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    Expert forum
    Molecular mechanism for telomere-binding proteins in regulating mammalian spermatogenesis
    HUANG Chen-hui, LEI Ming
    2018, 38 (3):  241. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.001

    Abstract ( 745 )   PDF (4674KB) ( 897 )  
    Telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope and telomere-led chromosomal movement allow proper homologous pairing in mammalian
    meiotic prophase I. However, the molecular mechanisms for telomere meiosis-specific functions remain to be elucidated. The present review introduced
    the structure basis for telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope, and revealed a new mechanism by which telomere functions in mammalian
    spermatogenesis.
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    Original article (Basic research)
    Antibacterial effect of Nd: YAG laser on Fusobacterium nucleatum
    WU Yi-fan, SONG Zhong-chen, SHU Rong
    2018, 38 (3):  259. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.004

    Abstract ( 747 )   PDF (7335KB) ( 701 )  
    Objective · To investigate the antibacterial effect of Nd: YAG laser on Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) in vitro. Methods · The
    laser effect on the biofilm formation ability of planktonic F. nucleatum were observed by crystal violet test; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)
    was used to detect the effect on the bacteria viability of mature biofilm; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to investigate the effect on
    the morphology of mature bioflm. Results · After 15 s radiation the biofilm formation ability of F. nucleatum went down. The viability of F. nucleatum
    in mature biofilm went down under 35 s iradiation. The deformation of mature biofilm and bacterium became distincted with the iradiation time raised.
    Conclusion · Nd: YAG laser shows the inhibition of biofilm formation ability on planktonic F. nucleatum. The vitality of F. nucleatum in mature biofilm is
    depressed after laser radiation. Laser can destroy the construction of the mature biofilm and bacteria.
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    Effect of GP130 small molecular inhibitor SC144 on renal interstitial fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction
    GONG Ying-liang*, DONG Yu*, LI Yu-feng, ZHU Ya-ju, JIN Jing, WEI Min-jiang
    2018, 38 (3):  265. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.005

    Abstract ( 581 )   PDF (8015KB) ( 674 )  
    Objective · To investigate the effect of glycoprotein 130 (GP130) inhibitor SC144 on extracellular matrix accumulation and JAK2/STAT3
    signaling pathway in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model, and explore its mechanism. Methods · Eighteen female BALB/c mice were
    randomly divided into 3 groups i.e. sham group, UUO group and SC144 group. All mice were sacrificed at day 14 and kidneys were harvested for
    further analysis. The changes of renal tissue morphology and pathology were observed by H-E and Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle
    actin (α-SMA) and infiltration of macrophage cells were assayed by immunohistochemical staining. The levels of collagen-I, collagen-IV, monocyte
    chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA were analyzed by real-time PCR. The activation of JAK2 and STAT3
    was measured by Western blotting. Results · There was a trend toward decreased renal tubular lesion and renal interstitial fibrosis in SC144 group (H-E,
    P=0.052; Masson, P=0.063). SC144 significantly inhibited the levels of α-SMA, type I/type IV collagen and TGF-β mRNA (all P<0.05). Compared with
    UUO group, the phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 were significantly decreased in SC144 group (both P<0.05). Conclusion · The treatment
    of UUO mouse model with SC144 can inhibit the activation of α-SMA, attenuate the phosphorylation of STAT3, reduce extracellular matrix protein
    deposition following injury and renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, indicating its potential in
    attenuating interstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy.
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    Effect of Danshen injection on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 in rats with spinal cord injury
    LIU Yang, GAO Yu-ting, MIAO Yu-chuan
    2018, 38 (3):  272. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.006

    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (6052KB) ( 912 )  
    Objective · To explore the mechanism of Danshen injection on promoting spinal cord functional recovery by observing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods · Thirty SD rats were divided randomly into normal control group, model group and treatment group (n=10). The rats in model group and treatment group were subjected to weight-drop SCI according to the Allens' method, and administered normal saline and Danshen injection, at the dosage of 1 mL/kg once a day , by intraperitoneal injection respectively for 14 days. The combine behavioral score (CBS) of rats in all groups was detected on 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after SCI, the expression of BDNF and IGF-1 in all groups was detected with immunohistochemical method and Western blotting. Results · Compared with the normal control group, the CBS in model group and treatment group was elevated after SCI, and declined gradually with the lapse of injury time in different rates. Until 14 days after SCI, compared with the model group, the CBS in treatment group was lower (P=0.000), and the expression levels of BDNF and IGF-1 (including immunohistochemistry positive cell number and relative content) in treatment group were both elevated significantly (all P<0.05). Conclusion · Danshen injection can promote the recovery of nerve function by elevating the expression of BDNF and IGF-1 after SCI.
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    Therapeutic effect of gastrin on steroid-associated osteonecrosis in rats
    LUO Ya-ping1,LI Ying-ying2,HU Chun-ting2,WANG Jing-long2,FU Guo-hui1, 2, CHEN Shi-hui2
    2018, 38 (3):  276. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.007

    Abstract ( 565 )   PDF (6036KB) ( 903 )  
    Objective · To investigate therapeutic effect of gastrin on steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) in rat model. Methods · Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups i.e. normal control group (normal group), SAON control group (SAON group) and SAON treatment group (treatment group). SAON group and treatment group were intravenously injected with lipopolysaccharide 1 time per day (600 μg/kg) for 2 d and meanwhile intramuscularly injected with methylprednisolone 1 time per day (50 mg/kg) for 3 d. Normal group was injected with normal saline of the same volumns. After steroid injections, treatment group was injected with gastrin 1 time per day (800 μg/kg) for 14 d, while SAON group was injected with normal saline of the same volumns. After the treatment, bone trabeculas below femoral head growth plate were dissected in the rats for bone histology. Hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) staining, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining and Goldner's trichrome staining were applied in this study. Results · SAON model in rats was successfully established. The result of H-E staining showed that compared with SAON group, thrombus area, number and area of fat cells in the bone marrows of treatment group obviously decreased (all P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that osteogenic transcription factor (Sp7) positive cells in treatment group were more than those in SAON group (P<0.01). Compared with SAON group, osteoid length and area (Goldner′s trichrome staining), and bone formation rate and bone mineralization deposition rate (fluorescence staining) all significantly increased in treatment group (all P<0.01). Conclusion · Gastrin can effectively treat SAON in rats by suppressing thrombus and lipid formation and enhancing boneformation.
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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Analysis of clinical features and prognostic factors of desmoplastic small round cell tumor
    ZHU Rong-xuan1,WANG Jian2,ZHU Li-fei1,WANG Hong-xia1
    2018, 38 (3):  281. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.008

    Abstract ( 1322 )   PDF (8719KB) ( 833 )  
    Objective · To analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT). Methods · Clinical datum of 140 patients with DSRCT published from Nov. 2003 to Jul. 2012 were collected and studied retrospectively by searching Medline and Embase databases. The observation indicators were progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups using a log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox model to determine the prognostic factors. Results · Patient median age was (23.2±12.7) years (range 4-74 years, the ratio of male and female was 3.12:1). Frequent symptoms were abdominal pain (35.7%) and evidence of a palpable mass (20.0%). 106 cases tumors were in the abdominal or pelvic cavity, the remaining were extra-abdominal tumors. The frequency of patients receiving conventional chemotherapy, cytoreductive surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy or first-line chemotherapy was 76.4%, 52.1%, 17.1%, 47.9% and 38.6%, respectively. Some patients received adjuvant radiotherapy (17.1%), hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (4.1%) and bone marrow transplantation (7.3%). By univariate analysis, male gender, absence of metastasis, effective cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy and multimodal therapy were significant prognostic factors for prolonged OS (all P<0.05). Primary tumor site, extraabdominal tumors, absence of metastasis and effective cytoreductive surgery were associated with improved PFS (all P<0.05). Cox regression analysis showed effective cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion · Multimodal therapeutics that clear tumors by surgery, adjuvant therapy are favorable prognostic factors for improved survival level in DSRCT patients.
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    Three-dimensional study on symmetry of the first molar and its peripheric alveolar bone in skeletal class Ⅲ patients with mandibular deviation
    YU Jin-feng, HU Yun, HUANG Ming-na, CHEN Jun, MING Ye, ZHENG Lei-lei
    2018, 38 (3):  288. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.009

    Abstract ( 761 )   PDF (8851KB) ( 746 )  
    Objective · To compare the difference of the first molar and alveolar morphology between the deviated side and non-deviated side in skeletal class Ⅲ patients with mandibular deviation by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image combined with three-dimensional reconstruction measurement technology. Methods · Fifty-six asymmetric CBCT data were evaluated by Mimics 10.0 and 3-Matic software. Some measures were analyzed by t-test including the buccolingual angle, the mesiodistal angle, crown root ratio of first molar and the thickness of alveolar or cancellous bone. Results · The buccolingual angle and crown root ratio of mandibular first molar were significantly larger on the deviated side than on the non-deviated side (P=0.021, P=0.004). Compared with the non-deviated side, the buccal and total cancellous bone thickness of mandibular first molar were significantly smaller on the deviated side (P=0.043, P=0.048). There was no significant difference in the ratio of buccal and total cancellous bone thickness on mandibular first molar (both P=0.118). The measurements of maxillary first molar and maxillary alveolar bone morphology were not significantly different between two sides (all P>0.05). Conclusion · In skeletal class Ⅲ patients with mandibular deviation, although the buccolingual compensation of first molar is found, the position of first molar in the alveolar bone is symmetrical. The asymmetry of alveolar bone morphology are mainly manifested in the reduction of the buccal and total cancellous bone thickness on the mandibular deviated side.
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    Expressions of HPV16/18 E6 protein and its clinical, predictive value of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
    GAO Hua1,WANG Yun-fei2,WANG Wen-jing1,ZHANG Mei-ying1,LI Qing1,LIU Yi-xuan1,DI Wen1
    2018, 38 (3):  294. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.010

    Abstract ( 581 )   PDF (7568KB) ( 784 )  
    Objective · To investigate the clinical significance and predictive value of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 E6 protein in the different cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods · The expression of HPV16/18 E6 in 10 normal cervical tissues, 33 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Ⅰ(CIN Ⅰ), 31 CIN Ⅱ- Ⅲ , 30 cervical cancers was detected by immunohistochemistry, explored the expression difference and the relationship with the clinicopathological characteristics of cervical cancer and the prognosis of different CIN. Results · The positive expression rates of HPV16/18 E6 in normal cervical tissues, CIN Ⅰ, CIN Ⅱ-Ⅲ and cervical cancer group were up-regulated (χ 2 =19.82, P=0.000). HPV16/18 E6 increased positive expression rates in the low grade and the big size tumors of cervical cancer tissues were detected (P=0.033, P=0.011). There were positive correlations between the overexpression and the pathological grade, tumor size, poor prognosis of cervical cancers respectively (r=0.456, P=0.011; r=0.578, P=0.000; r=0.645, P=0.000). The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy rates of HPV16/18 E6 positive expression to the progression of CIN Ⅰ, CIN Ⅱ-Ⅲ and cervical cancer were respectively 100.00%, 62.50%, 43.75%; 96.77%, 91.30%, 92.86%; 96.97%, 83.87%, 66.67%. Conclusion · HPV16/18 E6 overexpression plays an important role in the generation, development and the poor prognosis of cervical cancer. HPV16/18 E6 has a good predictive value for the prognosis and hierarchical management of cervical diseases.
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    Influence of high glucose on PRKAA1 expression and proliferation of trophoblast cells
    PENG Hai-yan, LI Hua-ping
    2018, 38 (3):  299. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.011

    Abstract ( 594 )   PDF (7198KB) ( 779 )  
    Objective · To explore the expression level of protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit α1 (PRKAA1) in placental tissues of gestational
    diabetes mellitus (GDM) women, and the influence of high glucose (HG) on PRKAA1 expression and proliferation viability of trophoblast cells in vitro.
    Methods · The placental samples of GDM women (n=19) and normal pregnant women (n=20) of the corresponding period were collected. Real-time
    qPCR and Western blotting assay were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of PRKAA1 in these biopsies, respectively. Trophoblast cells were
    treated by HG in vitro and then expression level of PRKAA1 was tested. CCK8 assay was used to detect proliferation viability of the cells treated by
    HG medium or inhibitor of PRKAA1, dorsomorphin. Results · Comparing to normal pregnant women, both mRNA and protein levels of PRKAA1 in
    placental tissues of GDM women significantly decreased (both P<0.05). HG treatment drastically downregulated expression of PRKAA1 in trophoblast
    cells in vitro (P<0.05). Both HG medium and dorsomorphin suppressed proliferation viability of trophoblast cells (both P<0.05). Conclusion · Expression
    level of PRKAA1 is dampened in placental tissues of GDM women. HG suppresses proliferation viability of trophoblast cells probably via downregulating
    PRKAA1 level in vitro.
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    Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression in skeletal muscle of end-stage renal disease patients
    XU Chen-qi1*,MIN Lu-lin1*,CHEN Xiao-huan3,LU Ren-hua1,ZHU Ming-li1,XIE Ke-wei1,QIAN Ying-ying1,GUO Xiang-jiang2,NI Zhao-hui1,AYIJIAKEN Kasimumali3#, GU Le-yi1#
    2018, 38 (3):  305. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.012

    Abstract ( 640 )   PDF (6673KB) ( 798 )  
    Objective · To explore the changes of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) expression in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients' skeletal muscles. Methods · Skeletal muscle samples were collected from non-chronic kidney disease (nonCKD) patients and ESRD patients. PDH activity was detected by ELISA assay. Real-time qPCR was performed to examine gene transcription levels of PDK1-PDK4 and PDH subunits. Western blotting analysis was used to detect protein expression levels of PDK1 and PDK4. Results · There were no demographic differences between two groups of patients. Plasma creatinine and urea nitrogen were significantly elevated in ESRD group (both P<0.05), while estimated glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin and plasma albumin in ESRD group were significantly lower than those in non-CKD group (all P<0.05). Skeletal muscle PDH activity in ESRD group was markedly lower than that in non-CKD group (P=0.014). There were no differences in PDK1- PDK4 and PDH subunits mRNA transcription levels between ESRD and non-CKD group. PDK4 protein expression was significantly higher than that in non-CKD group (P=0.000). Conclusion · The decreased PDH activity in ESRD patients' skeletal muscle may be related to up-regulation of PDK4.
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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Effect of social cognition and interactive training on rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients in community
    JIANG Ya-qin1, 2, WANG Zuo-wei2,JIE Yong2,YI Zheng-hui1#, WANG Ji-jun1#
    2018, 38 (3):  310. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.013

    Abstract ( 578 )   PDF (8438KB) ( 785 )  
     Objective · To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of social cognitive and interactive training (SCIT) in rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients, and propose to establish a new mode of community rehabilitation. Methods · A total of 60 patients with schizophrenia managed in the community in Shanghai Hongkou District were divided into control group and intervention group with 30 cases in each group. The control group was treated with conventional community management. The intervention group accepted SCIT courses at the base of conventional community management. Before and after the intervention, all patients completed the related scales for schizophrenia. Scale scores were analyzed with analysis of variance by SPSS 22.0 to explore the rehabilitation effect of training. Results · In intervention group, the time used in the face emotion identification task (FEIT) had no significant difference with the control group, but the correct rate for FEIT increased significantly. In intervention group, ambiguous intentions hostility questionnaire-ambiguous items (AIHQ-A) scores were significantly lower. The total and sub scale scores of positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and scale for assessment of negative symptoms (SANS), Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia (CDSS) scores were significantly decreased in intervention group. Otherwise, Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) scores also decreased. Personal and social performance scale (PSP) scores in the SCIT group were increased after training. Finally, according to the training participation and the feedback of the patients, the training had a higher degree of acceptance and positive affirmation. Conclusion · SCIT can improve the social cognition and social function of schizophrenic patients in the community, also improve the mental symptoms, especially the negative symptoms and depressive symptoms, and has high feasibility and acceptability, so it can be promoted in community-based rehabilitation.
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    Information communication between suicide attempters and their family caregivers and care ability of the family caregivers
    ZHENG Yue1,XU Ye-qing1,WANG Jian-yu1,FENG Qi-ming2,HONG Jiang3,WANG Rui-lan4,ZHANG Hai-yin1
    2018, 38 (3):  316. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.014

    Abstract ( 524 )   PDF (9376KB) ( 796 )  
    Objective · To investigate the information requirements of suicide attempters and their family caregivers, as well as the ability of family caregivers to take care of them. Methods · A total of 148 suspected suicide attempters from Department of Emergency of three hospitals in Shanghai and their family caregivers were enrolled in this study. Each group combined with one patient and one family caregiver. The patients and their family caregivers were interviewed by suicide module of the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview, homemade general information questionnaire, family caregiver task inventory, family adaptability and cohesion scale and information needs willingness questionnaire. Results · There were 84 cases (56.8%) of suicide attempters and 64 cases (43.2%) of non-suicide attempters according to the survey. Linear regression analysis showed that the family's ability of taking care of the patients is positively correlated with family intimacy and negatively correlated with the impact of such illness on the family (P=0.000, P=0.008). The scores of patients' information requirement about the status of disease, the treatment-related information, the way to obtain medical information, the cure probability, precautions after treatment, and self-care ability or support from family caregivers were higher than the expectation scores from their family caregivers. Equally, the scores of information requirement from the patients' family caregivers about above-mentioned information were also higher than the expectation scores from patients. Conclusion · The family care ability is related to the influence of the patients on the life of the family caregivers and family intimacy. For the patients and their family caregivers, there is a great demand for information about disease status and treatment situation, the way of seeking help, care information and so on. More information support and psychological assistance should be provided to suicide attempters and their family caregivers.
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    Analysis on influencing factors for cost of hospital delivery in Shanghai
    XIAO Yu-yin1, 2, LI Guo-hong1, 2, ZHANG Jun1, 3
    2018, 38 (3):  323. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.015

    Abstract ( 568 )   PDF (7168KB) ( 768 )  
    Objective · To analyse the composition of hospitalization childbirth costs and its influencing factors, which provides theory basis on reasonable control of rapid growth of hospitalization childbirth costs. Methods · With the method of stratified random sampling, 12 secondary and tertiary hospitals were chosen in Shanghai. According to the hospitalization number, the maternal disease cases delivering from Jan. 1, 2016 to Jun. 30, 2016 were randomly selected. The basic information and the cost of hospitalization were collected, and the database was established. Descriptive statistics, z test, non-parametric test and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis were performed by SPSS 20.0. Results · The cost of hospital delivery per capita in Shanghai from Jan. to Jun. 2016 was 7 826.39 yuan, of which the cost of bed, inspection, operation and western medicine accounted for the highest proportion of the expenses (17%, 16%, 15% and 15%, respectively). Maternal hospitalization cost univariate analysis showed that the effect of age, occupation, payment, pregnancy complications, modes of delivery, length of stay, prenatal and postnatal pathological condition on hospitalization cost were statistically significant. A multifactorial study on the cost of hospitalization showed that the delivery mode, length of stay, prenatal and postnatal pathological pathological condition, age and pregnancy complications were the main influencing factors. Conclusion · The hospitalization cost of cesarean section is significantly higher than that of vaginal delivery, the hospital cost structure of these two modes of delivery is different, and the reduction of cesarean section rate is of great significance. It is necessary to optimize the hospital cost structure via controlling the cost of western medicine, operation, and inspection.
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    Review
    Research advances in the role of inflammatory factors in polycystic ovary syndrome
    LIU Lan-xin1,ZHOU Cheng-liang2,YANG Qian1,HUANG He-feng1, 2
    2018, 38 (3):  328. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.016

    Abstract ( 804 )   PDF (7653KB) ( 805 )  
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of childbearing age, which features oligo- or
    anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and the related clinical signs, such as acne and hirsutism. At present, PCOS patients are considered
    to be in a long-time condition of chronic inflammation. It is reported that increased expression of inflammatory factors and/or increased levels of
    inflammation exist in peripheral blood, granulosa cells, follicular fluid, ovarian stroma, adipocytes and endometrial cells in patients with PCOS. Studies
    on the role of inflammatory factors in the pathogenesis of PCOS suggest that inflammatory factors may have an influence on the clinical outcome through
    affecting follicular development, androgen levels and so on.
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    Advances in application of rituximab in treatment of primary glomerulonephritis
    YANG Xiao-qian1,XIE Jing-yuan1, 2, MOU Shan2, 3
    2018, 38 (3):  333. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.017

    Abstract ( 794 )   PDF (10505KB) ( 705 )  
     Primary glomerulonephritis (PGN) remains the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in our country. The histologic entity of PGN mainly includes immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), minimal change disease (MCD), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). The pathogenesis of PGN is correlated with renal immune complex deposition, podocyte injury, infection and abnormal regulation of complement system. Nowadays PGN is short of specific treatments, the main therapeutic methods of PGN consists of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor, corticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs, lipid-lowering agents, anticoagulant therapy and antiplatelet adhesion. Patients who are drug-resistant or intolerance of the side effects will have a poor prognosis. Rituximab (RTX) is a chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody. The binding of RTX to CD20 on the cell membrane of B lymphocytes leads to significant depletion of peripheral B lymphocytes, which plays an immunosuppressive role. Rituximab is originally approved for the treatment of lymphoma, after that there was growing evidence showed RTX was effective in part of immunological diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and anitneutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis. As a result, whether RTX will act as an effective treatment modality in PGN has aroused extensive attention. In recently years, clinical researches concerning RTX used for the treatment of PGN have been published in succession. This paper reviewed clinical studies focused on the use of rituximab in the treatment of IMN, MCD, FSGS and IgAN.
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    Clinical advances in monoclonal antibody against PCSK9 for coronary atherosclerotic heart disease
    LUO Cong-cong1,BAO Chun-rong2,HE Bin1
    2018, 38 (3):  339. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.018

    Abstract ( 664 )   PDF (6378KB) ( 791 )  
    Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with elevated low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels as a major risk factor. Lower levels of LDL-C can effectively reduce the risk of CHD. To date, lipid-lowering medicines such as statins are effective in lowering LDL-C, but a proportion of patients do not achieve lipid reduction target with statins or are intolerant to statins. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are a new class of agents reducing LDL-C which gain more and more concerns. Through inhibitory effect on PCSK9 and increasing low-density lipoprotein receptors recycling, they can significantly reduce serum LDL-C levels. PCSK9 inhibitors are currently in phase Ⅲ of clinical trials, and the results showed that they had good lipid-lowering effects and tolerability. This review provided an overview of the latest advances and challenges about PCSK9 inhibitors.
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    Application in diagnosis and treatment of circulating tumor cell detection in lung cancer#br#
    ZHANG Li-yan, TAN Xiao-ming
    2018, 38 (3):  343. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.019

    Abstract ( 588 )   PDF (7673KB) ( 750 )  
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that fall off from the primary tumor and enter into the blood circulation system. CTCs detection will contribute to diagnosing tumor in its early stage, monitoring the relapse and metastasis, evaluating the prognosis. In this review, the recent progress and the application in diagnosis and treatment of CTCs detection methods in lung cancer were summarized
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    Role of SUMO-specific proteases in tumor biological behavior
    MIAO Hui-xian1,LIU Zi-hao1,LI Wei-ya1,HUANG Da1,LI Wen-bo1,ZUO Yong2
    2018, 38 (3):  348. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.020

    Abstract ( 651 )   PDF (8430KB) ( 897 )  
    SUMOylation is a dynamically reversible process that needs to be modified by a specific ligase, while its inverse reaction deSUMOylation is catalyzed by a group of SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs). SUMO-modified target protein molecules are closely related to development and disease, especially tumor, metabolism, inflammation and immunity. SENPs play an important role in SUMO protein maturation and deSUMOylation. This review discussed the functions of SENPs in the development and progression of tumors and related mechanisms.
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    Photochemical internalization and its application in gene delivery
    LU Xue-min1,LIU Li1#, XU Hong2#, ZHANG Lin-na2
    2018, 38 (3):  353. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.021

    Abstract ( 780 )   PDF (7073KB) ( 825 )  
    The translation of gene therapy from bench to bedside depends on efficient intracellular gene delivery. The macromolecular biologics such as gene combined with vectors tend to enter into the cells by means of endocytosis, where the biologics may encounter the risk of degradation in endolysosome. Recently, photochemical internalization (PCI) has emerged as a promising technique to overcome endo-lysosomal sequestration, which utilizes photosensitizer and light resulting in reactive oxygen species at sub-lethal level to destruct biofilm and facilitate intracellular drug delivery. In this article, the mechanism of PCI technology and its development for gene delivery were reviewed, which can provide the scientific basis for the possible utilization of PCI to solve the problem of endo-lysosomal escape in gene delivery.
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     Platinum compounds are crucial chemotherapy drugs for children with solid tumor, and the ototoxicity is one of the dose-limiting toxicities. Platinum-induced hearing loss is detrimental to language learning and social development especially for children. Several clinical trials of drugs against platinum-based ototoxicity have been carried out, the results prompted that sodium thiosulfate, amifostine and N-acetylcysteine potentially reduce the occurrence risk of hearing loss. Without affecting the therapeutic effect, preventive use of antagonists on platinum-based ototoxicity will improve the life quality and treatment compliance of pediatric patients with tumor.Progress on prophylactic medicine against platinum-based ototoxicity in children with solid tumor.
    WEI Meng, YUAN Xiao-jun
    2018, 38 (3):  357. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2018.03.022

    Abstract ( 691 )   PDF (6854KB) ( 895 )  
    Platinum compounds are crucial chemotherapy drugs for children with solid tumor, and the ototoxicity is one of the dose-limiting toxicities. Platinum-induced hearing loss is detrimental to language learning and social development especially for children. Several clinical trials of drugs against platinum-based ototoxicity have been carried out, the results prompted that sodium thiosulfate, amifostine and N-acetylcysteine potentially reduce the occurrence risk of hearing loss. Without affecting the therapeutic effect, preventive use of antagonists on platinum-based ototoxicity will improve the life quality and treatment compliance of pediatric patients with tumor.
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