Cerebral structural abnormalities and cognitive function in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis
2020, 40 (07):
Objective · To explore the patterns of cerebral structural abnormalities and cognitive function alterations in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, and the underlying correlative factors. Methods · Thirty-seven ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis without prior stroke in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were selected. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and assessment of cognitive function by using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients were divided into lacunar infarction group (n=33) and non-lacunar infarction group (n=4), or white matter hyperintensities (WMH) group (n=14) and non-WMH group (n=23). The difference of demographic characteristics, past history, blood parameter and dialysis adequacy between patients and their controls were analyzed by t test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test and Fisher exact test. Spearman correlation analysis were performed to explore the relationship between clinical features, cerebral structural abnormalities and cognitive function. Results · Nineteen male and eighteen female patients participated in the study. The mean age was (59.4±12.3) years. The incidences of lacunar infarction and WMH were 89.2% and 37.8%, respectively. 24.3% of the participants were diagnosed as cognitive impairment. Patients with lacunar infarction were elder, who had lower level of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum albumin and serum total protein, while parathyroid hormone (PTH), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were elevated. Patients with WMH were also significantly elder, lower in transferrin saturation and higher in PTH. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Spearman correlation analysis showed MMSE score had a negative correlation with age (r=?0.471, P=0.003) and had positive correlations with education status (r=0.355, P=0.031) and hypertension (r=0.358, P=0.030). The study did not find the relationship among lacunar infarction, WMH and MMSE score; however, recall function was found negatively correlated with lacunar infarction (r=?0.357, P=0.030). Conclusion · ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis have a high prevalence of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Older age, anemia, inflammation status, chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder may be the influencing factors of the cerebral structural abnormalities and cognition decline.
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