Objective To evaluate the influencing factors of compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator. Methods A total of 138 patients treated with noninvasive ventilator were investigated, among whom 48 experienced respiratory failure and 130 had obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (including 40 patients complicated with respiratory failure). The related data of patients were collected, and the potential influencing factors of compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator were evaluated, including sex, age, educational background, smoking, body mass index, nasal factors, basic diseases, cognition, type of positive airway pressure, mask type, output pressure of noninvasive ventilator, adverse reactions, psychological status, education pattern, living conditions, economic status, and duration from diagnosis to treatment. The above factors were analysed with Cox regression analysis. Results Age <65 years (HR=2.513, 95%CI：1.222-5.167), higher education level （HR=2.740, 95%CI: 1.765-4.255）, type Ⅰ respiratory failure (HR=2.776，95%CI: 1.547-4.982), type Ⅱ respiratory failure （HR=2.545，95%CI: 1.262-5.133）, hypertension （HR=2.404，95%CI: 1.550-3.729）, cognition （HR=1.641, 95%CI: 1.114-2.416）, patient-family education （HR=3.105, 95%CI: 1.687-5.715）, high level economic status （HR=1.871, 95%CI: 1.048-3.343） and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP)（HR=2.329, 95%CI: 1.065-5.094） were factors for improvement of compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Education should be conducted on patients with age ≥65 years, lower education level, recognition disorder and continuous positive airway pressure in ventilation, and patient-family education should be carried out to improve the compliance with treatment with noninvasive ventilator.