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    Translational medicine
    2016, 36 (05):  610. 
    Abstract ( 302 )   PDF (2209KB) ( 614 )  
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    Original article (Basic research)
    Effects of miR-506 on the proliferation and metastasis in gastric cancer cells
    LIN Zi-long, ZHOU Quan, REN Jia, LI Jian-fang, YU Bei-qin, SU Li-ping, XU Min-juan, LIU Bing-ya
    2016, 36 (05):  613. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.001

    Abstract ( 731 )   PDF (2832KB) ( 745 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of miR-506 on inhibiting the proliferation and metastasis in gastric cancer cells. Methods The miR-506 expressions in five gastric cancer cell lines (MKN-45, SGC-7901, BGC-823, NCI-N87, and AGS) were measured with real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The immortalized human normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell line GES-1 was served as control. MiR-506 mimics and anti-miR-506 were transiently transfected into SGC-7901 cell line to up-regulate and down-regulate the miR-506 expression with liposome transfection method. Changes in the proliferation of SGC-7901 were observed with CCK-8, while cell migration and invasion abilities were observed with wound healing assay and Transwell migration and invasion assay. Results The expressions of miR-506 in five gastric cancer cell lines were significantly lower as compared with normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell line GES-1 (P<0.05). MiR-506 over-expression could significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities in SGC-7901 cells. Compared with negative controls, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).The inhibition of miR-506 expression could promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities (P<0.01). Conclusion The expression of miR-506 significantly decreases in gastric cancer cell lines. Up-regulation of miR-506 can inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities in gastric cancer cells, while down-regulation of miR-506 has the opposite effects.

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    Study on the regulation of  KLF5 expression by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α
    WANG Xiao-Bo, WANG Hao-Yu, YAO Jun-Ji, ZENG Wan-Qin, LIU Hai-Shan, ZHAO Ke-Wen
    2016, 36 (05):  619. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.002

    Abstract ( 700 )   PDF (1915KB) ( 810 )  

    Objective To study the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) on the regulation of transcription factor KLF5 expression and on the cell proliferation. Methods 293T cells were treated with hypoxia (1% O2 or hypoxia mimic CoCl2) and the mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α and KLF5 were detected with the use of real-time qPCR and Western blotting. The HIF-1α expression was inhibited with shRNA and the KLF5 expression was detected after 293T cells were treated with hypoxia. The HIF-1α-P2A plasmid in 293T cells was over-expressed and the effects of which on expressions of KLF5 promoter-driven luciferase and KLF5 were detected. HIF-1α-P2A-overexpressed 293T cells were transfected with shKLF5 and the cell proliferation was detected with CCK8. 293T cells were co-transfected with KLF5 plasmid and HRE-luciferase plasmid, and the effects of KLF5 expression on HIF-1α transcriptional activity was evaluated with the luciferase reporter system. Results qPCR and Western blotting showed that hypoxia treatment could stabilize HIF-1α protein and transcriptionally upregulate the KLF5 expression. Inhibition of HIF-1α expression with shRNA could suppress hypoxia-induced up-regulation of KLF5 expression. Over-expressed exogenous HIF-1α-P2A could directly bind to the promoter region of KLF5 and up-regulate KLF5 expression. Although over-expression of HIF-1α-P2A or inhibition of shKLF5 alone was unable to affect cell proliferation, their combination could significantly promote cell proliferation. Overexpressed KLF5 could significantly inhibit the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. Conclusion KLF5 is the direct target gene of HIF-1α and HIF-1α transcriptionally regulates the KLF5 expression. KLF5 may inhibit the HIF-1α-promoted cell proliferation via suppressing the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α.

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    Effects of DHA on inflammatory response in human periodontal ligament cells induced by P.gingivalis  LPS
    ZHOU Zi-chao, SUN Meng-jun, SHU Rong
    2016, 36 (05):  626. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.003

    Abstract ( 1012 )   PDF (1133KB) ( 911 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on   periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs)-expressed inflammatory factors induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Methods HPDLCs were cultured and identified in vitro. The effects of different concentrations of DHA on the cell viability were detected with MTT assay. The concentrations with no effect on the cell viability were selected according to the results of MTT assay and the effects of DHA on hPDLCs-expressed inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β induced by P.gingivalis LPS were detected at gene and protein levels with real-time PCR and ELISA. Results In the range of 25-100 μmol/L, DHA had no effect on the cell viability in hPDLCs and down-regulated hPDLCs-expressed inflammatory factors induced by P.gingivalis LPS in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion In a certain range of concentrations, DHA can down-regulated hPDLCs-expressed inflammatory factors induced by P.gingivalis LPS in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting the cell viability, suggesting the possibility of applying DHA to the anti-inflammatory therapy of periodontosis.

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    Effects of adiponectin on the proliferation and apoptosis of mesenchymal stem cells
    FU Zong-jie, LIN Yuan, MIAO Jie, YANG Guo-yuan, SHEN Lin-hui
    2016, 36 (05):  631. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.004

    Abstract ( 722 )   PDF (2038KB) ( 762 )  

    Objective To explore the effects of adiponectin (Apn) on the proliferation and apoptosis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods Primary rat MSCs were separated and cultured. MSCs were transfected with constructed mouse Apn gene recombinant lentivirus (Lenti-Apn-IRES-EGFP)or control lentivirus (Lenti-IRES-EGFP) and the transfection efficiency was measured. The in vitro proliferation of Gfp-MSCs and Apn-MSCs were detected with the CCK8 kit after transfection. The apoptosis rate was measured with the flow cytometer 12 h after the construction of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. Results The proliferation of Apn-MSCs was faster as compared with Gfp-MSCs (P=0.001). The apoptosis rate of Apn-MSCs was lower than that of Gfp-MSCs 12 h after the construction of OGD model (P=0.01). Conclusion Apn can promote the proliferation of MSCs and reduce the apoptosis of MSCs after oxygen and glucose deprivation.

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    Dynamic changes in expressions of AT1R and Mas receptors in lung tissues during the development of early pulmonary fibrosis following LPS-induced acute lung injury in rats
    LIU Yu-jing, CAO Yong-mei, PING Feng, LI Ying-chuan
    2016, 36 (05):  636. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.005

    Abstract ( 1045 )   PDF (3740KB) ( 906 )  

    Objective To construct a rat model of early pulmonary fibrosis following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and observe the change trend in major members of renin-angiotensin-system angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Mas receptor during lung injury process. Methods A rat model of early pulmonary fibrosis following acute lung injury was built by three intermittent injections of LPS into the abdomen and airway. Rats were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 d after last injection. Lung tissues and blood samples were harvested. The histomorphological changes in lung tissues were observed with H-E and Masson staining. The plasma TGF-β level was measured with ELISA kits. The mRNA and protein expressions of AT1R and Mas receptors in lung tissues were detected with RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results The main presentation of histomorphological changes in lung tissues was inflammatory response at day 3 after LPS injections. The inflammation was reduced 7 d after LPS injections and the normal morphology of lung tissues was damaged. Masson staining revealed increased collagen protein deposition and plasma TGF-β level (P<0.01), which resulted in early pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, with the development of LPS-induced pulmonary fibrosis, the mRNA expression of AT1R did not change significantly, but the protein expression of AT1R markedly increased on day 14 and 21. The mRNA expression of Mas in lung tissues increased gradually and was 15 folds higher than that in the control group on day 21, while the protein expression of Mas significantly decreased to 30% of that in the control group on day 14 and 21 (P<0.01). Conclusion Repeated LPS injections can effectively construct the rat model of early pulmonary fibrosis following acute lung injury. The expressions of AT1R and Mas receptors show opposite changes with the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Role of ERK/CREB signal pathway in promotion of BDNF expression in Aβ intoxicated SH-SY5Y cells by smilagenin
    ZHANG Rui, XIA Zhi-ming, SUN Xiao-yu, Li Jia-mei, ZHANG Yong-fang, HU Ya-er
    2016, 36 (05):  642. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.006

    Abstract ( 896 )   PDF (1276KB) ( 799 )  

    Objective To investigate the role of extracellular signal regulated kinase/cAMP response element binding protein (ERK/CREB) signaling pathway in promotion of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in β-amyloid (Aβ) intoxicated SH-SY5Y cells by smilagenin (SMI) and relevant mechanisms. Methods The Aβ intoxicated cell model was built and RT-PCR assay was employed to detect the BDNF mRNA expression. Western blotting was used to detect changes in pCREB and pERK expressions. Finally, the role of ERK/CREB signaling pathway in the promotion of BDNF mRNA expression by SMI was confirmed by the use of blocking assay. Results SMI promoted the BDNF mRNA expression in Aβ intoxicated SH-SY5Y cells (P=0.000) and up-regulated the phosphorylation level of signal molecules CREB and ERK1/2 (P=0.001, P=0.000). After blocking the CREB expression by RNA interference, the effect of SMI on promoting the BDNF mRNA expression completely vanished. After blocking the ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126, the effect of SMI on promoting the increase in pCREB level completely vanished. Conclusion SMI promotes the BDNF mRNA expression in Aβ intoxicated SH-SY5Y cells through the ERK/CREB pathway.

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    Study on the mechanism of in vitro apoptosis induced with 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonodynamic therapy in Hep G2 cells
    LI Yong-ning, XIONG Xiao-jing,LI Qing-song, LIU Ying, HU Zheng, CAO Wen-wu
    2016, 36 (05):  648. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.007

    Abstract ( 650 )   PDF (3253KB) ( 843 )  

    Objective To investigate the underlying mechanisms of cell apoptosis induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonodynamic therapy (5-ALA-SDT) in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells.  Methods The CCK-8 assays were used to examine the effects of 5-ALA and ultrasound intervention on the viability of Hep G2 at logarithmic growth phase. The 5-ALA level and intensity of ultrasonic irradiation with best efficacy were identified. The apoptosis rate, mortality rate, and changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in Hep G2 cells in the control group (untreated cells), 5-ALA group, ultrasonic group, and SDT group were detected with flow cytometry assays. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) were detected with the fluorescent probes. Western blotting was used to examine expressions of cytochrome C (Cyt-C) and apoptosis-associated proteins caspase-3 and caspase-9. The ultrastructural changes in cells were observed with the transmission electron microscope. Results The SDT group had lower survival rate, higher apoptosis rate, increased ROS production, decreased MMP, and elevated expressions of caspase-3, caspase-9, and Cyt-C as compared with the control group, 5-ALA group, and ultrasonic group. The transmission electron microscope revealed changes such as reduced cell microvilli, swelling endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and the production of apoptotic bodies in Hep G2 cells in the SDT group. Conclusion Endogenous mitochondrial apoptosis is the main mechanism of 5-ALA-SDT-induced cell apoptosis in Hep G2 cells.

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    Study on the biocompatibility of the mixture of poly-p-dioxanone and iohexol
    LIU Hui-dong, LIU Yang, CHEN Sun
    2016, 36 (05):  655. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.008

    Abstract ( 604 )   PDF (2030KB) ( 760 )  

    Objective To investigate the biocompatibility of a developing material prepared by physically mixing poly-p-dioxanone (PPDO) and iohexol. Methods The PPDO and PPDO-iohexol mixture (MIX) were pressed into thin films by a plate vulcanization machine. The haemacompatibility was evaluated through dynamic clotting time test, partial thromboplastin time test, platelet adhesion test, and hemolysis test. The extracts of PPDO and MIX were used to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMC). Cell proliferation of the two types of cells was detected. The histocompatibility was evaluated through in vivo muscle embed method. Results The differences in both haemacompatibility and histocompatibility between MIX and PPDO were not significant. In the cytocompatibility evaluation, the proliferation rates in HUVEC cultured with extracts of MIX and PPDO were (80.26±8.87)% and (84.59±7.22)% (P=0.391), respectively, while the proliferation rates in HA-VSMC were (94.89±9.64)% and (110.03±13.37)% (P=0.001), respectively.  Conclusion The mixture of PPDO and iohexol has excellent biocompatibility.

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    Study on the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) and LBP combined with tea polyphenols on relieving the physical fatigue in mice
    ZHANG Ya-li, HUANG Xiao-xu, HUANG Zhen-ru, GAO Run-ying, CAI Mei-qin
    2016, 36 (05):  661. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.009

    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (680KB) ( 820 )  

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) and LBP combined with tea polyphenols (TP) on relieving the physical fatigue in mice and discuss relevant mechanisms. Methods Three hundreds and thirty-six specific pathogen free (SPF) male KM mice were randomly assigned to four groups and each group was further divided into seven subgroups, i.e. three LBP groups receiving low, medium, and high doses of LBH (LBP-L, LBP-M, and LBP-H groups) and three combination groups receiving low, medium, and high doses of LBP combined with TP, and a normal saline (NS) group as the control group with 12 mice in each group. Mice were gavaged with LBP solution or LBP combined with TP solution at 0.2 mL/10 g body weight daily for 15 d. Then load swimming tests were conducted and biochemical indexes such as hepatic glycogen, serum urea nitrogen, and blood lactic acid were measured. Results LBP-M, LBP-H, C-L, C-M, and C-H groups had prolonged load swimming time (P<0.05) and LBP-L, LBP-M, LBP-H, C-L, C-M, and C-H groups had elevated hepatic glycogen level (P<0.05) and reduced serum urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid levels (P<0.05) as compared with the NS group. The combination groups had prolonged load swimming time, elevated hepatic glycogen level, and reduced serum urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid levels as compared with the LBP group. The hepatic glycogen level in C-L group was significantly higher than that in LBP-L group (P=0.027) and the blood lactic acid level in C-M group was significantly lower than that in LBP-M group (P=0.006). Conclusion LBP and LBP combined with TP can relieve the physical fatigue in mice without affecting the mouse body weight. The mechanism may be associated with increased hepatic glycogen storage, reduced catabolism for proteins, reduced serum urea nitrogen level, increased phosphofructokinase activity, and decreased blood lactic acid level.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Correlation between thyroid hormones and the need for reduced duration of sleep for patients with bipolar disorder
    HUANG Jia, CHEN Jun, WANG Yong,HONG Wu, YUAN Cheng-mei, WANG Zuo-wei, SU You-song, HU Ying-yan, CAO Lan, FANG Yi-ru
    2016, 36 (05):  666. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.010

    Abstract ( 776 )   PDF (756KB) ( 891 )  

    Objective To explore the correlation between the serum thyroid hormone level and the need for reduced duration of sleep for patients with bipolar disorder (BPD). Methods One hundred and twenty two BPD patients were assigned to two groups on the basis of whether the duration of sleep needed to be reduced. Demographic characteristics and thyroid hormone level were compared between two groups. Spearmans analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the thyroid hormone level and clinical symptoms for two groups. Logistic regression analysis was employed to assess risk factors for the duration of sleep needed to be reduced. Results Compared with patients whose duration of sleep did not need to be reduced, patients whose duration of sleep needed to be reduced had a lower serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level [(2.46±1.74) mU/L vs (3.47±2.65) mU/L] and a higher tetraiodothyronine (T4) level [(90.91±31.59) nmol/L vs (76.80±38.55) nmol/L]. The differences were statistically significant (P=0.046,P=0.048). In patients whose duration of sleep needed to be reduced, thyroid hormone level was positively correlated to clinical symptoms such as psychomotor agitation, excessive worry, increased social activities, nagging, and the use of psychoactive substances. In patients whose duration of sleep did not need to be reduced, only the serum triiodothyronine (T3) level was positively correlated to increased social activities (P=0.329). Logistic regression analysis revealed that TSH and T4 levels were correlated to the need for reduced duration of sleep (OR=1.303, P=0.023; OR=0.986,P=0.045). Conclusion The thyroid hormone level may be a potential factor influencing the duration of sleep and other clinical symptoms in patients with BPD. The correlation between thyroid hormones and the need for reduced duration of sleep may provide beneficial information for improving the treatment of BPD.

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    Value of Apo B and ratio of Apo AⅠ/Apo B in differential diagnosis between familial hypercholesterolemia and familial combined hyperlipidemia
    YAN Li, FU Xiao-yan, ZHOU Shan-shan, LIU Wei-juan, HE Jin-xiang, HE Jin-chun
    2016, 36 (05):  671. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.011

    Abstract ( 755 )   PDF (687KB) ( 738 )  

    Objective To analyze the differences in lipid levels and renal function indexes between family members with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and investigate indexes that may be used for the differential diagnosis between FH and FCHL. Methods Six FH pedigrees (47 persons) and 23 FCHL pedigrees (94 persons) that met the diagnosis criteria and 10 normal control pedigrees (57 persons) were recruited. Persons in FH and FCHL pedigrees were assigned to the affected groups with elevated blood lipid levels and the non-affected groups with normal blood lipid levels. Blood lipid levels and renal function indexes (including CO2CP, BUN, Cr, BUN/Cr, and UA) were compared between groups.  Results The affected group in FH pedigrees had remarkably higher levels of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and Apo B, remarkably lower level of Apo AⅠ/Apo B, and higher levels of LP(a), BUN, Cr, and TAG as compared with the non-affected group and the control group. The differences were statistically significant. The affected group in FCHL pedigrees had remarkably higher levels of TC, TAG, LDL-C, and Apo B, remarkably lower level of Apo AⅠ/Apo B, and higher levels of HDL-C, LP(a), and BUN as compared with the non-affected group and the control group. The differences were statistically significant. The affected group in FH pedigrees had significantly higher levels of LDL-C and Apo B, higher levels of TC and Apo AⅠ/ Apo B, and significantly lower level of TAG as compared with the affected group in FCHL pedigrees. Conclusion In addition to commonly used indexes TC, TAG, and LDL-C, the Apo B level and the ratio of Apo AⅠ/Apo B are potential indexes for the differential diagnosis between FH and FCHL.

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    Increased glycated basic fibroblast growth factor in diabetic skin reduces the cell viability and angiogenesis of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells
    CAO Xiao-zan, XIE Ting, SUN Xiao-fang, WANG Qi, LU Shu-liang, GU Ming-min
    2016, 36 (05):  676. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.012

    Abstract ( 503 )   PDF (2161KB) ( 798 )  

    Objective To explore the glycation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in diabetic skin. Methods The abdominal full-thickness skin tissues from 58 patients (29 diabetic and 29 non-diabetic) aged 40 to 69 years and granulation tissues from 15 patients (8 diabetic and 7 non-diabetic) aged 50 to 59 were analyzed. The proportion of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-bFGF in total bFGF was measured with co-immunoprecipitation and the histological characteristics of wound skin were detected with hematoxylin and eosin staining. The cell viability, apoptosis, and angiogenesis of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) after exposure to AGEs-bFGF or bFGF were measured with cell counting kit-8, flow cytometry, and tube formation assay, respectively. Results The proportion of AGEs-bFGF in total bFGF showed age-dependent increase both in diabetic and non-diabetic skin. As compared with non-diabetic skin, the constituent ratio in diabetic skin increased significantly in the equal age-group, and the same result could be obtained in granulation tissues from patients aged 50 to 59. The proportion of AGEs-bFGF in diabetic granulation was lower than that in diabetic skin from patients aged 50 to 59. Histological analysis showed fewer vessels in diabetic skin wound. In vitro, the viability and vascularization of HDMECs were promoted by bFGF and inhibited after exposure to AGEs-bFGF for 7 d. Conclusion The present study indicates that one cause for impaired wound healing in diabetic skin could be the glycated bFGF and its changed angiogenic function.

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    Observation of efficacy of ticagrelor sequential therapy on clopidogrel resistance after application of percutaneous coronary intervention to patients with acute coronary syndrome
    YUAN Qing-ru, LIU Li-juan, ZHAO Ming-zhong
    2016, 36 (05):  683. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.013

    Abstract ( 737 )   PDF (879KB) ( 800 )  

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of ticagrelor sequential therapy on clopidogrel resistance after application of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods On the 7th day after PCI, 102 cases of ACS were screened with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 system and were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group (n=51) received the ticagrelor sequential therapy, which administrated bayaspirin (100 mg/d) plus ticagrelor (loading dose of 180 mg, then 90 mg each time, bis in die) for 3 months. The control group (n=51) received intensive treatment, which administrated bayaspirin (100 mg/d) plus clopidogrel (150 mg/d) for 3 months. Both groups received bayaspirin (100 mg/d) plus clopidogrel (75 mg/d) for 9 months after 3 months. VerifyNow system was used to determine the residual activity of platelets (in PRU) before treatment and 7 d, 1 month, and 3 months after treatment. Ischemic events, bleeding events, and adverse reactions of drugs within 12 months were followed up. Results The difference in PRU between two groups before treatment was not statistically significant but comparable. The PRU in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group 7 d, 1 month, and 3 months after treatment (P=0.016, P=0.000, and P=0.000). The incidence of ischemic events in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group (χ2=4.993, P=0.026). The difference in the incidence of minor bleeding events between two groups was not statistically significant (χ2=0.614, P=0.450). The difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between two groups was not statistically significant (χ2=0.444,P=0.506). Conclusion Ticagrelor sequential therapy can reduce the PRU in ACS patients with clopidogrel resistance, improve clopidogrel resistance, and decrease the incidence of ischemic events without increasing the risk of bleeding.

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    Study on sociodemographic characteristics, sleep quality, and risk factors in population with primary insomnia
    ZHANG Lei, HE Shen, YU Yi-min, LI Yan, WEN Hui, QIAO Ying, LI Hua-fang
    2016, 36 (05):  689. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.014

    Abstract ( 644 )   PDF (744KB) ( 906 )  

    Objective To explore sociodemographic characteristics, sleep quality, and mental health in patients with primary insomnia and investigate possible risk factors for primary insomnia. Methods A case-control study was employed. A total of 602 patients with primary insomnia and 242 healthy controls with matched age and sex were surveyed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and their habits and life style were compared. Results The differences in education, marital status, housing conditions, income, life and sleeping habits, family relationship, somatic discomfort, and mental health between patients with primary insomnia and healthy controls were statistically significant (P<0.05). Item scores and the total score of PSQI were higher in the patients with primary insomnia as compared with the controls and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). Female patients showed a longer sleep latency, poorer sleep efficiency, much easier to use sleeping medications as compared with male patients (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that alcohol consumption, somatic discomfort, work overtime or night shift, divorced or widowed, individual annual income (¥50 000-100 000), and mental health (anxiety, depression) were risk factors for primary insomnia. Conclusion Patients with primary insomnia is commonly associated with somatic discomfort and symptoms of anxiety or depression. Alcohol consumption, work overtime or night shift, divorced or widowed, and individual annual income (¥50 000-100 000) may be possible risk factors for primary insomnia.

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    Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for pre-operative evaluation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its effects on the therapeutic decision
    XU Feng, LI Biao
    2016, 36 (05):  695. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.015

    Abstract ( 490 )   PDF (917KB) ( 845 )  

    Objective To assess the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for pre-operative evaluation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its effects on the therapeutic decision. Methods A retrospective analysis of clinical dada on 89 patients with pathology or biopsy-proven primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma and complete hospital records [including abdominal contrast-enhanced CT (ce-CT) and 18F-FDG PET/CT]. 29 cases were proved by operations to have surgical indications and 60 cases were proved by operations or follow-ups to have no surgical indication. First, pre-operative distant metastases and surgical indications were assessed via ce-CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT, and ce-CT combined with 18F-FDG PET/CT for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The efficacy of three methods was compared with χ2 test. Second, the effects of ce-CT combined with 18F-FDG PET/CT on the therapeutic decision were assessed. Results The accuracy rates of ce-CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT, and ce-CT combined with 18F-FDG PET/CT for evaluating the distant metastasis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma were 73.0%, 88.8%, and 92.1%, respectively (χ2=14.2, P=0.001). The accuracy rates for evaluating the surgical indication were 68.5%, 73.0%, and 85.4%, respectively (χ2=7.4, P=0.025). Of 57 patients who were evaluated by ce-CT to have surgical indications, 28 were proved by operations to have no surgical indication and 15 of them were correctly identified by the combination of 18F-FDG PET/CT. Of 29 patients who were evaluated by ce-CT to have no surgical indication, all of them were proven by operations or follow-ups to have no surgical indication. Ce-CT combined with PET/CT did not change the evaluation results. Conclusion For patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who are pre-operatively evaluated by ce-CT to have surgical indications, 18F-FDG PET/CT examination is necessary.

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    Experimental study on event-related potential N400 in childhood absence epilepsy
    XU Lu, WU Rong-qin, Lü Jian, HUANG Jun-bin, TANG Jia-lin, CHEN Xing-shi, CHEN Chong
    2016, 36 (05):  699. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.016

    Abstract ( 739 )   PDF (516KB) ( 808 )  

    Objective To investigate variations of event related potential N400 in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). Methods The Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instrument was employed to perform N400 tests for 45 cases of CAE and 42 normal children by the use of model of normal words (matching) and ambiguous words (mismatching) ended Chinese sentences. Results  ①Latency. Compared with the control group, the CAE group showed prolonged N400 latency in three encephalic regions (Cz、Fz, and Pz), especially for both matching (P<0.01) and mismatching (P<0.01) indexes in the Cz region, as well as in Fz and Pz regions. ②Amplitude. Compared with the control group, the CAE group also showed much lower N400 amplitude in five encephalic regions, especially for both matching (P<0.01) and mismatching (P<0.01) indexes in the Cz region. Conclusion Sentence ending words are a favorable stimulus to elicit N400, which can be used for clinical neurology, especially for auxiliary diagnosis of CAE.

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    Evaluation of the application of hybrid iterative reconstruction method (iDOSE4) to low-dose chest scan with 256 slices computed tomography
    WANG Bo-cheng, XUE yang, SU xiao, MEI Yun-ting, WU Li-zhong, ZHAO Jiang-ming
    2016, 36 (05):  702. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.017

    Abstract ( 666 )   PDF (1119KB) ( 636 )  

    Objective To compare the quality of chest images scanned by iCT with low radiation dose and with regular radiation dose and by CT with regular radiation dose, and explore the application value of iDOSE4 in low radiation dose scan. Methods Chest spiral CT scan images of 150 healthy males without chest disorders were enrolled and randomly assigned to the 256 slices iDOSE4 low-dose group (iDOSE4 low dose group, n=50), 256 slices iDOSE4 regular dose group (iDOSE4 regular dose group, n=50), and 64 rows regular dose group (n=50). The quality of CT images (lung markings, mediastinum artery outline, bronchial morphology, and axillary lymph nodes) was scored, compared, and analyzed. Results The differences in lung markings, mediastinum artery outline, and bronchial morphology scores between the iDOSE4 low dose group and the iDOSE4 regular dose group were not statistically significant (P=0.633, P=0.814, P=0.543). Axillary lymph nodes score and the total score in the iDOSE4 low dose group were lower as compared with the iDOSE4 regular dose group (P=0.000, P=0.000). The differences in lung markings, mediastinum artery outline, and bronchial morphology scores between the iDOSE4 low dose group and the 64 rows regular dose group were not statistically significant (P=0.466, P=0.820, P=0.377). Axillary lymph nodes score and the total score in the iDOSE4 low dose group were lower as compared with the 64 rows regular dose group (P=0.000, P=0.000). There was no significant difference in the quality of CT images between the iDOSE4 regular dose group and the 64 rows regular dose group. The 64 rows regular dose group had the highest radiation dose (13.6 mGy), followed by the iDOSE4 regular dose group (9.7mGy) and the iDOSE4 low dose group (3.4 mGy). Conclusion The 256 slices low-dose chest CT scan with iDOSE4 method can obtain images with reliable quality and can significantly reduce the radiation dose with only inferior capability for displaying axillary lymph nodes as compared with the regular dose.

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    Effects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    SUN Wen-wen, RUAN Yu-feng, LIAN Peng, YING Chen, HU Jia-an, XU Zhi-hong, SUN Jing
    2016, 36 (05):  707. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.018

    Abstract ( 695 )   PDF (634KB) ( 701 )  

    Objective To explore the effects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods This study is an observational study, which recruited 159 patients who have been diagnosed with OSAS (the OSAS group) among patients visiting the Department of Gerontology at Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine due to snore between January 2009 and December 2015 and 159 non-OSAS patients (the control group). Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test was used to analyze whether the OSAS group matched with the control group and the incidence of NAFLD in two groups was compared. The OSAS group was divided into mild, moderate, and severe subgroups according to the apnea hyponea index (AHI) and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (L-SaO2). Chi-square R×C contingency table was employed to statistically analyze the prevalence of NAFLD in OSAS subgroups. Results The OSAS group had a higher AHI (P=0.000), a lower level of L-SaO2 (P=0.000), a longer duration of hemoglobin desaturation (TSaO2<90%)(P=0.000), and a higher incidence of NAFLD (P=0.016) as compared with the control group. The difference in the NAFLD incidence in OSAS subgroups stratified by AHI and L-SaO2 was statistically significant AHI (χ2=6.455, P=0.040; χ2=6.097, P=0.047). Conclusion OSAS can increase the incidence of NAFLD and the incidence of NAFLD increases with the degree of hypoxia in patients with OSAS.

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    Dynamic changes in bone turnover markers after intake of food in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients
    HUA Fei, XIANG Shou-kui, Lü Xin, WAN Jing-bo, JIANG Xiao-hong, JIA Wei-ping
    2016, 36 (05):  712. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.019

    Abstract ( 699 )   PDF (665KB) ( 702 )  

    Objective To investigate the dynamic changes in serum bone turnover markers after intake of steamed bread in newly diagnosed male type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Forty-six male patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM group) and forty healthy male individuals with matched ages (control group) were enrolled. All participants took 100 g steamed bread after fasting venous blood was drawn. Fasting procollagen type Ⅰ N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen (β-CTX) levels and levels of P1NP and β-CTX 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after intake of steamed bread were measured and statistically analyzed. Results The T2DM group had remarkably lower fasting serum P1NP and β-CTX levels as compared with the control group [P1NP: (40.6±12.9) vs (54.2±14.8) ng/mL; β-CTX: (318.6±89.4) pg/mL vs (396.3±105.7) pg/mL. P<0.05]. Serum P1NP levels at time points after intake of steamed bread in two groups had no significant change as compared with fasting serum P1NP levels. However, serum β-CTX levels significantly decreased with time, reached troughs at 120 min, and then increased slightly. The decrease in serum β-CTX in the T2DM group 120 min after intake of steamed bread was significantly less than that in the control group (34.6% vs45.2%, P=0.006).  Conclusion The levels of serum bone turnover markers in newly diagnosed T2DM patients are significantly lower as compared with healthy individuals. The ability of patients to inhibit the bone resorption via intake of food is significantly reduced, which may be one of reasons for the elevated risk of fractures in T2DM patients.

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    Clinical analysis of ventricular premature contractions during gestation period in 140 pregnant women without organic heart disease
    WANG Xue-mei, ZHANG Hui-li, HUANG Xiao-feng, GE Lan
    2016, 36 (05):  716. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.020

    Abstract ( 670 )   PDF (536KB) ( 762 )  

    Objective To investigate changes in the number of ventricular premature contractions in pregnant woman without organic heart disease during gestation period and the impact on fetuses. Methods Clinical data of 140 pregnant women who had delivered from Jan. 2012 to Jun. 2015 and had undergone ambulatory electrocardiogram were enrolled. The changes in ventricular premature contractions in different gestational weeks were retrospectively analyzed and outcomes of mothers and babies were tracked. Results The numbers of ventricular premature contractions increased or decreased after 32 weeks’ gestation as compared with before 28 weeks’ gestation. Changes in the increase and decrease were statistically significant (P=0.004, P=0.001). The differences in delivery weeks, Apgar score, and birth weights between pregnant women with increased and decreased numbers of ventricular premature contractions were not statistically significant. Conclusion The ventricular premature contractions may occur at any phase of gestation and do not necessarily increase with gestational weeks. For pregnant women with ventricular premature contractions and without organic heart disease, gestational outcomes are favorable.

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    Analysis of clinical characteristics in young-onset atypical diabetes mellitus
    LI Yan, ZHANG Man-na, CUI Wen-jie, YANG Peng, LI Hong, QU Shen
    2016, 36 (05):  720. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.021

    Abstract ( 582 )   PDF (895KB) ( 814 )  

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics in youth patients with atypical diabetes mellitus (ADM). Methods Medical records of 340 diabetic patients with the age of onset ≤40 years were retrospectively analyzed. Typical type 1, type 2, and other types of diabetes were excluded via medical history collection, physical examination, and laboratory examinations. A total of 20 patients met the diagnostic criteria of ADM. Their onset characteristics, changes in islet β-cell function, and indexes for glucolipid metabolism were analyzed. Results The majority of young ADM patients were male (male: female=18∶2). The percentages of patients with new-onset diabetes and a family history were high and accounted for 80.0% and 70.0%, respectively. Fasting C-peptide level and the C-peptide level 2 h after dinner in ADM patients were between those in patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Besides, ADM patients had higher HbA1c and uric acid (UA) levels as compared with patients with type 2 diabetes (P=0.000, P=0.001) and higher triglyceride (TAG) level as compared with patients with type 1 diabetes (P=0.002). Nineteen patients (95.0%) stopped the insulin therapy during 6-12 months of follow-up. Among them, 12 (60.0%) were able to maintain the normal blood glucose just relying on diet and exercise. Conclusion The majority of young ADM patients are male. Most patients have new diagnosed diabetes and a family history. The lipid metabolism dysfunction is common in young ADM patients and their ability to repair islet β-cell function is favorable.

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    Original article (Public health)
    Evaluation of the reliability and validity of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale for diabetic outpatients in third level hospitals in Shanghai
    CHEN Qi, WANG Ze-zhou, CHEN Yu-hong, ZHOU Ying-xia, LU Luo, CHEN Min-jie, LI Zhong-ren, FEI Jian, CAI Yong
    2016, 36 (05):  724. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.022

    Abstract ( 817 )   PDF (789KB) ( 873 )  

    Objective To compile the Chinese version of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, evaluate its reliability, validity, and test-retest reliability, and assess the self-efficacy of diabetic outpatients in third level hospitals in Shanghai. Methods From June to August 2015, a total of 410 patients diagnosed with type-2 diabetes by diabetes clinics in Ruijin Hospital, Renji Hospital, and Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital were surveyed with questionnaires by the use of convenience sampling method. Test-retest reliability of the scale was assessed by re-surveying 32 of them two weeks after the first survey. Results The Cronbachs α coefficients for main indexes of the scale were in the range of 0.611-0.947 and the test-retest Spearman correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.418-0.980. Factor analysis indicated a good construct validity of the questionnaire. Four common factors covering healthy diet, diet and blood sugar, healthy behaviors and drug adherence could explain 70.38% contents of the scale. The overall self-efficacy and self-efficacy of each dimension in diabetic outpatients were satisfactory. The total score of self-efficacy was positively associated with that of self-management (P=0.000). Conclusion The Chinese version of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale is reliable and credible in studying health self-management of patients with diabetes and lays a good foundation for exploring health behavior interventions in diabetic patients in Shanghai.

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    Analysis of the cost effectiveness in county-level public hospitals in Chongqing and relevant influencing factors
    TAN Hua-wei, ZHENG Wan-hui, ZHANG Yun, YAN Wei-hua, ZHU Xiao-lin, LIU Xian, ZHANG Pei-lin
    2016, 36 (05):  730. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.023

    Abstract ( 655 )   PDF (943KB) ( 769 )  

    Objective To investigate the cost effectiveness in county-level public hospitals in Chongqing and relevant influencing factors. Methods Data of main indexes of medical institutions in Chongqing from 2012 to 2014 were collected. The cost effectiveness was calculated with the Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA). Factors influencing the cost effectiveness were analyzed with the Tobit regression model. Results The average score of cost effectiveness in county-level public hospitals in Chongqing was 0.8416 and increased by 0.49% annually. Tobit regression analysis revealed that cost effectiveness in county-level public hospitals was significantly influenced by four external factors, i.e. location, hospital level, reform pilot, and permanent resident population, and eight internal factors, i.e. number of beds, proportion of drug, proportion of medical technicians expenditure, number of discharged patients per employee per year, utilization rate of  beds, current ratio, income from drugs with prices less than 100 Yuan and hygiene materials, and rate of management expenses. Conclusion The cost effectiveness in county-level public hospitals in Chongqing still needs improvement. Multiple factors influence the cost effectiveness in county-level public hospitals. Managers and policymakers of county-level public hospitals should take efficient measures to improve the cost effectiveness according to relevant influencing factors.

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    Investigation and analysis of correlation between male reproductive health and anxiety and depression in Shanghai communities
    ZHU Yan-wen, GAO Hua, LI Qing, TIAN Qi, WANG Wen-jing, HONG Zu-bei, CHEN bin, WANG Hong-xiang, HUANG Yan-ping, DI Wen
    2016, 36 (05):  737. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.024

    Abstract ( 728 )   PDF (765KB) ( 783 )  

    Objective To investigate the correlation between reproductive health (climacteric symptoms, prostate symptoms, and sexual function) and anxiety and depression in males aged 20-85 years in Shanghai communities. Methods The multi-stage cluster random sampling was used and 1 366 eligible respondents were randomly enrolled during Nov. 2013 to Jan. 2014 from 29 sub-districts in Huangpu District, Jiading District, Putuo District, and PuDong New District in Shanghai. Symptomatic Inventory for Screening Late Onset Hypogonadism in Males (SILOH), Aging Male Symptoms Scale (AMS), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation-5 (CIPE-5), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS) were used to investigate climacteric symptoms, prostate symptoms, sexual function, and mental health. Those over 40 years old were surveyed with SILOH and AMS. The correlation between male reproductive health and anxiety and depression was analyzed.  Results Compared with the normal SAS(or SDS) group, scores of SILOH, AMS, IPSS, NIH-CPSI, IIEF-5, PEDT, and CIPE-5 in the SAS(or SDS) positive group were less satisfactory and the positive rate of male reproductive problems was higher. The differences were statistically significant. The positive groups in SILOH, AMS, IPSS, NIH-CPSI, IIEF-5, PEDT, and CIPE-5 had less satisfactory scores of SAS and SDS and higher positive rate of anxiety and depression as compared with the negative groups. The differences were statistically significant. Conclusion Male reproductive health interacts with mental problems such as anxiety and depression, which results in worse male reproductive health, while reproductive health problems are apt to cause anxiety and depression.

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    Analysis of factors influencing safety of department of obstetrics based on “the second child” policy and investigation of countermeasures
    CHEN Shu-fang, ZHANG Chen, CHEN Yan, CHENG Wei-wei
    2016, 36 (05):  742. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.025

    Abstract ( 729 )   PDF (862KB) ( 1159 )  

    Objective To investigate how to improve quality and safety management for the department of obstetrics via comparing pregnant and delivery outcomes in multiparas before and after the implementation of  “the second child” policy.  Methods The data on the second child from the department of obstetrics at a hospital between January 2013 and June 2015 were collected and statistically analyzed. Results Since the implementation of “the second child” policy, the pregnant rate in multiparas and women with scar uterus increased. The ratio of women of advanced reproductive age, incidence rates of gestational hypertension (GH) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and rates of premature delivery, macrosomia, low birth weight delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage increased significantly. For GH multiparas, risks of neonatal asphyxia, premature delivery, low birth weight delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage increased. For GDM multiparas, risks of premature delivery, macrosomia, and low birth weight delivery increased. Conclusion Currently among women who has given birth to the second child, those of advanced reproductive age and with scar uterus, GH, and GDM increase. Poor delivery outcomes also increase. It is necessary to enhance pre-pregnancy examinations for women who wish to give birth again, prevent pregnancy complications, and improve contingency management for severe obstetric hemorrhages and hysterorrhexis, so as to ensure the safety for mothers and babies.

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    Review
    Research progresses of the treatment of desmoplastic small round cell tumor
    XU Xiao, ZHANG Feng-chun, XU Ying-chun
    2016, 36 (05):  747. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.026

    Abstract ( 1430 )   PDF (736KB) ( 909 )  

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, highly malignant tumor with very poor prognosis. It often develops in the abdominal and pelvic peritoneum or extra-abdominal sites of adolescents and young males. Patients typically present with symptoms of abdominal sarcomatosis. The histopathological manifestation is featured with nest-distributed small round blue cells surrounded by fibrous tissue. This tumor can co-express epithelial, neural and mesenchymal markers. The molecular characteristic of DSRCT is the production of EWS-WT1 fusion protein via the translocation of chromosome t(11:22) (p13; q12). Standard management of DSRCT has not been established so far. Treatments include debulking or radical surgery, high intensity adjuvant or neoadjuvant polychemotherapy, and whole abdominal radiation. Some studies suggested that methods such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, targeted therapies, and postoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve survival. This paper reviews recent evidence-base medicine supported options for the treatment of DSRCT.

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    Latest advances in the role of cell division cycle 42 in tumor occurrence, development, and treatment
    ZHANG Yu, YANG De-jun, YAN Rong-lin
    2016, 36 (05):  752. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.027

    Abstract ( 816 )   PDF (637KB) ( 705 )  

    Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) is one of ubiquitously expressed guanosine triphosphate enzymes (GTPases), which are also known as Rho GTPases due to their GTPase activity. Cdc42 can regulate morphologic changes of the cytoskeleton and membrane transport function involving in physiological processes such as growth, proliferation, motility, and polarity of cells. Cdc42 is highly expressed in a variety of malignancies and is closely associated with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis, which suggest Cdc42 may be a potential target for the treatment of tumors. This paper reviews Cdc42 with respect to its structure, functions, up-stream and down-stream effectors, as well as its role in tumor invasion and metastasis.

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    Progress of extracorporeal life support system in  treatment of critical patients
    XU Tian-xiang, WANG Xiao-xia, JI Wu
    2016, 36 (05):  757. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.028

    Abstract ( 1272 )   PDF (621KB) ( 810 )  

    With the development of cardiopulmonary support system, continuous renal replacement therapy, and artificial liver support system, the roles of extracorporeal life support in treating patients in the perioperative period or critical patients are attracting more and more attention. The miniaturization of machines and technology innovations make life support systems run from operating rooms to the bedside and become portable and mobile. With the help of life support systems, it is possible for pre-hospital critical patients to be transported or transferred. This paper reviews applications and prospects of extracorporeal life support systems for the treatment of critical patients.

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    Research progresses in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetic gastroparesis
    FENG Ri-lu, MA Jing
    2016, 36 (05):  761. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.029

    Abstract ( 778 )   PDF (854KB) ( 807 )  

    Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is characterized by delayed gastric emptying in patients with prolonged type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, bloating, and epigastric pain. Gastroparesis results in malnutrition, impaired drug absorption, and disordered glycaemic control and affects the quality of life. The clinical management of diabetic gastroparesis is not ideal due to unclear pathogenesis and the ignorance of changes in gastric motility. It has been recognized that autonomic neuropathy and hyperglyaemia are main contributors to the gastrointestinal dysfunction in diabetic patients. Therefore, current treatments mainly relieve gastrointestinal symptoms and control the blood sugar. Combining with progresses of intestinal motility research in recent years, this paper reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetic gastroparesis.

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    Research progresses in circulating microRNAs as novel biomarkers for endometrial cancer
    YANG Bing-qing, TENG Yin-cheng
    2016, 36 (05):  767. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.030

    Abstract ( 680 )   PDF (760KB) ( 785 )  

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a category of endogenous, non-coding small molecule-RNA and play a vital role in regulating gene expression by either inhibiting the translation of target genes or causing the degradation of mRNAs. Numerous studies have found that miRNAs can be released into circular peripheral blood from tumor cells and tissues and form the circulating miRNAs with high stability and high specificity, thus serving as biomarkers for the occurrence and progression of tumors. The circulating miRNA expressions in patients with endometrial cancer are different from those of healthy people and change specifically with the progression of tumors. Therefore, as novel biomarkers, circulating miRNAs have broad application prospects for the early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of endometrial cancer.

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    Effects of angiotensin Ⅱ type-2 receptor on inflammatory reactions in cardiovascular diseases
    DU Ming-jun, LIAN Feng, XUE Song
    2016, 36 (05):  772. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.031

    Abstract ( 800 )   PDF (582KB) ( 781 )  

    Most cardiovascular diseases are associated with chronic inflammatory reactions. The rennin angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in occurrence and development of the cardiovascular inflammation. The inflammatory effect of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang II) is mainly achieved via the AngⅡ type-1 (AT1) receptor. However, Ang Ⅱ type-2 (AT2) receptor is less well understood as compared with AT1 receptor. Recent studies have found that AT2 receptor also participates in the inflammatory reaction process of many cardiovascular diseases. Stimulated AT2 receptor can inhibit the development of inflammation at different levels. This paper reviews mechanism of the involvement of AT2 receptor in regulating inflammatory reactions of cardiovascular system.

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    Research progresses of mechanisms for the regulation of tumor cell multi-drug resistance by miRNA
    ZHANG Ping-chen, SHENG Xiao-nan, LIN Zheng-yu, CHENG Yu-long, XU Wei-rong
    2016, 36 (05):  776. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.032

    Abstract ( 706 )   PDF (746KB) ( 824 )  

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a vital regulator for gene expression in eukaryotes, as well as an important component in the regulatory mechanism of tumor drug resistance. miRNA can abnormally regulate target genes through membrane receptor-mediated drug efflux, alteration of drug targets, block of cell apoptotic pathways, and change in DNA repair ability, etc., thus involving in the regulatory mechanism of multi-drug resistance. Important research advances in the regulation of growth and differentiation of cancer stem cells and the induction of multi-drug resistance via triggering the protective autophage by miRNA have been achieved. This paper reviews recent research progresses of mechanisms for the regulation of tumor cell multi-drug resistance by miRNAs.

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    Effects of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein Livin in tumors and research progresses of the application of Livin to the diagnosis and treatment of tumors
    MA Da-hua, HUANG Kai, JIANG Meng-di, XU Fei-fei, GUAN Yi-bei, CHENG Feng
    2016, 36 (05):  782. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.05.033

    Abstract ( 681 )   PDF (612KB) ( 729 )  

    Abnormal apoptosis is one of causes leading to the transformation of normal cells towards cancer cells. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), a group of endogenous cytokines which inhibit apoptosis, play a vital role in the occurrence and development of cancer. Livin is a new member of IAPs family and significantly promotes the growth, metastasis, and invasion of tumors. It is also a key factor for regulating the sensitivity of tumors towards chemotherapeutic agents. Therefor Livin can serve as an important molecular marker and a potential therapeutic target for tumors. This paper reviews research progresses of the expression and acting mechanisms of Livin in tumors in digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems and application of Livin to the diagnosis and treatment of tumors.

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