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    Original article (Basic research)
    Experimental study on targeting and inhibiting hexokinase 2 by miR-143 for treatment of breast cancer
    MIAO Ying, ZHANG Ling-fei, LIANG Sheng, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1107. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.001

    Abstract ( 665 )   PDF (398KB) ( 994 )  

    Objective To verify the therapeutic effect of miR-143 on breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 by targeting and inhibiting hexokinase 2 (HK2) and changing its energy metabolism and to explore the value of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT for evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness. Methods Breast cancer cells were divided into three groups, i.e. the test group (transfected by the miR-143 mimic), the negative control group (transfected by scramble sequence of small RNA), and the blank group (no treatment). Variations of expressions of mRNA and protein level of HK2 before and after the treatment were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The variations of rates of glucose metabolism and lactic acid production were detected. The variations of proliferative ability of tumor cells were detected by the MTT. The dynamic variations of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT uptake were measured to determine the value of two tracers for evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness. Results The expressions of mRNA and protein level of HK2 of the test group decreased. Compared to the negative control group, the rates of glucose metabolism and lactic acid production and the proliferative ability significantly decreased in the test group. After cells were cultured by 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, the uptake of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT showed time-dependent increase and the uptake of 18F-FDG was lower than that of 18F-FLT at each time point. At 30 min, the uptake of 18F-FDG of the test group was significantly lower than that of the negative control group (21.81±2.75 vs 36.71±4.36). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The uptake of 18F-FLT of two groups showed no significant difference (12.03±1.53 vs 15.23±2.31, P>0.05). At 60 min, the differences of the uptake of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT of two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The therapeutic effect of miR-143 is achieved by targeting and inhibiting HK2 and changing its energy metabolism. 18F-FDG is better for evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness.

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    Preliminary study on mechanism of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor for improving insulin resistance of diet induced obesity in rats
    LIAO Yu, LI Sheng-xian, WANG Li-hua, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1113. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.002

    Abstract ( 758 )   PDF (444KB) ( 850 )  
    Objective To investigate the effects of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitor on the rat insulin resistance of diet induced obesity (DIO) and its possible mechanism. Methods Twenty-four female SD rats were selected and randomly divided into the 11β-HSD1 inhibitor group (n=12) and control group (n=12). Each group was further divided into the full diet group (n=6) and high-fat diet group (n=6) according to the diet. After DIO model was established, rats of the 11β-HSD1 inhibitor group were administrated with 11β-HSD1 inhibitor of 20 mg/kg for 10 d, twice a day by gavage and rats of the control group were administrated with normal saline of 20 mg/kg. Rats of the inhibitor group were weighted before and after gavage. The intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was then conducted and the changes of blood glucose and insulin sensitivity were observed. Time points of blood collection were 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. Expressions of 11β-HSD1, PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and GcK mRNA of the liver were measured by the Real-time PCR. Results The results of gavage by 11β-HSD1 inhibitor showed that the weight, blood glucose, and insulin level of the high-fat diet group of inhibitor group were decreased compared to those before gavage. The expression of 11β-HSD1 of the full diet group of inhibitor group was increased. The expressions of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and GcK mRNA of the inhibitor group and control group were increased. The increase of the high-fat diet group was more significant than that of the full diet group (P<0.01). Conclusion The 11β-HSD1 inhibitor can decrease the body weight of rats and improve the insulin resistance and sensitivity of DIO rats, which may be relevant to the improvement of glucose utilization and lipid metabolism.
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    Effects of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells induced by adoptive transfer of TGF-β on rate of embryo loss of spontaneous abortion mice model
    QIU Tian, TENG Yin-cheng, XU Liang
    2014, 34 (8):  1120. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.003

    Abstract ( 786 )   PDF (420KB) ( 744 )  
    Objective To observe the effects of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells induced by adoptive transfer of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on the rate of embryo loss of mice of the spontaneous abortion model. Methods CD4+CD25- cells were isolated from the spleen of normal pregnant CBA/J mice and induced to CD4+CD25+ Treg cells by TGF-β in vitro. The inhibit effect of TGF-β induced Treg cells on the proliferation of self-reactive T cells was measured by the flow cytometry. The CBA/J mice were randomly divided into the normal pregnancy group and spontaneous abortion group. The latter was further divided into the blank group (spontaneous abortion model without intervention), innate CD4+CD25+T cells group (spontaneous abortion model with adoptive transfer of innate CD4+CD25+ Treg cells), TGF-β induced CD4+CD25+ T cells group (spontaneous abortion model with adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells induced by TGF-β), and control group (spontaneous abortion model with injection of CD4+CD25- T cells) according to the intervention method. On day 14 of pregnancy, the mice were sacrificed and the blood samples were gathered. The levels of serum IL-10, TGF-β1, and IFN-γ were measured by the ELISA. The expressions of Foxp3 mRNA and protein in deciduas tissues were measured by the Western blotting and Realtime PCR. The rate of embryo loss of each group was calculated. Results Compared to the blank group and control group, the levels of serum IL-10 and TGF-β1 of the innate CD4+CD25+T cells group and TGF-β induced CD4+CD25+T cells group increased; the level of serum IFN-γ decreased; the expressions of Foxp3 mRNA and protein in deciduas tissues increased; and the rate of embryo loss significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion CD4+CD25+ Treg cells induced by adoptive transfer of TGF-β for mice of the spontaneous abortion model can induce Th1 and Th2 immune responses towards Th2 and decrease the rate of embryo loss.
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    Comparative study on effect of different remineralization agents on eroded primary teeth enamel
    QIAN Wei-wen, LIN Ju-hong, HU Yun
    2014, 34 (8):  1126. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.004

    Abstract ( 676 )   PDF (1474KB) ( 830 )  
    Objective To observe the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF), tri-calcium phosphate fluoride (TCP+F), and Duraphat fluoride varnish on surface hardness and surface morphology of eroded primary teeth enamel. Methods A total of 50 samples of retained mandibular primary central incisors (the hardness value was 280-330 HV) were collected and randomly divided into the control group, CPP-ACP group, CPP-ACPF group, TCP+F group, and Duraphat group. All samples were eroded by Coca-Cola for 5 min per time, 5 times a day for 5 d; remineralized by the deionized water (the control group), CPP-ACP, CPP-ACPF, TCP+F, and Duraphat; and then eroded for another 5 d. The surface hardness (microhardness value) of samples before and after treatment was measured by the microhardness tester. The morphological changes of enamel surface were observed by the scanning electron microscope. Results The differences of microhardness values of five groups before erosion treatment were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The microhardness values of each group after erosion treatment were significantly lower than those before erosion treatment (P<0.05), but the differences among groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). After being eroded for another 5 d, the microhardness values of CPP-ACP group, CPP-ACPF group, TCP+F group, and Duraphat group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), but the differences of four groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The mineral deposit was observed by the scanning electron microscope in samples of four groups after being eroded for
    another 5 days, except samples of the control group. Conclusion Remineralization agents CPP-ACP, CPP-ACPF, TCP+F, and Duraphat fluoride varnish can effectively inhibit the continuous demineralization of eroded primary teeth enamel.
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    Experimental study on effects of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate on immune function of monocytes of patients with autoimmune hepatitis
    LIN Rui, ZHOU Lu, ZHANG Jie, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1132. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.005

    Abstract ( 695 )   PDF (707KB) ( 942 )  
    Objective To investigate the effects of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate on the phagocytic ability and antigen presentation of monocytes of patients with auimmune hepatitis (AIH). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of AIH patients (the AIH group) and health controls (the control group) were isolated by the density gradient centrifugation, cultured in vitro, and treated by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate of different concentrations for 24 h. The percentage of HLA-DR+
    cell and CD80+ cell was detected by the flow cytometry. PBMCs separated and purified by the CD14 monoclonal antibody beads were cultured with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled Escherichia coli. The phagocytosis rate and index were observed by the fluorescence microscopy, calculated, and confirmed by the flow cytometry. Results Compared to the control group, the percentage of HLA-DR+ cell and CD80+ cell, phagocytosis rate, and phagocytosis index of PBMCs of the AIH group (not treated by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate) were significantly lower and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). In control group, the percentage of HLA-DR+ cell and CD80+ cell, phagocytosis rate, and phagocytosis index of PBMCs of the AIH group (treated by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate) were higher than those of the blank group, but the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In AIH group, the percentage of HLA-DR+ cell and CD80+ cell, phagocytosis rate, and phagocytosis index of PBMCs of the AIH group (treated by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate of 1 and 10 mg/mL) were significantly higher than those of the blank group and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate can improve the weakened phagocytic ability and antigen presentation of monocytes of patients with AIH, which indicates that magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate can regulate the immune function of monocytes of patients with AIH.
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    Inhibition of PKC-βⅡ activity and amelioration of high glucose-induced angiogenesis impairment of cardiac microvasculature by nicotinamide
    YAN Mei-ling, WANG Fa-bin, CHEN Kan-kai, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1137. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.006

    Abstract ( 631 )   PDF (736KB) ( 816 )  
    Objective To explore the effects of nicotinamide on the angiogenesis impairment of microvasculature caused by high glucose and the possible mechanisms. Methods Primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were divided into the normal glucose group (NG group, 5.6 mmol/L), high glucose group (HG group, 33.3 mmol/L), high glucose+nicotinamide group (HG+N group, 33.3 mmol/L+20 mmol), and high glucose+LY333531, protein kinase C-βⅡ (PKC-βⅡ)
    inhibitor, group (HG+LY group, 33.3 mmol/L+20 nmol). Lumen formation, migration, and proliferation of cells were observed after being cultured for 24 h. The expressions of PKC-βⅡ, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) of cells were detected by the Western blotting. Results Compared to the NG group, the ability of lumen formation, migration, and proliferation of cells of the HG group was significantly lower (P<0.05), while the ability of lumen formation, migration, and proliferation of cells of the HG+N group and HG+LY group was significantly improved. The results of Western blotting showed that compared to the NG group, the phosphorylation level of PKC-βⅡ of the HG group increased and the expressions of protein kinase B (Aktser473) and eNOSser1117 decreased (P<0.05). Nicotinamide not only inhibited the phosphorylation of PKC-βⅡ caused by high glucose, but also recovered the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS to the level of the NG group (P<0.05). Conclusion The glucose of high concentration activates PKC-βⅡ, inhibits the activity of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, and prevents the microvascular angiogenesis. Nicotinamide can inhibit the phosphorylation of PKC-βⅡ under high glucose condition, increase the activity of Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, and ameliorate the microvascular angiogenesis impairment.
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    Effects of prepubertal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on activity of enzymes in testis of male rats
    SHA Tian-yu, WANG Ying, ZHOU Jing-zhe, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1143. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.007

    Abstract ( 528 )   PDF (566KB) ( 865 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of prepubertal exposure to BDE-209 on the activity of enzymes in testis of male rats. Methods Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into the BDE-209 group and control group. The BDE-209 group was further divided into the low dose group, medium dose group, and high dose group (corn oil was used as the solvent) according to the concentration of BDE-209 (2, 10, and 50 mg/kg, respectively). Rats of the BDE-209 group were given BDE-209 every other day for 30 d after 28 d of birth. Rats of the control group were given corn oil. All male SD rats were executed on day 63 after birth. Organ coefficients of testis and epididymis were calculated. The activity of enzymes in testis was detected and pathological changes of the testicle tissue were observed. Results The organ coefficients of testis and epididymis of the BDE-209 group were not significantly different from those of the control group after being exposed to BDE-209 for one month. The differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The activity of acid phosphatases (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) decreased, but the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). No significant histomorphological changes of the testicle tissue of all groups were observed. Conclusion The effect of prepubertal exposure to BDE-209 on the activity of enzymes in testis of male SD rats is not significant.

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    In vivo tracking of adipose-derived stem cells labeled with green fluorescent protein and luciferase dual reporter gene
    DAI Miao, WU Qing-kai, XU Pei-rong, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1147. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.008

    Abstract ( 1144 )   PDF (756KB) ( 1109 )  

    Objective To explore the feasibility of in vivo tracking of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) by using lentiviral vectors containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and luciferase (Luc) dual reporter gene transfection and bioluminescent imaging techniques. Methods The ADSCs were isolated from human adipose tissue samples of cosmetic subdermal liposuction. The ADSCs were transfected by lentiviral vectors containing GFP and Luc. The labeling efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry in vitro. The transfected ADSCs were subcutaneously injected into BALB/C mice, and then a non-invasive bioluminescence imaging procedure was performed 1 h, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after transplantation. The DAPI staining of skin tissues was performed to identify the survival and the location of transplanted ADSCs. Results High GFP expression was observed in transfected ADSCs by lentiviral vector under fluorescence microscope. The transfection efficiency of lentiviral vectors containing GFP and Luc was 87.3%. Transfected ADSCs can express GFP and Luc after 25 successive generations, and the transduction of ADSCs with lentiviral bioluminescence reporter vectors had no effect on cell proliferation. The bioluminescence of ADSCs in vivo can be detectable as long as 8 weeks after transplantion, and the ADSCs mainly survive in the inoculating site of the thigh. Histological analysis of sections showed that the labeled ADSCs located in the subcutaneous layer of the implantation site. Conclusion Using lentiviral vectors containing GFP and Luc dual reporter gene transfection and bioluminescent imaging techniques can monitor ADSCs in vivo.

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    Protective effects of different doses of lanthanum chloride on inflammatory reaction of RAW264.7 cells induced by alumina ceramic particle
    NIE Tao, DAI Min, JIANG Chuan, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1152. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.009

    Abstract ( 579 )   PDF (451KB) ( 873 )  

    Objective To observe the effects of different doses of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on inflammatory reaction of rat macrophage RAW264.7 induced by the alumina (Al2O3) ceramic particle and to provide the theoretical basis for studying the effects of LaCl3 on aseptic loosening induced by the Al2O3 ceramic particle. Methods RAW264.7 cells were cultured in vitro and randomly divided into eight groups according to different culture solutions, i.e. the blank control group (no LaCL3 and Al2O3 in culture medium), Al2O3 group (1 mg/mL Al2O3), LaCl3+Al2O3 groups (Al2O3 of 1 mg/mL was added, than LaCl3 of 2.5, 10, and 100 μmol/L were added, respectively), and LaCl3 groups (LaCl3 of 2.5, 10, and 100 μmol/L). The expression of inflammatory factors IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κb were detected by the ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, respectively. Results The results of ELISA showed that compared to the blank control group, the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α of the Al2O3 group and LaCl3 group (LaCl3 of 100 μmol/L) were significantly higher and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared to the Al2O3 group, the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α of the LaCl3+Al2O3 groups (LaCl3 of 2.5 and 10 μmol/L) were significantly lower and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression of IL-1β and TNF-α of the LaCl3 group (LaCl3 of 2.5 and 10 μmol/L) were significantly lower than those of the LaCl3 group (LaCl3 of 100 μmol/L) and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The results of the RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that the variation trends of expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-κB mRNA and NF-κB protein were consistent with those detected by the ELISA. Conclusion LaCl3 of 10 μmol/L can inhibit the excretion of IL-1β and TNF-α of macrophage to some extent. The inhibition of inflammation of LaCl3 may be relevant to the inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction pathway.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Clinical analysis of non-organic dyspnea of respiratory outpatient department
    PENG Yin-yin, GUO Shu-liang
    2014, 34 (8):  1158. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.010

    Abstract ( 702 )   PDF (296KB) ( 809 )  

    Objective To investigate the incidence and clinical features of non-organic dyspnea. Methods A total of 783 dyspnea patients who visited the respiratory outpatient department were surveyed. The diagnostic criteria for non-organic dyspnea were determined. The self-assessment surveys were conducted for dyspnea patients who visited the hospital for the first time or many times without clear causes by means of Nijmegen Questionnaire and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). The clinical features were analyzed and words for describing the dyspnea were collected. Results Among 783 dyspnea patients, causes of dyspnea of 721 patients were determined (92.08%) and 62 patients were with non-organic dyspnea (7.92%). The frequency and onset time of patients with non-organic dyspnea were different, but their clinical manifestations were typical. Common describing words were air blocked in the chest and out of breath, chest discomfort and compressed, breath with effort, etc. Before onset of dyspnea, 43 patients (69.53%) felt pressures of work, life, and study were high; 54 patients (87.10%) were anxious and/or depressed; 48 patients (77.42%) were with insomnia; and all patients were with at least one of above three manifestations. The manifestations were alleviated rapidly after being properly treated by the anti-anxiety, sedation, repose, and suggestion therapy. Conclusion Clinical physicians should improve the understanding and diagnosis of non-organic dyspnea, conduct early diagnosis and proper treatment, decrease misdiagnosis and wrong diagnosis, and avoid over treatment.

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    Study on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging based on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment
    XI Qian, ZHAO Xiao-hu, WANG Pei-jun, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1162. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.011

    Abstract ( 677 )   PDF (541KB) ( 949 )  

    Objective To study the features of resting state brain activity of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and its possible neural mechanisms by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology based on the amplitude of lowfrequency fluctuation (ALFF). Methods Twenty-two patients with aMCI (aMCI group), 22 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD group), and 25 healthy old people (normal group) were selected. All participants underwent the fMRI and the resting state data of whole brain of three groups was compared and analyzed by the ALFF method. Results Compared to the normal group, ALFF in the right hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex, left lateral temporal cortex, and right ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) of patients of the aMCI group decreased, while ALFF in the left temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) increased. Compared to the AD group, ALFF in the left TPJ, posterior IPL (pIPL), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients of the aMCI group increased. Compared to the normal group, ALFF in the right posterior cingulate cortex, right vMPFC, and bilateral dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) of patients of the AD group decreased. Conclusion For patients with aMCI, intrinsic activities of brain regions closely related to episodic memory (such as hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus) decrease and activities of TPJ and IPL increase, which indicates that the compensatory mechanism may exist in the brain of patients with aMCI. The resting state fMRI technology based on ALFF may be an important tool for studying the aMCI.

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    Application of multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy in differential diagnosis for low grade gliomas
    ZHAO Qian, SHI Chang-zheng, LUO Liang-ping, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1167. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.012

    Abstract ( 828 )   PDF (500KB) ( 814 )  

    Objective To evaluate the performance of multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in differentiating low grade gliomas. Methods Retrospective study was done on 30 cases of grade Ⅱ gliomas (16 cases of astrocytoma and 14 cases of oligodendroglioma) who received MRS. Concentrations of metabolites and relative ratios were compared between the subtype astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. Stepwise Logistic regression was applied to find the related factors. Results The relative concentrations of Cho and Cr from astrocytoma were higher than those of oligodendroglioma. The relative ratios Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA were also higher than those of oligodendroglioma (P<0.05). Cho was the related factors in differentiating low grade astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma by Logistic regression model (OR=1.153,95%CI: 1.083-1.227,P<0.05). Conclusion The relative concentrations of Cho could be the important indexes to differentiate astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in clinic.

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    Effects of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and conventional open thoracotomy on level of circulating tumor cells of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer during perioperative period
    HUANG Hong-bo, XIE Ting-hong, SU Ming-hang, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1171. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.013

    Abstract ( 592 )   PDF (833KB) ( 1068 )  

    Objective To observe the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) during the perioperative period and to compare the effects of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and conventional open thoracotomy on the dynamic changes of CTCs. Methods Sixty-three patients with NSCLC were randomly divided into the VATS group (n=33) and conventional open thoracotomy group (n=30). Peripheral blood samples of 8 mL were collected during surgery, 3 d before and after surgery, respectively. CTCs were sorted and enriched by the CD326 (EpCAM) immunomagnetic cell enrichment and labeled by the fluorescent-labeled monoclonal antibodies CK-PE and CD45-FITC. The quantitative measurement of CTCs was conducted by the multi-parameter flow cytometry. Meanwhile, 10 patients with benign lung disease and 10 healthy volunteers were selected as controls. Results Thirty-seven of 63 (58.73%) patients with NSCLC were CTCs positive. The controls were all CTCs negative. For patients with NSCLC, the intra-operative CTC level was significantly higher than the preoperative CTC level and the postoperative CTC level was higher than the intra-operative CTC level. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The differences of preoperative and intra-operative CTC level of the VATS group and conventional open thoracotomy group were not statistically significant (P>0.05), but the postoperative CTC level of the VATS group was significantly lower than that of the conventional open thoracotomy group and  the increase of CTC level from preoperation to postoperation of the VATS group was significantly lower than that of the conventional open thoracotomy group. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Compared to the conventional open thoracotomy, the increase of postoperative CTC level of VATS is significantly lower, which may be helpful for reducing the survival of surgically disseminated tumor cells in the early postoperative period and improving the long-term survival of patients.

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    Clinical features of plaques with different characteristics detected by CT coronary angiography for patients with coronary heart diseases
    GUAN Shao-feng, QU Xin-kai, HAN Wen-zheng, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1176. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.014

    Abstract ( 648 )   PDF (331KB) ( 942 )  

    Objective To evaluate the ability of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTCA) to distinguish the features of coronary atherosclerosis plaques and to compare the differences of clinical diagnostic results and the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP) level of patients with plaques of different features. Methods Patients with suspicious coronary artery diseases received the coronary angiography (CAG) after the CTAT examination. According to the results of CAG and CTCA, patients with stenosis rate of coronary artery ≥50% and plaques were enrolled. Patients were divided into the soft plaque group, mixed plaque group, and calcified plaque group according to their CT values. Clinical features of groups were compared. The distribution of CTAT plaque characteristics of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) patients, and patients with different HS-CRP levels were compared. The value of identifying ACS patients by the soft plaque combined with HS-CRP was evaluated. Results A total of 106 patients were selected. The soft plaque group, calcified plaque group, and mixed plaque group had 66 patients (62.3%), 13 patients (12.3%), and 27 patients (25.4%), respectively. CT values of three groups were (35.2±11.8) HU, (252.3±40.9)HU, and (88.3±19.6) HU, respectively. The differences of clinical features and levels of serum creatinine, troponin, and HS-CRP of three groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05) except that the age of the calcified plaque group was older than that of the soft plaque group and mixed plaque group (P=0.036). The differences of the distribution of plaque characteristics of the ACS group and SIHD group, and the normal HS-CRP level group and high HS-CRP level group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Eight patients with soft plaques and high HS-CRP level were all diagnosed with ACS. Conclusion CTCA can distinguish coronary atherosclerosis plaques with different features. There is no difference in the distribution of plaque characteristics of patients with different clinical diagnostic results and HS-CRP levels. Patients with soft plaques and high HS-CRP levels were all diagnosed with ACS.

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    Comparison of two methods of veno-arteriolization for replantation of severed fingers
    JIANG Qi-ting, YANG Li-na, WANG Yu, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1181. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.015

    Abstract ( 1257 )   PDF (361KB) ( 1269 )  

    Objective To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of veno-arteriolization of bilateral proper digital artery for repairing severed fingers by comparing with traditional veno-arteriolization of single proper digital artery. Methods Forty qualified patients with severed fingers (40 severed fingers) who were admitted from February, 2008 to October, 2012 were selected. They all received veno-arteriolization after failing to anastomose arteries of finger for several times. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, i.e. the trial group (n=20) and control group (n=20). Patients of the trial group underwent veno-arteriolization of bilateral proper digital artery. The proximal non-superiorty digital artery was anastomosed to the dominant digital artery and then the proximal dominant digital artery was anastomosed to the distal digital vein (palmar vein for replantation of proximal or middle segment of finger and lateral vein for replantation of distal segment of finger). Patients of the control group underwent veno-arteriolization of single proper digital artery. The proximal dominant digital artery was directly anastomosed to the distal digital vein. The differences of gender, age, cause of injury, duration of disease, injured finger, lesion segments, failure times of anastomosing artery of finger, fracture, and nerve damage of two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05) and comparable. Results Replanted fingers of all patients of the trial group were survived and achieved primary healing. Five replanted fingers of the control group necrotized. And 33 patients were successfully followed up for 6 to 14 months. Replanted fingers of 19 patients of the trial group had satisfactory appearance. The finger pulp was plump with good flexibility and the finger body did not atrophied significantly. The nail of the trial group grew evenly and the length of nail was (15.4±2.2) mm, which was significantly longer than that of the control group (P<0.05). The two point discrimination was (4.8±0.3) mm and was significantly shorter than that of the control group(P<0.01). The motion of joint was (86±5)° and was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The sensation measurement was S2-S4 and the average of which was S3+, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). According to the Tamai's classification, the results of 15 cases were excellent and 4 cases were good. The rate of excellent and good results was 100%. The difference of the rate of excellent and good results of two groups was statistically significant (χ2=8.420, P<0.05). Finger bodies of 14 patients of the control group (except necrotic fingers) mildly atrophied. The nail grew unevenly and the length of nail was (11.5±2.0) mm. The two point discrimination was (7.6±0.4) mm. The motion of joint was (65±3)°. The sensation measurement was S2-S3+ and the average of which was S2. According to the Tamai's classification, the results of 7 cases were excellent; 4 cases were good; and 3 cases were fair. The rate of excellent and good results was 78.6%. Conclusion The veno-arteriolization of bilateral proper digital artery amplifies the effects of veno-arteriolization of single proper digital artery, non-traumaticly and rapidly disables valves, increases effective perfusion, significantly increases the survival of replanted fingers, promotes the growth of nail and recovery of sensation, increases the motion of digital joints, and provides a more effective remedial method for repairing severed fingers after normal methods have failed.

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    Value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis of small thyroid nodules
    ZHENG Yu, SHI You-zhen, LI Meng-sen, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1186. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.016

    Abstract ( 716 )   PDF (265KB) ( 811 )  

    Objective To investigate the value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm in diameter. Methods The clinical data of 105 patients (115 thyroid nodules) with thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm were retrospectively analyzed. The cytologic results of US-FNAB were evaluated and compared to the surgical pathological results and clinical follow-up results. Results Among 115 small thyroid nodules diagnosed by the cytology, 24 nodules were malignant; 9 nodules were suspicious for malignancy; 68 nodules were benign; 4 nodules were uncertain; and 10 nodules were inadequate. Actually there were 26 malignant nodules and 89 benign nodules confirmed by clinical follow-ups and pathological results. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of US-FNAB for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm were 88.9% (24/27), 90.0% (79/88), and 90.0% (103/115), respectively. Conclusion US-FNAB is accurate for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm and valuable for practical application.

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    Diagnostic value of serum thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin antibody for metastasis of thyroid carcinoma complicated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis
    CHAI Hong, CHEN Ze-quan, YU Yong-li
    2014, 34 (8):  1189. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.017

    Abstract ( 785 )   PDF (598KB) ( 1000 )  

    Objective To analyze the diagnostic value of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) levels for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) complicated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) after the operation and 131I treatment and to determine corresponding cutoff values. Methods A total of 164 patients with DTC complicated with HT underwent the 131I treatment after the operation and were followed up for three years. Patients were divided into the recurrence/metastasis group and non-recurrence/metastasis group. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to analyze cutoff values of Tg and TgAb for predicting the metastasis for patients with DTC complicated with HT. Results The cutoff values of Tg and TgAb for predicting the metastasis were 1.48 μg/L (with sensitivity of 72.13% and specificity of 98.06%) and 45 kIU/L (with sensitivity of 48.53% and specificity of 100%) according to the ROC analysis. The AUCs of Tg and TgAb were 0.907 and 0.650, respectively. The scatter diagram plotted by measurements of Tg and TgAb of the recurrence/metastasis group was rectangular hyperbola for all patients with DTC complicated with HT. Conclusion For patients with DTC complicated with HT, the cutoff values of Tg and TgAb for predicting the metastasis were 1.48 μg/L and 45 kIU/L according to the ROC curves. Based on the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, the diagnostic value of Tg was higher than that of TgAb for predicting the metastasis of thyroid carcinoma. Besides, Tg measurements were significantly and negatively correlated to TgAb measurements in the scatter diagram.

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    Relationship between ambulatory blood pressure and serum uric acid of old patients with hypertension
    ZHAI Miao-miao, FANG Ning-yuan
    2014, 34 (8):  1194. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.018

    Abstract ( 633 )   PDF (397KB) ( 898 )  

    Objective To explore the characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure of old patients with hypertension and the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors (such as the serum uric acid), parameters of ambulatory blood pressure, and target organ damage. Methods A total of 243 old inpatients with hypertension (the average age was 76.2 years and 84.0% of them were male) who were hospitalized from January 2009 to July 2013 were selected after patients with secondary hypertension, severe infections, or other severe diseases were excluded. Patients underwent the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), biochemical tests of blood, and ultrasound examinations of the heart and carotid arteries. Patients were divided into groups according to their patterns of blood pressure fluctuation. The clinical and ambulatory blood pressure characteristics of each group were analyzed. The relationship of cardiovascular risk factors (such as left ventricular hypertrophy, intima-media thickening of carotid artery, and serum uric acid) and ambulatory blood pressure was also analyzed. Results The elderly hypertension was characterized by nocturnal hypertension and marked morning blood pressure surge. The serum uric acid level was positively correlated to the rhythm of blood pressure (β<0.001, P=0.008) and morning blood pressure surge (β=0.025, P=0.003). Average nocturnal systolic blood pressure level was independently correlated to left ventricular hypertrophy (χ2=5.435, P=0.020). Age, serum uric acid, and ambulatory pulse pressure were independently correlated to intima-media thickening of carotid artery (χ2=36.578, P<0.001). Conclusion Age and serum uric acid level are important factors that influence the circadian fluctuations of blood pressure of old patients with hypertension. Serum uric acid is closely correlated to intima-media thickening of carotid artery, but not correlated to left ventricular hypertrophy. Increased nocturnal systolic blood pressure is an independent risk factor of left ventricular hypertrophy.

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    High frequency left-side repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for replacing treatment of depression by electroconvulsive therapy: a meta analysis
    WANG Xin, ZHOU Hong-zhi, OU Ke-ke
    2014, 34 (8):  1199. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.019

    Abstract ( 724 )   PDF (765KB) ( 880 )  

    Objective To systematically evaluate whether high frequency left-side repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HFL-rTMS) can replace electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treating patients with depression. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were relevant to treating depression by HFL-rTMS and ECT and published before August 2013 were retrieved from PubMed, CCTR, Web of Science, Embase, CECDB, CQVIP, CBM, and CNKI. Two researchers independently screened studies and abstracted data according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Evaluation indexes included the response rate, remission rate, and drop-out rate. Results Meta analysis was conducted for 8 high quality RCTs. The results of analysis of 8 RCTs showed that the response rate of HFL-rTMS for treating the depression was equivalent to that of ECT (OR=0.83, 95%CI: 0.53~1.30, P=0.420). The results of analysis of 6 RCTs showed that the remission rate of HFL-rTMS was equivalent to that of ECT (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.36~1.13, P=0.120). The results of analysis of 3 RCTs showed that the drop-out rate of HFL-rTMS was equivalent to that of ECT (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.14~1.11, P=0.080). No significant heterogeneity and publication bias existed in meta analyses. Conclusion HFL-rTMS is a potential method for replacing the treatment of depression by ECT.

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    Diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy for thyroid imaging reporting and data system 4 class thyroid nodules
    ZHENG Bin, ZHAN Wei-wei, NI Xiao-feng, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1206. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.020

    Abstract ( 1481 )   PDF (279KB) ( 831 )  

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) for thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) 4 class thyroid nodules. Methods The preoperative ultrasound features of patients with thyroid nodule who received US-FNAB examination in Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were retrospectively analyzed. The malignant risk of each nodule was evaluated and classified according to TI-RADS. A total of 281 TI-RADS 4a, TI-RADS 4b, and TI-RADS 4c class thyroid nodules of 265 patients were classified as suspicious nodules and received US-FNAB examination. The US-FNAB cytological diagnosis results, pathological results, or follow-up findings of 274 nodules were compared and studied after eliminating patients whose diagnostic results were irrelevant to cytology. Results Among 281 TI-RADS 4 class thyroid nodules diagnosed by the cytology, 97 nodules were malignant; 45 nodules were suspicious of malignancy; 120 nodules were benign; 7 nodules were unsatisfactory; and 12 nodules were undetermined. According to postoperative pathological results or clinical follow-ups, 146 nodules were malignant and 128 nodules were benign. The difference of US-FNAB cytological diagnosis results and actual results was statistically significant (P<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of US-FNAB cytological diagnosis of TI-RADS 4 class thyroid nodules were 93.83%, 96.09%, 96.48%, 93.18%, and 94.89%, respectively. Conclusion US-FNAB examination is valuable for the diagnosis of TI-RADS 4 class thyroid nodules and can effectively improves the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis. TI-RADS classification is helpful for choosing clinical treatments of suspicious thyroid nodules.

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    Effects of chromosome polymorphism on pregnancy outcome of assistant reproductive treatment
    WU Zheng-mu, LU Xiang, WU Yu, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1210. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.021

    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (318KB) ( 874 )  

    Objective To explore the effects of chromosome polymorphism on the pregnancy outcome of assistant reproductive treatment. Methods The peripheral blood chromosome detection was conducted for 5 345 infertile couples who underwent the assistant reproductive treatment. The process of assistant reproduction of 3 435 periods was retrospectively analyzed. Patients with chromosome polymorphism were selected, divided into groups according to different types, and then compared to normal people. The fertilization rates, cleavage rates, rates of effective embryo formation, accumulated pregnancy rates, and early abortion rates were observed. Results Compared to the control group, the differences of fertilization rates, cleavage rates, rates of effective embryo formation, accumulated pregnancy rates, and early abortion rates of the polymorphism group, Y chromosome variation group, 1/9/16 variation group, and D/G variation group were not statistically significant (P>0.05), but the difference of cleavage rates of pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was statistically significant (P<0.01). The differences of all other indexes were not statistically significant. Conclusion The pregnancy outcome of patients with chromosome polymorphism is not significantly different from normal people after the assistant reproductive treatment.

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    Survey of nurses' sedation practices on postoperative children with congenital heart disease
    TANG Shan-shan, HSU Lily
    2014, 34 (8):  1214. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.022

    Abstract ( 667 )   PDF (417KB) ( 792 )  

    Objective To investigate and explore the current status and relevant factors of nurses' sedation practice in cardiac intensive care units (CICU) for mechanically ventilated children with congenital heart diseases. Methods A cross-sectional survey was adopted and 275 CICU nurses of six pediatric CICU in Shanghai, Beijing, and Wuhan were investigated by the Nurse Sedation Practice Scale (Chinese version). Results Only in two CICUs (33.3%), sedation assessment tools were used for evaluating the sedation level of children. And 59.4%-81.6% of 217 nurses agreed that children's behavior (such as cough response, body movement, etc.) reflected their sedation level; 98.2% of nurses agreed that sedating mechanically ventilated patients was important for their comfort after heart operation; and only 48.8% of the nurses intended to sedate all intubated patients. About 62.1%-68.8% of nurses agreed that the knowledge and practice of colleagues influenced their sedation practice; 87.1% of the nurses agreed that their attitudes would influence the prescription of physicians. Then 62.9%, 60.2%, and 50.7% of nurses agreed that communication difficulty, nurse to patient ratio, and workload influenced the sedative administration. Nurses' attitude toward sedation, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control were significantly and positively correlated with their intent and actual practice of sedation (P<0.01). Conclusion CICU nurses were positive towards sedative administration for mechanically ventilated children with congenital heart disease after surgeries. Many factors were relevant to nurses sedation practice, such as nurses' attitude towards sedation, opinions of colleagues, and nurses' demographic characteristics. Some factors which are irrelevant to patients, such as clinical workload, might influence the nurses' sedation practice. The opinions of medical and nursing staffs towards sedation practice could influence their decision on sedation administration.

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    Analysis of treadmill exercise test for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus combining metabolic syndrome
    WAN Jin, WANG Guang-yao, HE An-xia, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1220. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.023

    Abstract ( 628 )   PDF (400KB) ( 822 )  

    Objective To explore the characteristics and clinical significance of treadmill exercise test (TET) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) combining metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods A total of 184 cases of T2DM with paroxysmal chest pain were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent TET and coronary angiography (CAG) and were divided into the MS group (n=96) and non-MS group (n=88). The health control group (n=96) was also established. Indexes relevant to TET were compared and analyzed among three groups. The correlation of abdominal circumference and ST-segment depression was studied by the linear correlation analysis. Results The distribution of age and gender of three groups matched. The results of TET of three groups showed that the positive rate of the MS group was the highest; the positive rate of the non-MS group was low; and the positive rate of the control group was the lowest. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). For patients with increased abdominal circumference, the positive rate of the MS group was the highest; the positive rate of the non-MS group was low; and the positive rate of the control group was the lowest. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The increase of abdominal circumference was positively and significantly correlated to the ST-segment depression (for male r=0.766, P<0.01 and for female r=0.617,  P<0.01). Conclusion The results of TET show that most patients with T2DM combing MS present different degrees of myocardial ischemia and many abnormal indexes during exercise, which indicate in order to achieve early detection and evaluation of myocardial ischemia, TET should be routinely conducted for hospitals in which MS patients can not undergo the CAG. The degree of myocardial ischemia of most MS patients with increased abdominal circumference aggravates. Therefore those patients should control and decrease the abdominal circumference.

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    Original article (Preventive medicine)
    Effects of smoking on cognitive impairment of elderly people
    SONG Tai-xia, MA Chao-qun, FU Guang-jian, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1225. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.024

    Abstract ( 934 )   PDF (314KB) ( 1033 )  

    Objective To investigate the smoking and cognitive function of elderly people in some geracomiums of Chongqing city and to explore the effects of smoking on the cognitive function. Methods The stratified random sampling method was adopted. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 230 old people (age≥60 years) from 11 geracomiums of Chongqing city were selected and surveyed by the nutrition health questionnaire for old people and Minimum Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results were analyzed by the χ2 test and Fisher exact probability method. Results MMSE was performed for 230 qualified old people. Among them, 151 people (65.65%) were with the cognitive impairment. The relationship of current smoking and cognitive impairment was statistically significant (χ2=12.897 7,P=0.000 3), while the relationship of past smoking and cognitive impairment was no statistically significant (χ2=1.330 0, P=0.248 8). The relationship of the period of current smoking and the cognitive impairment was statistically significant (χ2=16.887 9, P<0.000 1). Conclusion Current smoking is a risk factor of cognitive impairment of old people. The risk increases with the period of smoking. Quitting smoking is an effective measure to decrease the incidence of cognitive impairment.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Survey of chronic diseases, health related behaviors, and current health demands of Nanjing residents
    LIU Yang, ZHAI Cheng-kai, LU Yun, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1229. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.025

    Abstract ( 632 )   PDF (325KB) ( 767 )  

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of chronic diseases of elderly people in Nanjing and their health demands. Methods Based on the community health centers in Nanjing, 340 residents from 11 communities were selected by the multi-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method and the questionnaire survey was conducted. The demographic characteristics, prevalence of chronic diseases, and health demands of the elderly people were investigated and analyzed. Results A total of 326 valid questionnaire were returned and the valid return rate was 95.9%. The top three chronic diseases of elderly people in Nanjing were hypertension (57.7%), diabetes (32.8%), and dyslipidemia (25.5%). Top five factors that were unfavorable to health were environmental pollution (64.7%), high medical costs (30.4%), less exercise (24.8%), low income (24.2%), and unreasonable diet (23.9%). The top three items of medical care that were improved most were environmental sanitation of the community (23.2%), regular physical examination and consultation (22.3%), and health education and health life guidance (22.0%). The most dissatisfied item was the medical cost (39.4%). Conclusion Services that are provided by the community health system are unable to meet the health demands of Nanjing residents. The government should strengthen the support of health system, improve unreasonable organization of health facilities, reduce medical costs, adjust forms and contents of health education, and cultivate more distinguished health care personnel to solve the urgent health needs of elderly residents.

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    Literature study on community tobacco control in China during ten years
    CHEN Hao, CHEN Xiao-wen, CAI Yu-yang, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1234. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.026

    Abstract ( 545 )   PDF (366KB) ( 771 )  

    Objective To study the current status and existing problems of community tobacco control in China, to explore intervention measures, and to provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for community tobacco control. Methods The literature analysis was adopted to analyze relevant literature published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from 2002 to 2012. Papers were summarized and analyzed according to the publication year, geographical distribution, and research area. Results A total of 194 papers were retrieved and 72 papers were selected. The results showed that most papers were published during 2006—2008, studies conducted in eastern coastal provinces were significantly more than those conducted in other areas, and studies conducted in rural communities were relatively insufficient. Most studies were carried out by CDCs and universities. Current studies on community tobacco control focused on surveys of community smoking. Studies on the strategies and evaluation of community tobacco control were relatively insufficient. Conclusion At present the community tobacco control in China still mainly focuses on the health education. Although it plays a role of publicity and education, but the smoking rate of residents does not differ significantly before and after the intervention and can't efficiently urge people to quit smoking. It is urgent to explore an effective method suitable for community tobacco control in China.

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    Review
    Advances in application of induced pluripotent stem cells in neurological diseases
    MA Chen-kai, MA Jie
    2014, 34 (8):  1239. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.027

    Abstract ( 679 )   PDF (287KB) ( 801 )  

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology reprograms differentiated somatic cells and induces them to pluripotent stem cells. At present many novel technologies have improved the transfection efficiency and clinical safety of iPSCs. Neural precursor cells, glial cells, and neuron-like cells derived from iPSCs can be transplanted to treat neurological diseases and the results show good prospects. The iPSCs technology can also be used to establish models of relevant diseases in vitro and screen drugs. This paper reviews the applications of iPSCs in neurological diseases.

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    Effects and mechanisms of interleukin-6 towards learning and memory
    LIANG Shi-qiao, SU Liang, JIA Yu-ping, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1243. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.028

    Abstract ( 567 )   PDF (335KB) ( 790 )  

    Recent studies show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) influences not only the immune system, but also learning and memory, but the effects and mechanism are still controversial. This paper reviews studies on major signaling pathways and the effects of IL-6 on learning and memory and preliminarily discusses the mechanism and relevant influent factors of IL-6 towards learning and memory.

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    Advances of drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    PAN Fen, ZHANG Hong
    2014, 34 (8):  1248. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.029

    Abstract ( 596 )   PDF (400KB) ( 1044 )  

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the common pathogen causing atypical pneumonia and mainly treated by the macrolide type antibacterials. In recent years the drug resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae against macrolide becomes serious and the resistant rate is different throughout the world. Currently it is believed that the major mechanism of the drug resistance is relevant to genetic mutations in 23S rRNA (2 063 and 2 064). According to different P1 gene sequences of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, the prevalent genotypes can be classified into type I and type II by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and vary with the time and place. In addition, in order to understand whether the clonal transmission exists among resistant strains, the cloning types of Mycoplasma pneumoniae can be analyzed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Therefore, enhancing the monitoring of drug resistance and prevalent genotype of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is helpful for understanding its epidemiological data and can provide evidence for the research and development of new antibacterials and vaccines.

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    Long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 and its effect in cancer metastasis
    SHI Hao-jun, WANG Zhi-gang
    2014, 34 (8):  1254. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.030

    Abstract ( 691 )   PDF (441KB) ( 1038 )  

    The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) with a length of about 8000 nt. The 3′ end of MALAT1 is protected from degradation by an evolutionarily conserved triple helix and its function can partly replace poly (A). The expression of MALAT1 is regulated by TDP-43, DGCR8, and posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin, etc. MALAT1 influences the recruitment of SR proteins to transcription sites and controls the alternative splicing. MALAT1 causes the relocation of growth control genes and effectively activates the transcription unit. Besides, MALAT1 expresses highly in cancer cells and closely associates with the Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathway and Bcl-2 family. It is a key factor of cancer invasion and metastasis. Meanwhile, MALAT1 mediates B-MYB and hnRNP C, influences the cell cycle and mitosis, and causes the proliferation of cancer cells. As the diagnostic marker, prognostic marker, or new therapeutic target, lncRNA is helpful for the therapy and diagnosis of cancers.

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    Brief original article
    Analysis of variation trend of mortality rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Ningbo
    SHI Bi-jun, ZHANG Tao, CUI Jun, et al
    2014, 34 (8):  1260. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2014.08.031

    Abstract ( 554 )   PDF (196KB) ( 803 )  

    Objective To analyze the mortality and variation trend of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Ningbo from 2002 to 2012 and to provide evidences for prevention and control strategy of COPD. Methods The data of death surveillance for COPD in Ningbo from 2002 to 2012 was collected and analyzed by the death registry report software authorized by Ministry of Health of China and PASW 18.0 software. Results Standardized mortality rate of COPD of Ningbo residents declined from 82.35/100 thousand of 2002 to 52.21/100 thousand of 2012. The average decline rate was 4.5% per year. The trend of mortality rate of COPD was declining (χ2=1 191.401, P<0.01). The standardized mortality rate of males was 63.80/100 thousand, which was significantly higher than 59.73/100 thousand of females (χ2=22.952, P<0.01). The standardized mortality rate of rural areas was 86.99/100 thousand, which was significantly higher than 34.44/100 thousand of urban areas (χ2=1 079.716, P<0.01). The standardized mortality rate increased with the age (χ2=115 672.084, P<0.01). Conclusion COPD has become a serious public health problem. The death of COPD patients is relevant to various factors and comprehensive prevention and control measures need to be implemented.

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