( 857 )   PDF (518KB) ( 978 )  

    Objective To investigate the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in evaluation of the effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Color doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed to evaluate the blood perfusion features of 120 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma one month after TACE. The results of two imaging methods were compared. Results There was no difference in the size of tumor measured by two methods. According to the blood perfusion features, active tumors were detected in 37 cases in color doppler ultrasonography, while active tumors were determined in 46 cases in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Conclusion The blood vessel embolism status of tumors and the effect of TACE can be accurately and objectively revealed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

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    Clinical application of 1H-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in evaluation of |diffuse axonal injury
    WU Jian, SHEN Guo-liang, MOU Chao-hui, et al
    2013, 33 (5):  697. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.039

    Abstract ( 787 )   PDF (277KB) ( 1006 )  

    Objective To determine the neurological metabolic abnormalities in different regions by 1H-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and explore their relationship with the prognosis in patients with diffuse axonal injury. Methods Forty patients with diffuse axonal injury underwent 1H-MRS examination in the sensitive zones to diffuse axonal injury such as corpus callosum, brainstem, cerebellum and nasal ganglia 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after injury, and the neurometabolite alterations were evaluated and compared with those of 15 healthy volunteers (control group). Linear regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between 1H-MRS value and Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 6 months after injury. Results There was a significant decrease in NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho and increase in Cho/Cr in the sensitive zones in patients with diffuse axonal injury as compared with control group (P<0.05), and these trends tended to be more evident with the increase of injury severity. The neurometabolite alterations varied at different time points and regions. The correlation between neurometabolite alterations and outcome was also different at different time points and regions, and the correlation between neurometabolite alterations and outcome was the strongest in the corpus callosum and brainstem 3 weeks after injury. Conclusion 1H-MRS examination plays a role in the evaluation of disease condition and prediction of outcomes in patients with diffuse axonal injury.

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    Technique and method
    Preparation of standardized enamel specimens in wear experiment
    XIN Xian-zhen, CHEN Jie, WEI Bin
    2013, 33 (5):  701. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2013.05.040

    Abstract ( 720 )   PDF (482KB) ( 823 )  

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of preparation of standardized enamel specimens in wear experiment. Methods The standardized enamel specimens were grinded against disc-shaped nickel base cast alloy samples. The mass loss of the standardized enamel specimens was calculated, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results The statistical analysis revealed that the sample size was 36, the average was 58.35, the standard deviation was 3.86, and the coefficient of variation was 6.61. The value of P through test of normality (W test) was 0.742 2, which meant samples from a normal distribution. Conclusion The prepared standardized enamel specimens can be used in wear experiment.

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