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    Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
    2016, 36 (04):  460. 
    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (14765KB) ( 867 )  
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    Translational medicine
    2016, 36 (04):  461. 
    Abstract ( 319 )   PDF (1931KB) ( 833 )  
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    Original article (Basic research)
    Study on a focal cerebral infarction model built by novel dry blood clots
    CHEN Feng, LONG Zong-hong, LI Hong
    2016, 36 (04):  463. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.16748115.2016.04.001

    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (1450KB) ( 846 )  

    Objective To build a rabbit focal cerebral infarction model by using novel dry blood clots and discuss the correlation of different clot weights with infarction location and degree. Methods Rabbit blood was drawn and made into dry blood clots after coagulation, drying, grinding, and filtering. Rabbits in infarction groups received different clot weights (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, and 17.5 mg) through right internal carotid artery (ICA), while rabbits in the control group received equivalent amount of normal saline. Neurological function was assessed 2 and 72 h after infarction. The level of brain injury factor S100B in plasma was measured before and 72 h after infarction. Rabbits were sacrificed 72 h after infarction and brain tissues were harvested for the pathological examination. Results Dry blood clots with the uniform size (100-150 μm in diameter) were distributed evenly and hard to conglobate and dissolve after normal saline dilution. The infarction rate was 90.5%. The plasma S100B level in infarction groups 72 h after infarction was significantly increased as compared with that before infarction and in the control group. The brain water content in infarction groups was higher than that in the control group. The mortality, neurological function score, and cerebral infarction volume ratio in infarction groups were positively correlated to clot weight. TTC staining brain slices showed that infarction foci in about 80% animals of infarction groups (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg) located in right cerebral cortex, while infarction foci occurred in bilateral cerebral cortexes in animals of infarction groups (10.0, 12.5, and 15.0 mg). Conclusion The rabbit cerebral infarction model has been successfully built by using dry blood clots. The method is simple with high success rate. Unilateral or bilateral cerebral infarction can be simulated by administration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 mg or 10.0, 12.5, 15.0 mg blood clots. This study provides a different pre-clinical model for the investigation and treatment of cerebral infarction.

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    Effects of survivin gene over-expression on migration and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells
    CHEN Jiang-long, ZHANG Hao-long, ZHAO Yu, WANG Xue-hu
    2016, 36 (04):  469. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.002

    Abstract ( 542 )   PDF (2690KB) ( 696 )  

    Objective To investigate changes in proliferation and migration in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) with over-expressed survivin (Svv) gene. Methods Rat aorta abdominalis segments were harvested and stable VECs were obtained by primary cell culture. Cell types were identified by observing cell shapes and using CD31 immunochemistry. VECs were assigned to three groups, i.e. blank control group (bc group), negative control group (nc group), and experiment group (svv group). The bc group used the serum free basic medium. The nc group and the svv group were transfected with empty virus vector and adenovirus carrying Svv gene, respectively. Changes of the Svv protein level in three groups were detected by Western blotting. The proliferation and migration of endothelial cells were measured by CCK8 assay and Transwell test, respectively. Aurora B, phosphorylated Aurora B, and Incenp levels were detected by Western blotting. Results The Svv protein level (P=0.000), proliferation, and migration of rat VECs were increased after being transfected with adenovirus carrying  Svv gene. Aurora B (P=0.000) and Incenp (P=0.000) levels and phosphorylation level of Aurora B (P=0.000) in the svv group were significantly increased as compared with the bc group and the nc group. Conclusion Over-expression of Svv gene can improve the proliferation and migration of rat VECs.

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    Correlation between calprotectin, TLR-4, and MAPK signal transduction pathways and COX-2 in the process of arterial thrombosis
    CHEN Xiao-nan, WANG Hong-yan, ZHAO Hong-yu, CAO Jiu-mei, LU Lin, WU Fang
    2016, 36 (04):  474. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.003

    Abstract ( 667 )   PDF (2022KB) ( 1122 )  

    Objective To investigate calprotectin (S100A8/A9), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and mitogen-activity of protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the arteries thrombosis and their correlation with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Methods Twenty-four SD rats were assigned to the experiment group and the control group. A rat model of carotid artery thrombosis was constructed in the experiment group by using FeCl3 solution. The same volume of normal saline was injected in the control group. Rats were sacrificed at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after the model was constructed and 3 rats per group were sacrificed each time. S100A8/A9 level in peripheral blood was measured by ELISA. Western blotting was used to detect COX-2, p-p38 MAPK, and TLR-4 levels in peripheral blood leukocytes. Then the correlation between these factors was analyzed. MAPK inhibitor SB203580 was used to intervene the rat model and the effects on COX-2 protein level was observed. Results For the experiment group, the S100A8/A9 level in rat peripheral blood reached the peak at the 7th day after the model was constructed, fell at the 14th day, and was significantly higher as compared with the control group at corresponding time points (P<0.05). The expressions of TLR-4, p-p38 MAPK, and COX-2 in peripheral blood leukocytes increased with time after the model was constructed and reached peak at the 14th day. The correlation between TLR-4 and COX-2 was close (r=0.831, P=0.012). After intervention with MAPK inhibitors, the protein level of COX-2 significantly reduced. Conclusion S100A8/A9 may mainly participate in the early inflammation response process in arteriogenesis. COX-2 has a certain correlation with TLR-4 in terms of protein expression. At the early stage of arterial thrombosis, elevated COX-2 expression may be associated with TLR-4/p38 MAPK signaling pathway activated by high level of S100A8/A9.

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    Pharmacodynamic study on the treatment of yang deficiency-caused asthenospermia or oligospermia with Huangmai mixture
    JIN Guan-qin, SUN Li, XIA Ling-hong, LIN Hou-wen, ZHANG Jian, SHEN Jin-fang
    2016, 36 (04):  481. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.004

    Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (2042KB) ( 823 )  

    Objective To assess the effects of Huangmai mixture on the reproductive function of male rodents and protection of the model of yang deficiency. Methods The hydrocortisone-induced mouse model of yang deficiency and emasculation-caused rat model of kidney-yang deficiency were constructed. The rat serum testosterone level, organ coefficients of reproductive organs and glands such as prostate, sperm bladders, and levator ani muscle, sperm motility, and pregnancy rate of female mice were observed after administration of Huangmai mixture. Results For the hydrocortisone-induced mouse model of yang deficiency and emasculation-caused rat model of kidney-yang deficiency, different doses of Huangmai mixture could reduce the level of yang deficiency, significantly increase sperm counts and sperm production without causing the hyperplasia of reproductive organs and glands of male rats, significantly improve the testosterone level and sperm motility, and decrease the sperm abnormality rate of male rats. Conclusion Huangmai mixture can significantly alleviate the symptoms of hydrocortisone-induced mouse model of yang deficiency. For emasculation-caused rat model of kidney-yang deficiency, different doses of Huangmai mixture can reduce the level of kidney-yang deficiency. Huangmai mixture has a mild spermatogenic effect, which can significantly improve the reproductive capacity of male mice.

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    Study on mechanisms of the apoptosis in TE-1 cells of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma induced by EGCG combined with radiotherapy
    LIU Shen-zha, HAN Guo-hu, ZHOU Yue-peng, MAO Chao-ming, CHEN De-yu
    2016, 36 (04):  487. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.005

    Abstract ( 644 )   PDF (790KB) ( 766 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) combined with radiotherapy on the apoptosis in TE-1 cells of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and explore related molecular mechanisms. Methods ESCC TE-1 cells served as subjects and were assigned to the control group, EGCG group, radiotherapy group, and EGCG+radiotherapy group. The effects of different concentrations of EGCG, different doses of radiation, and the combination of EGCG and radiation on the growth of ESCC TE-1 cells were detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis in different treatment groups were measured by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins including cleaved caspase-3 and anti-apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 after treatment were detected by Western blotting. Results Both EGCG and radiotherapy inhibited the proliferation of ESCC TE-1 cells. The inhibitory effect of EGCG combined with radiotherapy was significantly higher as compared with the EGCG group or the radiotherapy group in a concentration-dose dependent manner (P<0.01). Results of flow cytometry showed that EGCG combined with radiotherapy significantly increased the apoptosis of TE-1 cells induced by X ray (P<0.01), up-regulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3 (P<0.05), and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 (P<0.05) as compared with the radiotherapy group. Conclusion EGCG combined with radiotherapy can increase the apoptosis of ESCC TE-1 cells, which may be associated with cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2.

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    Corrosion resistance and antibacterial property of orthodontic arch wires after functionalized surface modification
    XIE Bing-wu, ZHOU Jian-ping, WANG Xue-man, YU Yong, DENG Feng, ZHENG Lei-lei
    2016, 36 (04):  491. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.006

    Abstract ( 585 )   PDF (1422KB) ( 722 )  

    Objective To perform surface modification for clinical orthodontic stainless steel arch wires, compare surface components, surface patterns, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and antibacterial property between modified and unmodified stainless steel arch wires, and provide reference for the clinical application of stainless steel arch wires. Methods Stainless steel arch wires with the size of 0.019 inch (0.48)×0.025 inch(0.64 mm) were used. Polydopamine was used as the medium and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) was covalently grafted on the surface of stainless steel arch wires. Surface components were analyzed and surface patterns were observed by energy dispersive X-ray analyzer and scanning electron microscope. Microhardness tester was used to test hardness of stainless steel arch wires. Electrochemical working station (CHI660C) was used to measure the corrosion resistance. WST reagent was used to detect the antibacterial property. Results The surface of modified stainless steel arch wires contained C, N, O, Si, Cr, Mn, and Fe, while the surface of unmodified stainless steel arch wires only contained Si, Cr, Mn, and Fe. The difference in microhardness between modified and unmodified stainless steel arch wires was not statistically significant. The corrosion resistance and antibacterial property of modified stainless steel arch wires were greater as compared with unmodified stainless steel arch wires. Conclusion The modification of orthodontic arch wires via polydopamine surface and grafted CMC can mitigate corrosion and inhibit the growth of bacteria without compromising the mechanical performance, so as to benefit the orthodontic application.

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    Assessment of the biocompatibility of Portland cement, a novel  treatment material for endodontic disease
    ZHOU Zhi-qiang, ZHANG Hong-mei, LIN Ju-hong, LIU Zhao-xia
    2016, 36 (04):  496. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.007

    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (2137KB) ( 685 )  

    Objective To assess the biocompatibility of Portland cement (PC). Methods According to GB/T16175 standard, we embedded the PC, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and sterile silicone tube (negative control group) in the back of SD rats subcutaneously. Local inflammation at the interface between materials and tissue was observed 7, 30, and 90 d after embedment. The acute hemolytic experiment was conducted to assess the blood compatibility of materials according to GB/T16886 standard. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the difference of inflammatory cell numbers among groups and LSD-t was used as multiple comparison methods. Results The PC group, MTA group and negative control group all showed a class Ⅱ inflammation reaction 7 d after embedment. There was no significant difference in inflammatory cell number between the PC group and the MTA group, however,the inflammatory cell number in the negative control group was significantly less than those in two experiment groups. All three groups showed a class Ⅰ inflammation reaction at 30 d, which was alleviated as compared with that seen at 7 d, meanwhile the inflammatory cell numbers in three groups had no significant difference. The inflammatory cells in all groups were very few with no difference between groups at 90 d. The hemolytic experiment showed that hemolysis rates in the PC group and the MTA group were 1.02% and 1.09%, which conformed to the standard of less than 5%. Conclusion It can be preliminarily concluded that PC is an biological material with favorable biocompatibility.

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    Changes of electrophysiological characteristics of cortical GABAergic neurons during mouse development
    WANG Qi-yi, SHEN Lin
    2016, 36 (04):  501. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.008

    Abstract ( 709 )   PDF (3818KB) ( 729 )  

    Objective To investigate changes of electrophysiological characteristics of cortical GABAergic neurons during mouse development. Methods Mice aged 6-12 d (eye-unopen group) and 15-22 d (eye-open group) were sacrificed. Cortical slices were quickly produced and immersed in oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid at 25 ℃ for 1 h. The electrophysiological characteristics of GABAergic neurons were recorded by Axoclamp-2B amplifier, including absolute refractory period (ARP), inter-spike interval (ISI), standard deviation of spike timing (SDST) of action potential. The effects of changing depolarizing stimulus intensity on electrophysiological characteristics of cortical GABAergic neurons of developing mice were analyzed with Clampfit 10 software. Results ARP, ISI, and SDST in eye-open group reduced as compared with the eye-unopen group. ARP, ISI, and SDST of mouse cortical GABAergic neurons reduced with the increase in stimulus intensity. Conclusion Reduced ARP of mouse cortical GABAergic neurons during development results in improved regulation of timing and accuracy for firing action potential. The increase in stimulus intensity facilitates the functional development of GABAergic neurons.

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    Effect of candesartan on chronic restraint stress-induced depression-like behaviors in rats
    CAO Shuang, DU Qin, LI Bing, YUAN Li-fen, DING Jian-wei
    2016, 36 (04):  507. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.009

    Abstract ( 648 )   PDF (923KB) ( 733 )  

    Objective To observe the effect of candesartan on improving chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression-like behaviors in rats and explore novel targets for the treatment of depression. Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control group (n=8), stressed group (n=8), and candesartan group (n=8), respectively. Open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT), and forced swimming test (FST) were performed to evaluate depression-like behaviors in rats. ELISA was used to detect adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and aniotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ) levels. Results Compared with the stressed group, rearing frequency and horizontal moving distance in OFT in the candesartan group significantly increased (P=0.000), sucrose preference percentage in SPT elevated (P=0.027), immobility time in FST reduced (P=0.000), and plasma ACTH level significantly decreased (P=0.000). Conclusion Candesartan can improve CRS-induced depression-like behaviors in rats.

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    Inhibitory effect of miRNA-449 on proliferation activity of SH-SY5Y cells
    WANG Dan
    2016, 36 (04):  512. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.010

    Abstract ( 773 )   PDF (1898KB) ( 763 )  

    Objective To identify and verify the target gene of miRNA-449 and explore the molecular mechanism of regulating the proliferation activity of neuroblastoma cell SH-SY5Y by miRNA-449. Methods Expressions of miRNA-449 and NOTCH1 protein in neuroblastoma tissues and adjacent tissues were detected and their correlation was analyzed. The binding site between miRNA-449 and 3′UTR region of NOTCH1 gene was predicted with bioinformatic software and verified with luciferase reporter gene assay. The mimic, inhibitor, and scrambled sequence of miRNA-449 were chemically synthesized and transfected to SH-SY5Y cells via liposome. Expressions of miRNA-449 and NOTCH1 protein were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting 48 h after transfection, respectively. The proliferation activity of neuroblastoma cells was measured by CCK-8 method 24, 48, and 72 h after transfection. Results Compared with adjacent tissues, the miRNA-449 expression in neuroblastoma tissues was significantly higher and the NOTCH1 protein expression was significantly lower. The differences were statistically significant (P=0.002; P=0.021). There was a binding site 5′-CACTGCC-3′ in 3′UTR region of NOTCH1 gene. Gene expression was negatively regulated via the binding site. Transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with miRNA-449 mimic significantly inhibited the NOTCH1 protein expression (P=0.006), whereas transfection with miRNA-449 inhibitor significantly increased the NOTCH1 protein expression (P=0.018).miRNA-449 mimic significantly inhibited the proliferation activity of SH-SY5Y cells and miRNA-449 inhibitor significantly enhanced the proliferation activity at time points of 48 and 72 h. Conclusion miRNA-449 can inhibit the proliferation activity of SH-SY5Y cells via inhibiting the expression of its target gene NOTCH1.

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    Expression and clinical significance of CD147 in molecular subtypes of invasive breast cancer
    Ye Hui, Xu Ming, Ye Man-na, Xu Jie-li, Wang Cheng
    2016, 36 (04):  518. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.011

    Abstract ( 791 )   PDF (1675KB) ( 682 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression and clinical significance of CD147 in molecular subtypes of invasive breast cancer. Methods Clinical pathological data of 251 patients with invasive breast cancer were collected and immunohistochemical examination was performed for all molecular subtypes. Results The positive expression rates of CD147 in invasive breast cancer, luminal A subtype, luminal B subtype, human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2) positive subtype, and triple-negative (TNBC) subtype were 64.10% (161/251), 29.30% (12/41), 50.00% (35/70), 75.00% (42/56), and 85.70% (72/84), respectively. Comparison between subtypes showed that the difference between HER2 positive subtype and TNBC subtype was not statistically significant (P=0.11) and differences between other subtypes were statistically significant (P=0.001). High positive expression rate of CD147 was associated with clinicopathological characteristics such as high histological grade, high clinical stage, estrogen receptor (ER) negative and HER2 positive. Conclusion CD147 expression in molecular subtypes of invasive breast cancer is consistent with the consensus of 2013 the 13th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference, i.e. luminal A subtype is more endocrine sensitive, indolent, and better prognosis, while luminal B subtype is less endocrine sensitive, more aggressive, and worse prognosis, and TNBC subtype and HER2-positive subtype are more frequent in women under 40 years of age with poor prognosis. The development of CD147 antibodies may be helpful for individualized targeted treatment of TNBC subtype of invasive breast cancer.

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    Virtual screening of and in vitro activity study on allosteric small-molecule CDK2 inhibitors
    SHAO Yuan-yuan, ZHANG Lu, SHEN Ying, ZHANG Jian
    2016, 36 (04):  523. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.012

    Abstract ( 871 )   PDF (1065KB) ( 783 )  

    Objective To screen out novel allosteric small-molecule CDK2 inhibitors in verified allosteric pocket based on the crystal structure of CDK2 (PDB ID: 3PXF). Methods Virtual screening was performed via computer-aided drug design according to the allosteric site in CDK2 protein crystal. The interaction modes between the compounds and CDK2 were comprehensively analyzed. The CDK2 in vitro kinase activity detection system was established and the in vitro bioactivity of the compounds was primarily studied. Results Top 1000 compounds were obtained by virtual screening and 10 of them were selected and purchased. Compounds S2 and S5 showed favorable inhibitory effect and their inhibitory rates against CDK2 at the concentration of 100 μmol/L were 57.59% and 41.64%, respectively. Conclusion By utilization of virtual screening, structural analysis, and biological activity test, two lead compounds S2 and S5 were screened out, which can significantly inhibit the activity of CDK2. This work lays a foundation for design and development of novel allosteric small-molecule CDK2 inhibitors.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Correlation of IRS-1 gene between depression and accompanying anxiety symptoms
    WANG Fan, ZHANG Chen, LI Ze-zhi, LI Hao-zhe, FANG Yi-ru
    2016, 36 (04):  528. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.013

    Abstract ( 806 )   PDF (519KB) ( 905 )  

    Objective To explore the correlation of the single nucleotide polymorphism in loci rs10178202 and rs2272205 of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) gene with depression and accompanying anxiety symptoms. Methods Genome DNA of 585 Han patients with depression (case group) and 658 healthy controls (control group) were extracted. Genotypes in loci rs10178202 and rs2272205 of IRS-1 gene were detected by Taqman SNP genotyping technology. The difference in frequency distribution of genotypes between the case group and the control group was detected. Results The genotype distributions of two SNPs in two groups were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The differences in genotype and allele frequency in loci rs10178202 and rs2272205 between two groups were not statistically significant. The 7th factor of the HAMA scale was correlated with allele T in loci rs10708202 (OR=0.45, 95%CI 0.22-0.89, P=0.02). Both the 8th and 13th factors were correlated with age (OR=1.03, 95%CI 1.00-1.06, P=0.04; OR=1.03, 95%CI 1.00-1.06, P=0.04) and age was a risk factor of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion Loci rs10178202 and rs2272205 of IRS-1 gene are not significantly associated with depression, but may be associated with accompanying anxiety symptoms. Age is a risk factor of accompanying sensory system and autonomic nervous system symptoms.

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    Application of T2 mapping in assessment of myocardial edema after infarction and analysis of the correlation between T2 mapping and serum creatine kinase
    AN Dong-ao-lei, WU Lian-ming, GE Heng, HE Ben, LU Qing, HU Jia-ni, DING Hai-yan, XU Jian-rong532
    2016, 36 (04):  532. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.014

    Abstract ( 861 )   PDF (1883KB) ( 872 )  

    Objective To explore the application of quantitative T2 mapping for assessing the myocardial edema after myocardial infarction (MI) and analyze the correlation between T2 value, area of myocardial edema, and the peak value of biochemical index creatine kinase (CK). Methods Thirty patients with MI who underwent reperfusion therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients received cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) within 2-7 d after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). T2 values of edema region and distal normal myocardium and the area of edema were calculated and documented after images were collected. T2 values of edema region and distal normal myocardium were compared. The correlation of T2 values and the area of edema calculated via T2 mapping with serum CK was analyzed. Results ①T2 value [(59.18 ± 4.23)ms] of edema region was significantly higher than that of distal normal myocardium [(43.35 ± 2.11) ms](P=0.013). ②The area of edema region calculated via T2 mapping was positively correlated to the peak value of serum CK (r=0.82, P=0.000). ③T2 value of edema region was not correlated to the peak value of serum CK (r=0.475, P=0.054). Conclusion Quantitative T2 mapping is valuable for the assessment of myocardial edema in acute MI. The area of myocardial edema may be more important for the assessment of myocardial injury after acute MI.

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    Study on the correlation between the polymorphism in promoter region of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene and schizophrenia in Chinese Han population
    JING Xu-xiu, ZHANG Ran, GAO Ke-run, SUN Shi-bang, QIAN Yi-ping, YI Zheng-hui, LI Hua-fang, YU Shun-ying
    2016, 36 (04):  537. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.015

    Abstract ( 812 )   PDF (611KB) ( 829 )  

    Objective To explore the correlation between 5-HTTLPR and rs25531(A>G) in the promoter region of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene (SLC6A4) and schizophrenia in Chinese Han population. Methods 624 patients with schizophrenia and 683 healthy controls were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Results The genotypes of 5-HTTLPR included short (S), long (L), and extra-long (XL) alleles. The difference in distribution of 5-HTTLPR genotypes between the case group and the control group was statistically significant. S/XL genotype was a risk factor of schizophrenia (P=0.042, OR=1.79, 95%CI1.01-3.17). The difference in distribution of 5-HTTLPR-rs25531 genotypes between the case group and the control group was statistically significant. S/XLA and LG/XLA genotypes were risk factors of schizophrenia (P=0.042, OR=1.79, 95%CI1.01-3.17; P=0.034, OR=3.69, 95%CI  1.01-13.48). Conclusion The polymorphism of 5-HTTLPR and rs25531(A>G) in the promoter region of SLC6A4 gene is associated with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.

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    Effects of combination of psychic rehabilitation intervention and ERP applied to the rehabilitation of schizophrenia
    WU Xue-fen, CHEN Liang-hu, WANG Ai-hua, CHEN Chong
    2016, 36 (04):  542. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.016

    Abstract ( 764 )   PDF (711KB) ( 720 )  

    Objective To explore the effects of novel diagnosis and treatment technologies combination of psychic rehabilitation intervention (PRI) and event related potentials (ERP)  applied to the rehabilitation of schizophrenia and intervention outcomes. Methods Ninety-six patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to the study group and the control group with 48 patients per group. PRI and ERP were used to perform rehabilitation treatment for patients. Results ①After the implementation of PRI, the decrease in the scores of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS) and the increase in the scores of Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) in the study group were greater as compared with the control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). ②After the implementation of PRI, the decrease in the scores of all factors in Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) in the study group were much greater as compared with the control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). ③For the study group, P2, P3 amplitudes of the target stimulus, which were major indexes in ERP test, improved with the remission of symptoms (P<0.05 or 0.01). Conclusion PRI treatment has significant efficacy for improving patients social functions and family members mental health.

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    Drug susceptibility analysis of 279 Ureaplasma urealyticum strains isolated from genitourinary tract
    XIAO Shu-zhen, HAN Li-zhong, WANG Wen-kui
    2016, 36 (04):  546. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.017

    Abstract ( 729 )   PDF (549KB) ( 785 )  

    Objective To investigate mycoplasma infection and its resistance to common antimicrobial agents and provide evidence for guiding clinical rational drug use. Methods A total of 2 639 samples from patients suspected of genitourinary tract infection were collected. Mycoplasma culture, identification, and drug sensitivity kit were used to perform mycoplasma detection, identification, and drug sensitivity tests. Results Three hundred and thirty-three of 2 639 samples were mycoplasma-positive and the positive rate was 12.6%. Two hundred and seventy-nine (83.8%) of these 333 samples were only Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu)-positive, 23 (6.9%) were only Mycoplasma hominis (Mh)-positive, and 31 (9.3%) were Uu and Mh-positive. The detection rate in female patients (15.0%) was higher than that in male patients (4.3%). Mycoplasma-positive rate in 31-40-year-old female patients (23.6%) was higher than that in patients of other age groups. Antibiotic susceptibility rates of Uu to josamycin, minocycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and erythromycin were 98.6%, 96.4%, 96.1%, 97.4%, 87.1%, 80.2%, 31.5%, and 26.2%, respectively. Conclusion Mycoplasma genitourinary tract infection is mainly caused by Uu. It is necessary to perform mycoplasma culture and drug sensitivity test for patients suspected of mycoplasma infection. Josamycin, doxycycline, and minocycline are recommended for empirical treatment.

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    Clinicopathologic analysis of oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma
    ZHOU Chun, ZHOU Zeng-tong, ZHANG Jun-ye, ZHENG Yuan-li
    2016, 36 (04):  550. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.018

    Abstract ( 971 )   PDF (2900KB) ( 765 )  

    Objective To analyze clinicopathological characteristics in patients with  oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC). Methods Clinicopathological data of 122 patients with oral squamous papilloma and 61 patients with PSCC were retrospectively analyzed. Sex, age, lesion location, and pathological characteristics were compared between two groups. Results Most patients in both two groups were male. For the PSCC group, the average age was older as compared with the papilloma group. Ten patients (16.4%) had smoking history and 11 patients (18.0%) had drinking history in the PSCC group. Papilloma and PSCC were frequently occurred at palate (46.7%) and gingiva (29.5%), respectively. Histological examination found that PSCC had malignant cytological manifestations such as pleomorphic cells and abnormal mitotic figures. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that CKpan, CKhmw, and p53 proteins expressed positively in PSCC tissues, whereas CK8, Vim, SMA, and S-100 proteins expressed negatively. Conclusion Elderly patients with papillary lesions located at gingiva are high risk population of PSCC. Active early diagnosis and treatment measures, such as tissue biopsy and pathological examination, should be taken for this population.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Analysis of reliability and validity of Chinese version of Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture
    XIAO Qing-ping, YU Xiu-li, TONG Li-fang, FAN Yun, CAI Ze-zhong, DENG De-jin, CAO Su-juan, WANG Yue-qing, ZHAO Qing-hua, XIAO Ming-zhao
    2016, 36 (04):  555. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.019

    Abstract ( 712 )   PDF (835KB) ( 778 )  

    Objective To translate the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture (NHSOPSC) into Chinese and verify the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of NHSOPSC. Methods The NHSOPSC was translated and adjusted according to Chinese culture. Three hundred and twenty-two personnel in 6 nursing homes were surveyed by questionnaire. The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of NHSOPSC were verified by expert opinion, factor analysis, and calculation of reliability coefficients. Results The Chinese version of NHSOPSC consisted of 23 items. The exploratory factor analysis extracted six common factors, which could explain 65.28% of the total variance and the factor loading of each item ranged from 0.451 to 0.892. The Cronbachs α of the total scale was 0.884 and the Cronbachs α values of subscales were 0.841, 0.804, 0.737, 0.757, 0.866, and 0.815 respectively. The test-retest reliability of the total scale was 0.904 and the test-retest reliability values of subscales were 0.913, 0.786, 0.963, 0.895, 0.951, and 0.709, respectively. The test-retest correlation was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion The Chinese version of NHSOPSC is reliable and valid and can be used as an effective tool for assessing the patient safety culture in Chinese nursing homes.

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    A survey on academic background of and demands for nurses in Shanghai
    WANG Qing-ling, GAO Jing, TANG Hong-mei
    2016, 36 (04):  560. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.020

    Abstract ( 753 )   PDF (666KB) ( 755 )  

    Objective To explore the academic background of and demands for nurses in various medical institutions in Shanghai and provide evidence for nursing education reform. Methods A total of 36 medical institutions in Shanghai were chosen by using the stratified sampling method and the academic background of and demands for nurses were investigated by questionnaire survey and interviews. Results Most surveyed nurses (59.09%) had a junior college degree. From 2012 to 2014, surveyed institutions mainly demanded nurses with a junior college degree. Their demand for nurses with an undergraduate degree gradually increased and the demand for nurses from technical secondary schools slightly decreased. In 2015-2017 nurse recruitment plans of surveyed institutions, the demand for nurses with an undergraduate degree will greatly increase, whereas the demand for nurses from technical secondary schools will significantly decrease. Conclusion For Shanghai medical institutions, there is a rising trend in the demand for nurses with an undergraduate degree. It is necessary to adjust the education structure of nursing schools and actively develop undergraduate nursing education.

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    Establishment of competency evaluation indexes for academic leaders in clinical disciplines of Shanghai third level hospitals
    CHEN Wei, FEI Jian, YU Yu-ping, LI Guo-hong, GONG Zhen-ye
    2016, 36 (04):  565. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.021

    Abstract ( 831 )   PDF (992KB) ( 697 )  

    Objective To investigate the current status of academic leaders in Shanghai third level hospitals under the precondition of competency and explore competency evaluation indexes, which have application value and significance for cultivating, introducing, and evaluating academic leaders. Methods Core competency elements were investigated by literature reviews, Delphi, and behavioral event interview. Competency evaluation indexes for academic leaders in clinical disciplines of Shanghai third level hospitals were established via transcription text, competency coding, and dictionary compilation and the number of evaluation indexes was determined. Results Characteristic competency items were extracted through interviews with the academic leaders. A total of 27 competency evaluation indexes of academic leaders in clinical disciplines of Shanghai third level hospitals were proposed after supplementation and modification. Conclusion This study is based on competency evaluation indexes. It is a helpful attempt for the evaluation of academic leaders. Academic leaders don’t lack professional literacy. It is the personality that influence the degree, efficiency, outcome of developing disciplines. Evaluation of academic leaders via establishment of competency evaluation indexes can provide reference advice for hospital discipline development.

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    Trial implementation of Admission and Discharge Criteria for Geriatric Nursing Homes in Shanghai
    ZHANG Jie, LI Guo-hong, YANG Ying-hua, WANG Meng
    2016, 36 (04):  571. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.022

    Abstract ( 871 )   PDF (835KB) ( 840 )  

    Objective To prepare and assess the authenticity and feasibility of Admission and Discharge Criteria for Geriatric Nursing Homes in Shanghai according to experiences both at home and abroad and domestic status. Methods Admission and Discharge Criteria for Geriatric Nursing Homes in Shanghai was prepared via literature review, questionnaire survey, and expert interview and converted to a system software. Inpatients in 26 geriatric nursing homes in Shanghai were assessed by physicians and the software system. The consistency between criteria assessment and physician assessment was analyzed and the sensitivity and specificity of criteria assessment were calculated. Characteristics of inpatient population distribution in geriatric nursing homes in Shanghai were analyzed. Results Kappa consistency test showed that the Kappa value of criteria assessment and physician assessment results was 0.931 (P=0.006). The sensitivity and specificity of the criteria assessment were 98.40% (95%CI98.03%-98.76%) and 96.20% (95%CI95.15%-97.26%) taking the physician assessment as a gold standard. Analysis of the characteristics of inpatient population distribution in geriatric nursing homes in Shanghai showed that more elderly patients in suburb areas should be discharged or transferred but still remained hospitalized as compared with those in urban areas (P=0.000). The proportion of patients using social insurance was higher than those using other payment methods (P=0.016). The proportion of cadre population was significantly higher than other populations (P=0.004). The proportion of eligible patients admitted by independent community health centers was the highest (84.1%). The proportion of ineligible patients with diabetes was the highest (32.4%). Conclusion Admission and Discharge Criteria for Geriatric Nursing Homes in Shanghai can truly, objectively, and effectively assess whether elderly patients in Shanghai are eligible for the admission and discharge criteria for geriatric nursing homes.

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    Review
    Role of LncRNAs in vascular diseases
    HUANG Chun-mei, WANG Xiao, GE Qin-min
    2016, 36 (04):  576. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.023

    Abstract ( 479 )   PDF (555KB) ( 692 )  

    Vascular diseases are a serious problem that threats human health with key pathological characteristics of aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and formation of neointimal lesions. Recent evidence has demonstrated that non-coding RNAs play an important role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions. Besides microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) contribute to gene expression and signaling pathway at various stages. Recently, LncRNAs have been identified to play a role in vascular development, lineage commitment, and mesoderm differentiation into heart and to be associated with angiotensin Ⅱ actions and vascular diseases, including heart diseases and atherosclerosis. LncRNAs may mediate many different pathways in vascular development and related diseases. This review mainly discusses the role of LncRNAs in vascular diseases.

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    Research progress of ion channels in the mechanism of asthma
    CAI Shang-xiao, JIAN Chao-hui, GU Hao, HE Bai-hui, JIANG Yi-ming
    2016, 36 (04):  580. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.024

    Abstract ( 698 )   PDF (528KB) ( 867 )  

    In recent years, the prevalence of bronchial asthma (asthma for short) is increasing globally. Thus, more thorough and broad studies on pathogenesis and therapeutic targets of asthma have been carried out. Identified ion channels that are associated with asthma include Ca2+ channels, K+ channels, epithelial sodium channels, acid-sensing ion channels, and transient receptor potential channels, etc. In this review we present research progresses of pathogenesis of asthma and the prospect of applying different ion channels as therapeutic targets of asthma.

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    New research progresses of micro-RNAs involving in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury
    YANG Yang, LIU Yi, DING Fang-bao
    2016, 36 (04):  584. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.025

    Abstract ( 637 )   PDF (624KB) ( 706 )  

    Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI),which occurs after reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, presents a series of myocardial functional disorder and structural impairments. In recent years, researchers have found abnormal up-regulated or down-regulated expressions of many micro-RNAs (miRNAs) during the course of MIRI. By targeting specific genes, miRNAs can modulate downstream signaling pathways and cause changes in expressions of corresponding proteins, thus involve in the process of regulating MIRI. MIRI can be alleviated by up-regulating or down-regulating expressions of target miRNAs via technical approaches. As biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction, miRNAs can reflect the severity and prognosis of the disease. This paper reviews new research progresses of mechanisms and clinical applications of miRNAs in MIRI.

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    Research progresses of effects of progestogens on blood lipids in hormone replacement therapy
    ZHU Zhang-ying, TAO Min-fang
    2016, 36 (04):  589. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.026

    Abstract ( 721 )   PDF (654KB) ( 736 )  

    The effect of progestogens in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on risk factors of cardiovascular system diseases is attracting more and more attention. As a significant risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, blood lipid abnormality is the most common risk factor. Previous studies have confirmed that exogenous estrogen supplements are beneficial to lipids profile among peri-menopausal women. But the effect of adding progestogens into estrogen on blood lipid metabolism varies. Currently there is only a small amount of studies involve the effect of different progestogens on blood lipid metabolism. This paper reviews research progresses of effects of different progestogens on blood lipid metabolism in HRT.

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    Research progresses of TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway-related therapeutic strategies for pathological scar
    LI Ming, FANG Yong
    2016, 36 (04):  594. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.027

    Abstract ( 584 )   PDF (856KB) ( 778 )  

    Pathological scar is a common and frequent disorder that seriously affects physical and psychological health of patients. Studies found that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is the most potent profibrosis factor known so far. TGF-β/Smads signal pathway is closely associated with scarring and is highlighted with inhibiting the activity of protease and matrix enzyme, as well as promoting the formation of extracellular matrixes such as collagen, and further promotes the deposition of extracellular matrixes. This paper reviews studies on prevention and treatment of pathological scar via TGF-β/Smads signal pathway and investigates better therapeutic methods.

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    Current status and future of catheter-based renal denervation from the perspective of SYMPLICITY HTN-3
    HUANG Jing, LI Jing-bo
    2016, 36 (04):  599. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.028

    Abstract ( 715 )   PDF (955KB) ( 793 )  

    Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases and a key risk factor of many diseases such as coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and stroke. However, resistant hypertension is an intractable problem in the management and treatment of hypertension. In recent years, with the advent of catheter-based renal denervation (RDN), a new chapter has been opened for the treatment of resistant hypertension, but the negative result of SYMPLICTY HTN-3 study has led to doubts and drastic debates on RDN. This paper reviews current status and future directions of catheter-based RDN studies through SYMPLICTY HTN-3.

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    Brief original article
    Analysis of serum apolipoprotein A5 level and related factors for patients with acute coronary syndrome
    HUA Sha, ZHAO Jian-rong, QIU Xiao-wei
    2016, 36 (04):  604. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.029

    Abstract ( 589 )   PDF (975KB) ( 645 )  

    Objective To analyze the serum apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) level and related factors for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods A total of 188 patients who visited the Department of Cardiology of Ruijin Hospital Luwan Branch from July, 2014 to June, 2015 were enrolled and assigned to the ACS group (n=96) and the non-ACS group (control group, n=92) according to the international guideline for ACS diagnosis criteria. Serum ApoA5 level was measured by ELISA and lipid profile, hemogram, creatinine, uric acid, blood glucose, cardiac troponin I (cTn I), and NT-proBNP were also detected. Gensini scores were calculated according to the results of coronary angiography for patients in the ACS group. Correlation analysis was performed based on ApoA5. Results The ApoA5 level in the ACS group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.022). For all samples, ApoA5 was negatively correlated to TG, FFA, and cTn I and positively correlated to HDL and ApoA1. Subgroup analyses showed that ApoA5 was highly and negatively correlated to cTn I and coronary artery Gensini score in the ACS group (P=0.006 9, P=0.014), whereas ApoA5 was not correlated to cTn I in the control group (P=0.079). Conclusion The serum ApoA5 level in ACS patients is significantly lower than that in the patients without ACS and ApoA5 is significantly correlated to myocardial injury and the degree of coronary artery disease.

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    Technique and method
    Application of modified extracorporeal circulation tubes to extracorporeal circulation for infants and toddlers
    JIANG Lei, WANG Wei, SHEN Jia, ZHANG Wei, TANG Jia-zhong, ZHU De-ming
    2016, 36 (04):  609. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.04.030

    Abstract ( 683 )   PDF (751KB) ( 720 )  

    Objective To effectively improve the effect of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) by minimizing length and diameter of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) tubes for infants and young children, improving MUF circuit, optimizing MUF method, so as to reduce the amount of suspension red blood cells used in ECC. Methods Thirty children with simple congenital heart disease with body weight<8 kg were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group (n=15) used traditional 1/4 inch ECC tubes and traditional modified MUF (tMUF) and the experimental group (n=15) used the modified ECC tubes and optimized and modified MUF (mMUF). The amount of priming volume of suspension red blood cells and total amount of used blood were compared. Blood samples were collected to detect hematocrit (HCT) before ECC (T1), after aortic clamping (T2), before the end of ECC (T3), and after MUF (T4). Results The amount of priming volume of suspension red blood cells and total amount of used blood in the experimental group were significantly less than those in the control group (both P=0.001). The HCT value increased remarkably after mMUF. Conclusion For infants and young children with congenital heart disease, reducing length and diameter of ECC tubes and improving MUF circuit can decrease the amount of blood products used during surgery and achieve the purpose of saving blood.

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