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    20 October 2015, Volume 35 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Original article (Basic research)

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    Effects and mechanisms of ziprasidone towards the activation of microglia

    SUN Xi-ling, LI Chun-bo, XIE Bin, BIAN Qian
    2015, 35 (10):  1431. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.001

    Abstract ( 908 )   PDF (1011KB) ( 918 )  

    ObjectiveTo explore effects and mechanisms of atypical antipsychotic ziprasidone towards the activation of microglia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the animal model of in vivo systemic inflammation.MethodsA total of 77 male SD rats were randomly divided into the animal inflammation model group (n=35), exploration of the drug concentration group (n=24), and drug intervention group (n=18). Rats of the animal inflammation model group were sacrificed 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after being intraperitoneally injected with LPS and controls were intraperitoneally injected with the same volume of normal saline. Western blotting was adopted to detect the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the corpus striatum. Rats of the exploration of the drug concentration group were divided into the LPS group (5 mg/kg), LPS after ziprasidone treatment groups (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg), LPS after sulpiride treatment groups (10, 25, and 40 mg/kg), and control group (same volume of DMSO, <5%). The protein expression of iNOS in the corpus striatum was detected by the Western blotting. Rats of the drug intervention group were divided into the LPS group (5 mg/kg), LPS after ziprasidone treatment group (5 mg/kg), and control group (same volume of DMSO,<5%). RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of iNOS in the corpus striatum and Oxyblot was adopted to detect the expression of oxidative protein in the corpus striatum.ResultsLPS increased the expression of iNOS of microglia in the corpus striatum of the animal inflammation model group and the expression of iNOS reached the peak at 4 h after injection (P<0.05). High concentration of ziprasidone (5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the expression of iNOS in the corpus striatum of the exploration of the drug concentration group induced by LPS (P<0.05). Ziprasidone significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of iNOS and the expression of oxidative protein in the corpus striatum of the drug intervention group (P<0.05).ConclusionAtypical antipsychotic ziprasidone can inhibit the activation of microglia by reducing the expressions of iNOS and products of oxidative stress (oxidative protein), which are vital to inhibit the activation of microglia.

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    Original article (Basic research)

    Enhancement of effect of risperidone on cognitive function 

    QIAO Ying, ZHANG Lei, HE Shen, SHENG Jian-hua, WANG Hui-fang, LI Hua-fang
    2015, 35 (10):  1436. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.002

    Abstract ( 749 )   PDF (2730KB) ( 830 )  

    Objective To explore the molecular mechanism of enhancing the effect of risperidone on the cognitive function of schizophrenic mice by fluoxetine.MethodsSchizophrenic mice were injected with MK-801 and drugs (fluoxetine and/or risperidone) were administrated orally 30 min before the injection of MK-801. Mice of the control group administrated the same dose of normal saline. The cognitive function, distance of activity, and stereotyped behavior of mice were observed. The expressions of key parameters of MEK/ERK pathway in hippocampus were detected by Western blotting or real-time qPCR. The participation of MEK/ERK pathway in isolated hippocampal neuron injuries induced by MK-801 mediation was also analyzed.ResultsThe mice of MK-801 group showed prolonged activity distance, increased stereotyped behavior scores, and cognitive impairment. Expressions of pMEK/MEK, pERK/ERK1/2, MMP2/9, and TIMP1/2 of the MK-801 group increased. The aforementioned proteins of drug administration groups decreased dramatically. For schizophrenic mice, fluoxetine enhanced effects of risperidone in normalizing abnormal behaviors, affecting cognitive function, and unusual protein expressions (P<0.05). Results of in vitro experiments were similar to those of in vivo experiments. ConclusionFluoxetine enhances the anti-schizophrenic effect of risperidone by normalizing the activated MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

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    Correlation between the polymorphism of locus rs2391191 of DAOA gene and the schizophrenia of Chinese Han patients

    Guo-qin1, YANG Cheng-qing1, LV Qin-yu1, ZHAO Jing1, ZHU Ming-huan1, GUO Xiang-qing1, BAO Chen-xi1, JIA Si1, XU A-hong2, JIE Yong2, WANG Zuo-wei2, ZHANG Chen1, YING Ying1, YU Shun-ying1, YI Zheng-hui1
    2015, 35 (10):  1443. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.003

    Abstract ( 1107 )   PDF (846KB) ( 1162 )  
    ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation of the polymorphism of locus rs2391191 of D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) gene and the incidence and age of first onset of schizophrenia of Chinese Han patients.MethodsThe polymorphism of locus rs2391191 of DAOA gene of 359 patients with early-onset schizophrenia (early onset group, the age of first onset of schizophrenia ≤18 years old), 443 patients with non early onset schizophrenia (non early onset group, the age of first onset of schizophrenia >18 years old), and 302 normal controls (control group) was detected by TaqMan genotyping technique. The correlation of risk allele with the age of first onset of schizophrenia was investigated by the survival analysis.ResultsCompared with the control group, the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of locus rs2391191 of the early onset group and non early onset group was statistically different (χ2=7.79, P=0.01; χ2=10.01, P=0.01 and χ2=5.17, P=0.02; χ2=7.80, P=0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the age of first onset of schizophrenia of patients of the early onset group who carried the risk allele was statistically different from that of patients who didn't carried the risk allele (χ2=4.55, P=0.03).ConclusionThe polymorphism of locus rs2391191 of DAOA gene was significantly correlated with the incidence and age of first onset of schizophrenia of Chinese Han patients.
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    Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Perceived Stress Scale

    WANG Zhen, WANG Yuan, WU Zhi-guo, CHEN Dan-dan, CHEN Jue, XIAO Ze-ping
    2015, 35 (10):  1448. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.004

    Abstract ( 2007 )   PDF (468KB) ( 1690 )  
    ObjectiveTo assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10).MethodsA total of 272 participants, including patients with depression and obsession and healthy volunteers, were selected and tested by the Chinese version of PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Thirty patients were randomly selected and retested by PSS-10 after 2 weeks.ResultsThe overall Cronbachs alpha of the Chinese version of PSS-10 was 0.91 and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.69 (P<0.05). The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded two factors, i.e. the negative feelings (6 items) and positive feelings (4items). The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the fitting of the two factor model was perfect (χ2=44.52,P<0.107). The total score of PSS-10 significantly and positively correlated with scores of both BDI-II and BAI (P<0.01). The differences of scores of PSS-10 of three groups were significant (F=107.6,P<0.01). ConclusionThe reliability and validity of the Chinese version of PSS-10 are good and can be used as a self rating tool to assess the level of perceived stress.
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    Gender differences of factorstemperament, impulsivity, and polymorphism of COMT gene for predicting the relapse of heroin by a 5-year follow up

    SU Hang, LI Zhi-bin, DU Jiang, JIANG Hai-feng, CHEN Zhi-kang, SUN Hai-ming, ZHAO Min
    2015, 35 (10):  1452. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.005

    Abstract ( 1035 )   PDF (660KB) ( 908 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate gender differences of factors (temperament, impulsivity, and polymorphism of COMT gene) for predicting the relapse of heroin by a 5-year follow up.MethodsImpulsivity, temperament, and character of 564 heroin dependent patients were evaluated by Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS) and temperament and character inventory. The polymorphism of COMT gene rs4680 was detected by a DNA sequence detection system.ResultsAmong 564 heroin dependent patients, 500 patients were followed up for 5 years. 265 (53%) of them relapsed into heroin and 127 patients were male and 138 patients were female. Logistic regression analysis showed that the total score of BIS, methadone maintenance treatment, and duration of heroin use were factors for predicting the relapse of heroin according to 5 years of follow up. For females, the starting age of heroin use, alcohol dependent, methadone maintenance treatment, and score of self orientation were factors for predicting the relapse of heroin.ConclusionThe impulsivity, temperament, and polymorphism of COMT gene are relevant to the relapse of heroin. Gender differences exist for predicting the relapse of heroin by these factors.

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    Analysis of characteristics of executive function deficits of male pediatric patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    LI Meng-yao, DU Ya-song, JIANG Wen-qing
    2015, 35 (10):  1458. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.006

    Abstract ( 885 )   PDF (1029KB) ( 916 )  

    ObjectiveTo analyze the characteristics of executive function (EF) deficits of male pediatric patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).MethodsA total of 104 first visit male pediatric outpatients who did not undergo medication and 47 normal boys were enrolled. The confirmatory factor analysis was used to establish models of four executive functions, i.e. response inhibition, working memory, planning, and task shift. The two-step clustering method was adopted to divide the ADHD group into 2 categories with different EF deficits. The analysis of covariance was used to analyze symptoms and characteristics of EF of clustered pediatric patients with ADHD, which were compared with those of normal boys.ResultsScores of factors of EF of the impaired-EF group were significantly lower than those of intact-EF group and control group (P<0.001) after clustering analysis was conducted. The differences of scores of factors of EF between the intact-EF group and control group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Pediatric patients of the impaired-EF group had at least one EF deficit and 80.39% of them had 3 or 4 deficits. Pediatric patients of the intact-EF group had up to two EF deficits and 64.15%of them had no deficits. Conclusion49.0% of male pediatric patients with ADHD have EF deficits and their EF is significantly impaired.

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    Correlations between the change of plasma serotonin level, anxiety, and depression of heroin addicts after withdrawal

    ZHANG Qiao-yang, ZHANG Kai, JIANG Hai-feng, DU Jiang, ZHAO Min
    2015, 35 (10):  1464. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.007

    Abstract ( 933 )   PDF (692KB) ( 873 )  

    ObjectiveTo observe the changes of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level in the plasma, anxiety, and depression of heroin addicts after withdrawal and explore the correlations between 5-HT, anxiety, and depression after withdrawal.Methods A total of 53 heroin addicts were enrolled from a compulsory rehabilitation center and the withdrawal of heroin lasted for 26 weeks. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by self-rating anxiety scale(SAS)and self-rating depression scale (SDS) before and after withdrawal. Plasma 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid(5-HIAA)levels were detected and the 5-HT turnover rate was calculated. ResultsThe SAS score of heroin addicts significantly decreased after 26 weeks of withdrawal (t=2.196, P<0.05) and the SDS score did not change remarkably (t=1.127, P>0.05). The plasma 5-HT (t=-7.083, P<0.001) and 5-HIAA (t=-4.316, P<0.001) levels of heroin addicts significantly increased, while the 5-HT turnover rate significantly decreased (t=4.026, P<0.001). The plasma 5-HT levels at baseline (r=-0.28, P<0.05) and after 26 weeks of withdrawal (r=-0.295, P<0.05) negatively correlated with SAS scores at baseline and after 26 weeks of withdrawal. The plasma 5-HT level did not correlate with the SDS score (P>0.05).ConclusionThe relief of anxiety of heroin addicts after withdrawal may be relevant to the increase of plasma 5-HT level.

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    Effects of the interaction of childhood trauma and polymorphism of 5-HTT transporter on the development of borderline personality disorder
    WANG Lan-lan, WANG Zhen, YU Shun-ying, QIU Jian-yin, ZHANG Ran, ZHANG Min, YUAN Cheng-mei,
    2015, 35 (10):  1468. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.008

    Abstract ( 991 )   PDF (696KB) ( 1228 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of childhood trauma, polymorphism of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT), and their interaction on the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD).MethodsThe case-control study was conducted for 107 BPD patients, 91 non-BPD patients (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were excluded), as well as 112 healthy controls. Clinical characteristics and the exposure of childhood trauma of them were investigated by questionnaires of general situation and childhood trauma and Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R). Genotypes of 5-HTT were detected by PCR.ResultsCompared with the healthy control group, negative exposure experience of childhood trauma of the BPD group and non-BPD group was significant (P<0.05). The difference between the BPD group and non-BPD group was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Compared with the healthy control group and non-BPD group, the frequency of allele 5-HTTLPR (S’) (92.5%) of the BPD group remarkably increased (P<0.05) and the frequency of genotype 5-HTTLPR (S’/S’) (85.0%) was remarkably higher than that of the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The differences of the frequency of allele 5-HTTLPR and distribution of genotypes between the non-BPD group and healthy control group were not statistically significant (P>0.05). For exposure to any types of trauma, physical abuse, and emotional abuse, the incidence of BPD of patients carrying 5-HTTLPR (S’/S’) was significantly higher than that of patients carrying 5-HTTLPR (L’/L’) and 5-HTTLPR (L’/S’)(P<0.05).ConclusionChildhood trauma and allele 5-HTTLPR (S’) may be important factors that affect the incidence of BPD.

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    Analysis of factors relevant to glucose and lipid metabolism of patients with bipolar disorder at manic phase
    XING Meng-juan1, HONG Wu1, HUANG Jia1, WANG Zuo-wei1,2, SU You-song1, FANG Yi-ru1
    2015, 35 (10):  1474. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.009

    Abstract ( 988 )   PDF (577KB) ( 898 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate the glucose and lipid metabolism of patients with bipolar disorder and relevant influencing factors. MethodsA total of 3 906 patients with bipolar disorder were screened by the questionnaire of Bipolar Mannia Pathway Survey (BIPAS) and 2 229 of them were enrolled.ResultsThe levels of glucose and lipid of patients were significantly abnormal and the levels of triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were correlated with the gender (P<0.05). The differences of levels of TG, LDL, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) of patients at different clinical phases (first episode phase, relapse phase, and stationary phase) were statistically significant (P<0.05). The differences of the TG level of patients who underwent different drug therapies (mood stabilizers combined with antipsychotics and stabilizers combined with non-antipsychotics) were statistically significant (P<0.05). The differences of the levels of glucose and lipid of patients with different course of disease, types of first episode, and number of attacks were statistically significant (P<0.05).ConclusionThe levels of glucose and lipid of patients with bipolar disorder are significantly abnormal. The differences of levels of glucose and lipid correlate with the gender, clinical phase of bipolar disorder, treatment, course of disease, type of first episode, and number of attacks.

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    Preliminary study on effect of simplified cognitive behavior therapy on generalized anxiety

    ZHU Zhi-pei, ZHANG Li, LI Wei, ZHANG Shao-wei, LI Chun-bo
    2015, 35 (10):  1479. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.010

    Abstract ( 994 )   PDF (691KB) ( 1051 )  
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    Effects of simplified cognitive behavior therapy on the quality of life of patients with generalized anxiety disorder
    ZHANG Li, ZHU Zhi-pei, JIANG Jiang-ling, LI Wei, LI Chun-bo
    2015, 35 (10):  1485. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.011

    Abstract ( 835 )   PDF (919KB) ( 938 )  

    ObjectiveTo compare the effects of simplified cognitive behavior therapy (SCBT), drug therapy, and combined therapy on the quality of life of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).MethodsPatients with onset of GAD who conformed to the standard of DSM-5 were divided into the SCBT group, SCBT+drug group, and drug group. SCBT, multi-center parallel control method, and blind evaluation were adopted. The major outcome index was the score of quality of life.ResultsA total of 103 patients completed 8 weeks of intervention. Among them, 51 patients were male and 52 patients were female with average age of (37.8±11.6) years. The numbers of patients of three groups were 32, 38, and 33. The differences of age, gender, and education level of three groups were not statistically significant(P>0.05). At baseline, only the difference of social function of three groups was statistically significant (F=3.469, P=0.035) and the level of SCBT+drug group was obviously lower than that of other two groups. By the end of the 8 weeks, the covariance analysis showed that only the difference of body pain of three groups was statistically significant (F=3.644, P=0.030) and the level of drug group was obviously higher than that of other two groups. Comparison among groups indicated that except the role limitation and vitality due to the physical health problem, the differences of scores of other 6 dimensions of the SCBT group before and after treatment were statistically significant (P<0.05). The differences of scores of all 8 dimensions of the SCBT+drug group before and after treatment were statistically significant (P<0.05). Except the body function, the differences of scores of other 7 dimensions of the drug group before and after treatment were statistically significant (P<0.05). The differences of HAMA scores of three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The differences of HAMD scores of three groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05).ConclusionSCBT, drug therapy, and combined therapy are all helpful for improving the quality of life of GAD patients and the differences of three therapies are no significant.

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    Study on the correlation between INSIG2 and metabolic syndrome
    YANG Lin1,2, CHEN Jian-hua1, WANG Zhen1, YANG Wei-min1, SHI Shen-xun2, XU Yi-feng1,2
    2015, 35 (10):  1491. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.012

    Abstract ( 886 )   PDF (1653KB) ( 882 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between the polymorphism of insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) relevant to administration of clozapine for Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.MethodsMedical histories and clinical data of 621 schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine for at least one year were enrolled and metabolic indexes were measured. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of INSIG2 were genotyped. All data was grouped according to the criteria of metabolic syndrome and statistically analyzed by SPSS 17.0 and SHEsis. ResultsThe incidence of MetS of 621 schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine was 41.8%. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of locus rs17587100 of INSIG2 between two groups were different after relevant clinical data was adjusted (P<0.05). However, the differences were not statistically significant after False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction of multiple hypothesis testing (P>0.05). ConclusionThe polymorphism of INSIG2 doesn’t correlate with MetS relevant to administration of clozapine.

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    Randomized control trial on improving effect of methadone maintenance treatment by enhancing motivation
    WANG Jun1, JIANG Hai-feng2, DU Jiang2, DONG Ai-zhen1, WANG Jian-guo1, FA Jin-mao1, ZHANG Huai-hui1, WU Yi1, AN Xiao-qun1, ZHAO Min2, SUN Hai-ming2
    2015, 35 (10):  1497. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.013

    Abstract ( 891 )   PDF (668KB) ( 882 )  

    ObjectiveTo explore the effect of enhancing motivation (EM) of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic in Yangpu district of Shanghai.MethodsA total of 60 heroin dependents who recently underwent MMT were randomly divided into the control group (n=30) and intervention group (n=30). Patients of the intervention group underwent MMT and 12 weeks of EM and patients of the control group only underwent MMT. Results of MMT, morphine test, and addiction Severity Index (ASI) of two groups were compared.ResultsThe differences of average medication days (66 d versus 54 d) and number of negative urine tests (8.1 versus 6.2) between two groups were not statistically significant after 12 weeks of EM (P>0.05). But the professional and social supports, severity of drug use, alcohol addiction, and family/society relation of the intervention group were remarkably better than those of the control group during the 24 weeks of observation.ConclusionThe EM conducted in Yangpu district of Shanghai does not significantly improve the effect of MMT, but is helpful for improving the physical health and professional and social supports of heroin dependents, and decreasing the severity of drug use.

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    Correlation between response inhibition function and behavioral inhibition/activation systems of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder
    WANG Yuan, WANG Zhen, ZHANG Hai-yin, CHEN Jue, ZHAO Qing, XIAO Ze-ping
    2015, 35 (10):  1502. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.014

    Abstract ( 974 )   PDF (1532KB) ( 965 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate the changes of response inhibition function of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and its correlation with the activity of behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS).MethodsA total of 45 patients with OCD and 49 healthy controls were enrolled. The response inhibition function was assessed by the stop signal task (SST). BIS/BAS scale was used to perform the psychological assessment and the differences between two groups were compared.Results①SST: the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) of the OCD group [(351.16±48.18) ms] was significantly shorter than that of the control group [(389.65±30.47) ms](P<0.01). The rates of go success (GS) of the OCD group [(75.67±15.70)%] were significantly lower than those of the control group ([86.45±10.23)%](P<0.01). ②BIS/BAS scale: the scores of BIS of the OCD group (11.53±2.86) were significantly higher than those of the control group (9.39±3.32) (P<0.01). The difference of scores of BAS between two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). ③The scores of BIS of OCD patients with better response inhibtion function were significantly higher than those of other patients and controls (P<0.05).ConclusionThe response inhibition function of patients with OCD is enhanced and affected by the activity of BIS.

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    Comparative study on clinical characteristics of elderly patients with unipolar depression and bipolar depression
    HONG Bo, LI Guan-jun, YUE Ling, AN Na, WANG Jing-hua
    2015, 35 (10):  1508. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.015

    Abstract ( 711 )   PDF (635KB) ( 836 )  

    Objective To investigate the differences of clinical characteristics between elderly patients with unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar depression (BD).MethodsThe demographic characteristics and clinical data of 21 inpatients with BD and 30 inpatients with UD of the geriatrics department of Shanghai Mental Health Center from January 1, 2014 to May 31, 2015 were retrospectively analyzed to compare the differences between BD group and UD group.ResultsThe mean onset age of the BD group was younger than that of the UD group (P<0.05), while the mean duration of total course of disease was longer than that of the UD group and the mean number of onset was larger than that of the UD group (P<0.01). The differences were statistically significant. The percentage of patients with psychotic symptoms of the BD group was higher than that of the UD group (P<0.05) and the differences were statistically significant. The mean time between onset and definite diagnosis of the BD group was longer than that of the UD group (P<0.01) and the differences were statistically significant. In the BD group, patients with bipolar Ⅱ disorder accounted for 66.7% and the misdiagnose rate of them was 78.5%. The mean score of Social Support Rating Scale of the BD group was lower than that of the UD group (P<0.05) and the difference was statistically significant. The differences of comorbid somatic diseases, risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases, family history, and clinical manifestations with depressive characteristics and atypical characteristics of two groups were not statistically significant.ConclusionClinical characteristics between elderly patients with unipolar depression and bipolar depression are different, which may be risk factors of elderly patients with bipolar depression. The social support system of elderly patients with bipolar depression is poor and needs more attention.

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    Analysis of death anxiety of undergraduates and influencing factors
    QIU Qi, FANG Yuan, LIN Xiang, BAN Chun-xia, ZHU Min-jie, WANG Tao, XIAO Shi-fu, LI Xia
    2015, 35 (10):  1512. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.016

    Abstract ( 993 )   PDF (621KB) ( 1108 )  

    ObjectiveTo assess the death anxiety level of undergraduates by the Chinese version of Arabic scale of death anxiety (ASDA-C) and explore the influencing factors.MethodsThe death anxiety level of 422 undergraduates in Jiangxi and Shanghai were assessed by the ASDA-C and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSC) was used to explore the influencing factors.ResultsThe average scores of “fear of dead people and tombs” and “fear of postmortem events” of undergraduates in Jiangxi were significantly higher than those of undergraduates in Shanghai (P<0.05). Scores of factors of death anxiety of females were higher than those of males. The score of EPQ-N positively correlated with death anxiety level and the death anxiety level increased with the score of EPQ-N.ConclusionThe death anxiety of undergraduates is influenced by gender and personality and probably influenced by the region.

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    Correlation between cognitive function and symptom changes of patients with schizophrenia
    CAO Ai-ai, ZHANG Jie, HUANG Jia, ZHU Na, ZHANG Tian-hong, GAO Rong-xin, ZHANG Li, QIU Mei-hui, PENG Dai-hui, XU Yi-feng
    2015, 35 (10):  1516. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.017

    Abstract ( 806 )   PDF (539KB) ( 1014 )  

    ObjectiveTo explore the correlation between characteristics of the cognitive function and changes of clinical symptoms of patients with schizophrenia by follow-up of the cognitive function study of patients with schizophrenia after treatment.MethodsA total of 30 patients with schizophrenia of first episode who met the criteria of ICD-10 were enrolled. All patients were treated with risperidone. MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) tool was used to test all seven dimensions of the cognitive function and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was adopted to assess mental symptoms of patients.MCCB test and PANSS assessment were conducted after one year of follow-up.ResultsA total of 19 patients were followed up for one year. The differences of verbal learning and memory of patients with schizophrenia before and after treatment were statistically significant (P<0.05). Changes of other six dimensions of the cognitive function were not statistically significant. The positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms of patients with schizophrenia were significantly alleviated one year after treatment (P<0.05). The preemptive concept and active social withdrawal of the general psychopathological factor of clinical symptoms positively correlated with verbal learning and memory of cognitive function (P<0.05). ConclusionThe verbal learning and memory of patients with schizophrenia have changed before and after treatment, which are relevant to the changes of preemptive concept and active social withdrawal.

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    Analysis of the association between estrogen receptor β gene and depressive disorder of perimenopausal patients
    KANG Jun-jun, QIU Jian-yin, TAO Jing, ZHANG Lan
    2015, 35 (10):  1521. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.018

    Abstract ( 926 )   PDF (657KB) ( 820 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between gene polymorphism of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and qualitative and quantitative traits of disease phenotypes of depressive disorder of perimenopausal patients. MethodsClinical data of 65 perimenopausal patients with depressive disorder and 121 healthy controls were collected. Peripheral blood samples were drawn and their DNAs were collected. Three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1256049, rs1271572, and rs4986938) of ERβ gene were detected by snapshot genotyping assay. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the quantitative traits of disease phenotypes of perimenopausal patients with depressive disorder. SNPStats software was used to analyze the correlation between ERβ gene and qualitative and quantitative traits.ResultsThe differences of genotypes and allele distribution of three tag SNPs of ERβ gene between two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The BDI scores of patients with GA genotype in locus rs4986938 were significantly lower than those of patients with other two genotypes and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The BDI scores of patients with AA genotype in locus rs1256049 were higher than those of patients with other two genotypes and the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). ConclusionERβ gene may not correlate with qualitative traits of depressive disorder of perimenopausal patients, but may correlate with quantitative traits. The GA genotype in locus rs4986938 may have a protective effect that can alleviate depressive symptoms, while the A allele in locus rs1256049 may aggravate depressive symptoms.

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    Correlation between variations of event-related potentials and clinical symptoms of patients with first-episode schizophrenia and recur
    SONG Li-sheng,CHEN Xing-shi, CHEN Mei-juan, LU Zheng, SHI Shen-xun, YI Zheng-hui, YANG Wei-min, XU hua, LONG Bin, WU Guo-jun, XIE Fan, HE Yong-guang, HU Guo-qin, WU Rong-qin, TANG Jia-lin
    2015, 35 (10):  1526. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.019

    Abstract ( 861 )   PDF (1310KB) ( 846 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between variations of event-related potentials and clinical symptoms of patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FSE) and recur schizophrenia (RSZ), features of variations, and relevant mechanisms.MethodsP3 values of 96 patients with FSE (FSE group),118 patients with RSE (RSE group), and 110 controls (control group) were measured by Brova cerebral electrophysiological instrument and auditory target-non target stimulus sequence technique. Psychotic symptoms of patients were assessed by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). P3 values of the case group were followed up after being treated for 6 weeks.ResultsThe prolonged latency and decreased amplitude of P3 in Cz brain region of patients with FSZ and RSZ negatively correlated with the score of positive syndrome and total score of PANSS. For target latency of N2, P3, and non target P2, the differences of amplitudes of P3 and non target P2 of three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the control group, latencies of N2 and P3 of the FSZ group and RSZ group delayed and amplitudes of P3 decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the FSZ group, non target P2 of the FSZ group delayed and the amplitude of non target P2 decreased (P<0.05). The amplitude of target P3 of the FSZ group recovered after treatment, while that of the RSZ group didn’t recover. The amplitude of P3 of the RSZ group recovered poorly after treatment. Follow up results of patients with FSZ and RSZ showed that delayed latencies of N2 and P3 might be feature markers of the disease, while decreased amplitudes of target P2 and P3 might be state markers of the disease.ConclusionCognitive deficits can be found at the onset of schizophrenia, which may affect the future incidence, therapeutic effect, and society function. Follow up results indicate that changes of P3 may be mixed markers of schizophrenia.

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    Changes of visual P300 of patients with social phobia induced by facial expression stimuli before and after treatment
    ZHU Yi, ZHANG Wei-bo, WANG Yan-feng, CAI Jun
    2015, 35 (10):  1531. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.020

    Abstract ( 968 )   PDF (563KB) ( 910 )  

    ObjectiveTo explore the correlation between visual P300 changes of patients with social phobia induced by facial expression stimuli and the therapeutic effect.MethodsA total of 40 patients with social phobia were assessed by a self-designed demographic questionnaire and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). The examination of visual P300 induced by three facial expression stimuli, i.e. happy, peace, and disgust, was conducted before treatment and 6 months after treatment.ResultsThe P300 amplitudes (7.20±2.95) μV induced by disgust after treatment were lower than those (9.55±4.35) μV before treatment(P<0.05). The changes of LSAS scores positively correlated with the changes of P300 amplitudes induced by disgust (P<0.01).ConclusionThe decrease of P300 amplitude may be a state sign of social phobia.

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    Preparation of risk assessment scale for admitting patients with mental disorders
    XIE Fan, XIE Bin, JIN Zhi-xing, FEI Hui
    2015, 35 (10):  1534. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.021

    Abstract ( 1033 )   PDF (638KB) ( 919 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate risk assessment tools for admitting patients with mental disorders.MethodsThe risk assessment scale for admitting patients with mental disorders was prepared and the scorer reliability and predictive validity of risk assessment scale were assessed.ResultsPatient’s risk of injury on admission was assessed by the prior risk behaviors, risk behaviors of last month, and mental status on admission. According to the small sample test, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.924 and the Spearman correlation coefficient of the total score of risk assessment on admission and risk behaviors after admission was 0.681.ConclusionThe scale can well assess mental disorder‘s risk behavior and is worth promoting at the department of psychiatry after enlarging samples and being revised.

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    Investigation of depressive disorder of non-graduating middle school students in Shanghai and analysis of influencing factors
    CHENG Yong-chen, DU Ya-song, ZHOU Hui-ming, et al
    2015, 35 (10):  1539. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.022

    Abstract ( 910 )   PDF (879KB) ( 1114 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate the depressive disorder of middle school students and find out factors influencing the incidence of depressive disorder.MethodsA self-designed demographic questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Kutcher adolescent depression scale (KADS) were used. Children who reached the total difficulty score of SDQ and the delimitation score of KADS were selected and the mini international neuropsychiatric interview for children and adolescents (MINI-KID) was performed.ResultsA total of 7 978 students were enrolled. KADS scores of boys were higher than those of girls (P<0.01). The total score of KADS increased with the grade. The total score of KADS of grade 2 students in senior high school was the highest and that of grade 1 students in junior high school was the lowest (P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of depressive disorder were old age, old maternal childbearing age, high self-value, more emotional problems, scatterbrain, and poor relationship with peers.ConclusionDepressive symptoms of boys are severer than those of girls and aggravate with the grade. The influencing factors of depressive disorder are age, maternal childbearing age, self-value, emotional problems, scatterbrain, and relationship with peers.

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    Analysis of psychological health of undergraduate students of a medical university in Shanghai and study on the intervention of psychological health by systematized psychoeducation lectures
    ZHU Jian-zheng, TANG Hua, HE shen, ZHANG Lei, QIAO Ying
    2015, 35 (10):  1545. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.023

    Abstract ( 898 )   PDF (645KB) ( 921 )  

    ObjectiveTo investigate the psychological health of undergraduate students of a medical university in Shanghai and explore the effects of systematic psychoeducation lectures on the psychological health of medical students. MethodsThe psychological health of undergraduate students of grade 2010-2014 of a medical university in Shanghai was evaluated by SCL-90. The stratified group sampling was adopted to select 150 students from freshmen to seniors to attend one semester of psychoeducation lecture.ResultsExcept the score of somatization, scores of other factors of SCL-90 of medical students were significantly higher than those of Chinese adult norm. Except the score of anxiety, scores of other factors of SCL-90 of medical students were significantly lower than those of Chinese university student norm. The scores of somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and phobic anxiety and total score of SCL-90 of medical students significantly decreased after one semester of psychoeducation lecture. ConclusionThe sub-health trend of psychological health of medical students cannot be ignored. Regular and systematic psychoeducation lectures can effectively improve the psychological health of undergraduate medical students.

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    Advances of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorders
    XIANG Hui, WANG Zuo-wei, FANG Yi-ru
    2015, 35 (10):  1550. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.024

    Abstract ( 821 )   PDF (827KB) ( 1175 )  

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) has been identified as a series of insulin resistance-caused clinical, biochemical, and humoral metabolic abnormalities, which result in metabolic abnormalities of many matters. The correlation between MS and bipolar disorder (BD) is still unclear. The side effects of psychotropic medications may be major contributors to the increased incidence of MS of patients with BD. Other factors such as unhealthy lifestyle, neuroendocrine and immunoinflammatory abnormalities, and genetic vulnerability may also play a role. Many studies show that the risk of incidence of MS of patients with BD is significantly higher than that of general population and is a major reason for poor prognosis of BD, which indicate that prevention of MS for the treatment of BD is important. This paper reviews research advances of epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of MS for patients with BD.

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    Ras signaling pathway and neural plasticity mechanism of depression
    WANG Fan, ZHANG Chen, FANG Yi-ru
    2015, 35 (10):  1556. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.025

    Abstract ( 1205 )   PDF (1194KB) ( 1079 )  

    The pathogenesis of depression has not been clearly elucidated yet. In recent years, more and more evidences highlight the role of neural plasticity mechanism in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Particularly, neurotrophic factors are critical for the neural plasticity. Meanwhile the Ras signaling pathway, a vital downstream signaling pathway of the neurotrophic factor receptor, plays an important role in the neural plasticity. This paper reviews studies relevant to Ras signaling pathways and the neural plasticity mechanism of depression.

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    Assessment and intervention of motivation to change for patients with eating disorders
    GU Lian, CHEN Jue, XIAO Ze-ping
    2015, 35 (10):  1560. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.026

    Abstract ( 842 )   PDF (599KB) ( 997 )  

    Patients with eating disorders often accompany low motivation to change, incooperation, and high dropout rates during the treatment. So it is important to assess the level of motivation to change and improve the motivation to change by intervention during the treatment of eating disorders. This paper retrospectively analyzes the relevant literature published during past 10 years and reviews assessment methods of motivation to change and applications of the motivational interviewing and motivational enhancement therapy to the treatment of patients with eating disorders.

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    Advances of γ-aminobutyric acid of patients with mental disorders by magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology
    ZHANG Zong-feng, FAN Qing, WANG Yuan, ZHANG Hai-yin, WANG Zhen, XIAO Ze-ping
    2015, 35 (10):  1565. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.027

    Abstract ( 874 )   PDF (539KB) ( 978 )  

    The abnormalities of functions of γ-aminobutyric acid neurons in the brain are found in a variety of mental disorders, such as anxiety disorder, mood disorder, sleep disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, etc. This paper reviews advances in studies on the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid on mental disorders by the magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology.

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    Research progresses of animal models of cognitive impairment of patients with schizophrenia
    LIN Ye-zhe, CUI Dong-hong
    2015, 35 (10):  1569. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.028

    Abstract ( 967 )   PDF (1546KB) ( 1050 )  

    Cognitive impairment of patients with schizophrenia has attracted many attentions due to its severe effect on patients’ social function. The existing treatments of cognitive impairment of patients with schizophrenia are not effective and extensive researches are needed to solve this problem. However, due to limitations of research methods, researches of this area are limited. Animal models are effective tools that can mimic the cognitive impairment of patients with schizophrenia and complement the disadvantage that researches cannot be carried out on human beings. This paper reviews research progresses of mimicking the cognitive impairment of patients with schizophrenia by using laboratory animals and provides ideas for studying and alleviating the cognitive impairment of patients with schizophrenia.

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     Group psychotherapy for bipolar disorder
    SUN Xia, YUAN Cheng-mei
    2015, 35 (10):  1575. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.029

    Abstract ( 896 )   PDF (1487KB) ( 1145 )  

    Bipolar disorder is a common chronic mood disorder that is apt to recur, for which group psychotherapy can be introduced to assist the drug therapy. This paper reviews applications and effects of existing group psychotherapies for the treatment of bipolar disorder and briefly discusses problems in current studies.

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    Application of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to exploring connectivity of brain network of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder
    ZHAO Qing, HU Hao, WANG Zhen
    2015, 35 (10):  1581. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.030

    Abstract ( 910 )   PDF (463KB) ( 946 )  

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling mental illness. Researches have revealed the abnormal connectivity of brain network. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) is a powerful tool to explore the pathogenesis of OCD and other mental disorders. Seed-based analysis of interested region, independent component analysis (ICA), and graph theory-based analysis are popular methods to quantify brain network by R-fMRI data. This paper reviews current studies on connectivity of brain network of OCD by above methods and research progresses.

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    Advances of γ-aminobutyric acid of patients with schizophrenia by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    WANG Jun-jie, TANG Ying-ying, WANG Ji-jun
    2015, 35 (10):  1585. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.031

    Abstract ( 843 )   PDF (504KB) ( 1028 )  

    Schizophrenia is a common severe mental illness with high rate of relapse and disability, but the pathogenesis is unknown. Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, which is relevant to pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique for directly measuring the regional GABA level of patient’s brain in vivo, which provides a novel idea for investigating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and developing new intervention measures. This paper reviews progresses of studying GABA of patients with schizophrenia by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

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    Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder by exposure response prevention therapy: a case report
    WANG Jian-yu, WANG Zhen, FAN Qing, ZHANG Hai-yin
    2015, 35 (10):  1589. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.10.032

    Abstract ( 1341 )   PDF (1440KB) ( 1171 )  

    Objective To explore the therapeutic effect and acting factors of exposure response prevention (ERP) therapy for the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).MethodsA patient with OCD was treated by ERP therapy for 8 weeks, once a week and 1h per time according to the treatment manual. The therapeutic effect was periodically assessed by the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale.ResultsThe score of severity decreased 40% after 8 weeks of treatment.ConclusionThe ERP therapy is effective for the treatment of patient with OCD. The acting factors are relevant to patients, therapists, and the therapeutic alliance.

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