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    Original article (Basic research)
    Study on invasiveness of leptospires to endothelial monolayers
    DENG Cong, ZENG Ling-bing, ZHANG Yan, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  527. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.001

    Abstract ( 1685 )   PDF (8073KB) ( 1472 )  

    Objective To investigate the invasive ability of leptospires with different virulence to endothelial monolayers and the changes in permeability of endothelial monolayers. Methods Intact endothelial monolayer models were constructed with EAhy926 cells and Transwell chamber, and were infected by Leptospira virulent 56606v strains, attenuated 56606a strains, saprophytic Patoc I strains, Salmonella 14028 strains and E.coli DH5α strains, respectively. The numbers of bacteria translocated into the lower Transwell chamber were counted by dark field microscopy after infection for 2 h, 4 h and 8 h, and the permeability of endothelial monolayers to fluorescent particles were detected. 56606v strains and 56606a strains were used to infect EAhy926 cells for 24 h, and apoptosis rates were detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V and PI staining. The morphology of the leptospires penetrating the endothelial monolayers were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results Two hours after infection, 56606v strains and 14028 strains began to appear in the lower chamber, and 56606a strains and Patoc I strains were not observed until 4 h after infection. The number of strains in the lower chamber increased with time, and the number of 56606v strains in the lower chamber was much larger than those of 56606a strains and Patoc I strains 8 h after infection (P<0.05). Leptospires with different virulence did not cause significant changes in permeability of endothelial monolayers. No apoptosis was detected in endothelial cells infected by 56606v strains or 56606a strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the leptospires mainly penetrated the cytoplasm of endothelial monolayers instead of the intercellular tight junctions. Conclusion The invasive ability of virulent leptospires is much stronger than both attenuated and saprophytic leptospires. There are no changes in permeability and apoptosis of endothelial monolayers infected by leptospires with different virulence.

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    Effects of high glucose and methylglyoxal on expression of angiopoietin 2 in cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells
    XU Ya-hong, FANG Wei, YUAN Jiang-zi, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  533. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.002

    Abstract ( 2128 )   PDF (5576KB) ( 1824 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of high glucose on expression of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and tyrosine kinase receptor (Tie2) in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs)cultured in vitro, and explore the possible mechanism of peritoneal angiogenesis in patients with peritoneal dialysis. Methods HUVECs cultured in vitro were treated with 4.25% glucose (high glucose group), 4.25% mannitol (mannitol group) and 800 μmol/L methylglyoxal (MGO) (MGO group), and blank control group was establishment. D(490 nm) was measured by MTT assay to compared the cell proliferation of HUVECs after incubation for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h in each group. The expression of Ang2 and Tie2 mRNA in HUVECs, the secretory volume of Ang2 in supernatant of cell culture and the expression of Tie2 protein in HUVECs were detected by RealTime PCR, ELISA and Western blotting respectively in each group. Results D(490 nm) of HUVECs in high glucose group, mannitol group and MGO group were significantly higher than that in blank control group after treatment for 12 h (P<0.05), and D(490 nm) of HUVECs in high glucose group, mannitol group and MGO group were significantly lower than that in blank control group after treatment for 24 h (P<0.05). The expression of Ang2 mRNA in HUVECs in high glucose group, mannitol group and MGO group was significantly higher than that in blank control group (P<0.05), the secretory volumes of Ang2 in supernatant of cell culture in high glucose group and mannitol group were significantly higher than that in blank control group (P<0.05), and the secretory volume of Ang2 in supernatant of cell culture in MGO group was significantly lower than that in blank control group (P<0.05). The expression of Tie2 mRNA and protein in HUVECs in high glucose group, mannitol group and MGO group was significantly lower than that in blank control group (P<0.05). Conclusion High glucose may promote angiogenesis in peritoneum through stimulating the endothelial cell proliferation and regulating the expression of Ang2.

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    Effects of human amelogenin gene transduction on proliferation and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase of human bone marrow stromal cells
    HU Jing-chao, SHU Rong, SONG Zhong-chen, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  538. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.003

    Abstract ( 1808 )   PDF (7068KB) ( 1393 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of lentivirus-mediated human amelogenin (hAm) gene transduction on proliferation and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). Methods RT-PCR was adopted to obtain hAm encoding gene, and recombinant lentivirus vector plasmid FUAmW was constructed by connection of amplified products with lentivirus vector plasmid (FUGW) carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP). Recombinant lentivirus was prepared from 293T cells by polyethylenimine(PEI)-mediated transient cotransfection, and hBMSCs were infected with generated lentivirus (target gene transduction group). hBMSCs with FUGW infection and those without virus infection were served as control gene transduction group and blank control group, respectively. The infection efficiency of lentivirus was analysed by flow cytometry, and the expression of hAm in cells was detected by RTPCR. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT colorimetric assay. ALP staining was observed with inverted phase contrast microscopy 7 d after lentivirus infection. The expression of ALP mRNA in hBMSCs was detected by RT-PCR 4 d, 7 d and 10 d after infection. Results In target gene transduction group, the infection efficiency of FUAmW was 40.29%, 540 bp strap of target gene was detected by RT-PCR, and cell proliferation was significantly higher than that in control gene transduction group and blank control group (P<0.05). The number of cells with positive ALP staining in target gene transduction group was significantly smaller than those in control gene transduction group and blank control group 7 d after lentivirus infection, and the expression of ALP mRNA in target gene transduction group was significantly lower than that in control gene transduction group and blank control group 4 d, 7 d and 10 d after infection. Conclusion Lentivirusmediated transduction with Am gene may enhance the proliferation of hBMSCs, while reduce the expression of ALP mRNA in cells.

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    Role of advanced glycation end products on expression of Nampt in macrophages
    JIAN Wei-xia, LIN Ning, DONG Yan, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  543. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.004

    Abstract ( 1545 )   PDF (5071KB) ( 1603 )  

    Objective To investigate the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) in macrophages. Methods The macrophages were differentiated from human monocyte THP-1 by phorbol ester, and were treated with AGEs of 0 μg/mL (negative control group), 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, 500 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL for 12 h, followed by detection of expression of Nampt protein by Western blotting. Microphages were treated with proper concentration of AGEs determined by Western blotting, cells were collected after treatment for 0 h(negative control group), 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h, and Real-Time PCR and Western blotting were employed to detect the expression of Nampt mRNA and protein in macrophages. Results After exposure to 50 μg/mL,100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL AGEs,the expression of Nampt protein in macrophages was significantly higher than that in negative control group (P<0.01), and the expression of Nampt protein increased with the concentrations of AGEs, with that after exposure to 250 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL AGEs being higher. Macrophages in the following experiment was treated with 250 μg/mL AGEs. The expression of Nampt mRNA and protein in macrophages treated with 250 μg/mL AGEs was significantly higher than that in negative control group at each time point (P<0.01), and the expression of Nampt mRNA and protein increased with the time of exposure. Conclusion AGEs play a role in the increased expression of Nampt in macrophages, and AGEs may contribute to diabetic atherosclerosis by activating macrophages partly through Nampt pathway.

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    Expression of Twist in cervical cancer and its relationship with clinical biological behaviors
    BAO Wei, LIU Xiao-yi, XU Ying, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  547. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.005

    Abstract ( 1524 )   PDF (5602KB) ( 1530 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of transcription factor Twist in human cervical cancer (squamous cell carcinoma), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and normal cervical tissues, and explore its clinicopathological significance. Methods Samples of cervical cancer (cervical cancer group, n=61), CINⅠ(CINⅠgroup, n=22), CINⅡ-Ⅲ (CINⅡ-Ⅲ group, n=44) and normal cervical tissues (normal control group, n=22) were collected, the expression of Twist protein in cervical tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and its relationship with clinical biological behaviors of cervical cancer was analysed. Results The expression rates of Twist protein in normal control group, CIN Ⅰ group, CINⅡ-Ⅲ group and cervical cancer group were 0, 40.90%, 68.18% and 70.49%, respectively. The expression rates of Twist protein in cervical cancer group, CINⅠ group and CINⅡ-Ⅲ group were significantly higher than that in normal control group (P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the expression rates of Twist protein among cervical cancer group, CIN Ⅰ group and CINⅡ-Ⅲ group (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the expression rates of Twist protein among patients with different ages, FIGO clinical stages and lymphovascular space invasion status in cervical cancer group (P>0.05). The expression rate of Twist protein in poorly-differentiated and undifferentiated tumors (94.44%) was significantly higher than that in well-differentiated and medium-differentiated tumors (60.47%)(P<0.05), and the expression rate of Twist protein in patients with lymph node metastasis (93.75%) was significantly higher than that in those without lymph node metastasis (62.22%)(P<0.05). Conclusion There is high expression of Twist protein in cervical cancer, which may be helpful in the evaluation of differentiation and metastasis of cancer.

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    Transcription factor interactions of TGF-beta signaling pathway identified by yeast two-hybrid technique during mice liver regeneration
    XIE Chao, WANG Fang-yuan, YUAN Yun-sheng, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  551. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.006

    Abstract ( 1809 )   PDF (7139KB) ( 1311 )  

    Objective To investigate the interactions of four transcription factors of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways using yeast two-hybrid technique. Methods CCl4-induced liver injury mouse models were established, and the total RNA of liver tissues were extracted as the template for cDNA by RT-PCR. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (ID3), DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and LIM domains 2 (FHL2), which were differentially expressed detected by liver regeneration gene chip and associated with TGF-β signaling pathway, were served as candidate genes. After gene clone, vector construction and PCR and DNA sequencing, yeast two-hybrid system was used to indentify the interactions among ATF3, ID3, DDIT3 and FHL2 with auto-activation test. Results PCR and DNA sequencing indicated that ATF3, FHL2, DDIT3 and ID3 were successfully cloned, and there was no auto-activation phenomenon after auto-activation test. Seven protein interactions (ID3/ATF3, FHL2/ATF3, ATF3/ATF3, FHL2/FHL2, ID3/FHL2, ID3/ID3 and ID3/DDIT3) were identified by yeast two-hybrid technique. Conclusion Protein interactions among ATF3, FHL2 and ID3 may be one of the possible ways to regulate the TGF-β signaling pathway, and protein-protein interactions may be a key gateway to liver regeneration.

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    Effects of topical application of Duan Gu Gao on bony callus development and reconstruction after fracture in ovariectomized rats
    XU Yong, LI Fei-yue, WANG Jin-sheng, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  556. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.007

    Abstract ( 1901 )   PDF (6464KB) ( 1310 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of topical application of Duan Gu Gao on bony callus development in early stage after osteoporotic fracture. Methods Rat osteoporosis models were prepared by ovariectomy (ovariectomy group, n=45), and sham operations were performed in another 25 rats (normal control group).  Three months after operation, 5 rats were selected from each group, and model establishment was verified. The models of tibia fracture were constructed in the other 60 rats, and those in ovariectomy group were subdivided into osteoporosis control group (topical application of blank control ointment, n=20) and osteoporosis Duan Gu Gao group (topical application of San Qi Duan Gu Gao, n=20). The development of bony callus was detected by X ray, histomorphology and Micro-CT 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after fracture. Results Three months after ovariectomy, Micro-CT revealed that rats in ovariectomy group had less bone trabecula, decreased space between bone trabecula and reduced bone density, and osteoporosis models were verified. Two to four weeks after fracture, the volume of bony callus in osteoporosis control group was larger, while the bone density 3 weeks after fracture was significantly lower that that in normal control group (P<0.05). After topical application of Duan Gu Gao, the volume of bony callus was similar to that in normal control group, and the bone density 3 weeks after fracture was significantly higher than that in osteoporosis control group (P<0.05). Histological observations indicated that the process from chondral callus to osseous callus delayed in ovariectomy group, which was improved by topical application of Duan Gu Gao. Conclusion Duan Gu Gao can improve the process from chondral callus to osseous callus in early stage after osteoporotic fracture, reduce the overdevelopment of chondral callus in early stage, and increase density of bone callus.

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    Characteristics of stem cells from hepatic oval cells in rats
    LI Ying, ZHAO Li-juan, LI Yan-xiang, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  561. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.008

    Abstract ( 1682 )   PDF (9442KB) ( 1209 )  

    Objective To investigate the in vitro culture and characteristics of stem cells of hepatic oval cells in rats. Methods Rats were treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene and carbon tetrachloride to establish the models of hepatic oval cells, two-step collagenase perfusion technique and flow cytometry sorting were used to separate and purify oval cells, and cell culture and amplification were performed. The ultrastructure of hepatic oval cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the expression of stem cell markers OV-6, c-kit and Thy-1.1 were detected by immunocytochemistry. The expression of c-kit, hepatic cell marker (HNF-4α and AFP) and bile duct cell marker (CK-7 and CK-19) gene in oval cells was detected by RT-PCR. The expression of OV-6 and AFP protein was determined by Western blotting. Results Obvious oval cell proliferation was observed in rat liver tissues, distributing as cluster and gradually extending to liver parenchyma. These cells could be cultured in vitro up to 40 d, with small size and ovoid nuclei. It was observed under transmission electron microscopy that the cell diameters ranged from 5 μm to 10 μm, and there were high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few organelles, including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. It was revealed by immunocytochemistry that there was positive staining of OV-6, c-kit and Thy-1.1 on cell surface. RT-PCR analysis indicated that there was expression of c-kit, HNF-4α, AFP, CK-7 and CK-19 gene in oval cells. Western blotting demonstrated that there was continuous expression of OV-6 protein, and the expression of AFP protein gradually increased. Conclusion Hepatic oval cells derived from rat livers possess a high potential to proliferate in vitro, while maintaining the bipotential nature of stem cells.

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    Expression of SSeCKS in renal tissues of rats with renal injury induced by AngⅡ
    WANG Tao, WANG Ying-deng, ZHANG Wei
    2011, 31 (5):  567. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.009

    Abstract ( 1563 )   PDF (5403KB) ( 1636 )  

    Objective To establish the rat models of renal injury induced by angiotensionⅡ (AngⅡ), and investigate the expression of Src-suppressed C kinase substrate (SSeCKS) in the injured renal tissues. Methods A total of 26 rats were randomly divided into model group (n=10), sham operation group (n=10) and normal control group (n=6). Rats in model group and sham operation group were administered with AngⅡ and normal saline respectively via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps at the velocity of 200 ng/(kg·min), and those in control group did not receive any treatment. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on the third day after minipump implant, then rats were sacrificed, and renal cortical tissues were obtained. Sulfosalicylic acid method was adopted to quantify 24 h urinary protein, the ultrastructure of renal tissues were observed by transmission electron microscopy, the location of SSeCKS in renal tissues and fluorescence intensity were determined and analysed by immunofluorescence staining method, and the expression of SSeCKS mRNA in renal tissues was detected by RT-PCR. Results The quantity of 24 h urinary protein in model group was significantly higher than those in sham operation group and normal control group (P<0.05). Shrinkage and detachment of glomerular endothelial cells in model group were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that SSeCKS mainly localized within glomerular basement and some mesangial cells, and fluorescence intensity of renal tissues in model group was significantly higher than that in sham operation group and normal control group. The expression of SSeCKS mRNA in renal tissues in model group was significantly higher than that in sham operation group and normal control group. Conclusion Rat models of renal injury have been successfully established by subcutaneous implant of osmotic minipump with AngⅡ, and the expression of SSeCKS may be significantly increased in the injured renal tissues.

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    Experimental study of treatment of premature ovarian failure with YuShenYangXue decoction
    XU Hai-xia, HU Guo-hua, XIA Yi-dong
    2011, 31 (5):  571. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.010

    Abstract ( 1638 )   PDF (8391KB) ( 1169 )  

    Objective To explore the outcomes and mechanisms of YuShenYangXue decoction designed by Professor ZHU Nansun in the treatment of premature ovarian failure. Methods Ovarian antigen was prepared by ovarian tissues of 75 female Wistar rats with regular sexual cycle. Another 50 female Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group (n=10) and model group (n=40). Rat models of premature ovarian failure were established by autogenous immunization in model group, and were subdivided into 4 groups (n=10): middle-dose traditional Chinese medicine group and high-dose traditional Chinese medicine group (administered with middle-dose and high-dose traditional Chinese medicine compound for 2 weeks respectively), western medicine control group (treated with diethylstilbestrol for 2 weeks) and model control group (managed with same amount of normal saline for 2 weeks). Besides, rats in normal group were served as blank control group, and were managed with same amount of normal saline for 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta after treatment, and samples of ovarian tissues were harvested. Serum levels of estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by ELISA, the expression of ovarian inhibin B(InhB)protein was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the changes of wet weight and histology of ovary and uterus were observed. Results YuShenYangXue decoction increased serum E2 level and decreased serum FSH level in rats with premature ovarian failure. There were significant differences in serum E2 level between model control group and western medicine group (P<0.05), and serum FSH level in model control group was significantly different from those in western medicine group and high-dose traditional Chinese medicine group (P<0.05). Compared with model control group, the expression of ovarian InhB protein significantly increased (P<0.01), the lymphocyte infiltration in ovary decreased, the number of growing follicles increased, and the wet weight of uterine and ovary increased in western medicine group and middle-dose and high-dose traditional Chinese medicine groups. Conclusion YuShenYangXue decoction can promote follicle growth in rats with premature ovarian failure, increase secretion of ovarian E2 and InhB, and improve endocrine function of damaged ovaries.

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    Cognitive function after anesthesia with propofol in spontaneously hypertensive rats
    HU Jiang, LI Chan, WEN Da-xiang, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  576. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.011

    Abstract ( 1735 )   PDF (4239KB) ( 1509 )  

    Objective To evaluate the cognitive function after anesthesia with propofol in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods Twenty-four male SHR of three months old were randomly divided into control group and propofol group, and were peritoneally injected with same volumes of normal saline and propofol, respectively. The changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse were detected before administration, immediately after administration and 3 h after administration by non-invasive blood pressure monitoring system. Rats were subjected to Morris water maze tests. Place navigation trails started 1 d after administration and lasted for 7 d, and escape latencies of two groups were compared. Spatial probe trials were conducted on the seventh day after platform removal, and the time percents during stay in each quadrant of two groups were compared. Results MAP and pulse detected immediately after administration and 3 h after administration in propofol group were significantly lower than the baseline data and those in control group (P<0.05). The escape latencies of both groups decreased with time of training, the escape latency of control group was significantly shorter than that of propofol group 2 to 4 d after training (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in the escape latency between two groups 5 to 7 d after training (P>0.05). Spatial probe trials revealed that the time percents during stay in the platform quadrant in two groups were more than 25%, and both were higher than those during stay in the other quadrants. Conclusion SHR may experience transient hypotension and bradycardia after anesthesia with propofol, and there may be cognitive function impairment in a short time. The cognitive function can be recovered to normal levels after enough training.

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    Effects of serum of patients with acute motor axonal neuropathy on expression of apoptosis-related proteins in rat spinal motor neuron
    PENG Li-wei, YANG Guo-feng, JI Jian-guo, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  580. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.012

    Abstract ( 1533 )   PDF (5793KB) ( 1858 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of serum of patients with acute motor axonal neuropathy(AMAN) on expression of apoptosis-related proteins in rat spinal motor neuron with proteomics. Methods Serum samples of 16 patients with AMAN and 16 healthy people were obtained, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed 24 h after primary culture of rat spinal motor neuron. The proteins of interest were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry, and differential protein spots were defined as those with changes of expression >30%. Results There were 21 differentially expressed proteins, among which heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H, proteasome subunit alpha type 1, endoplasmic reticulum protein 29, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and voltagedependent anion-selective channel protein 1 were apoptosis-related proteins. Conclusion Serum of patients with AMAN may lead to changes of expression of apoptosis-related proteins in rat spinal motor neuron.

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    Comparision of pharmacokinetics between ropivacaine methanesulfonate and ropivacaine hydrochloride during epidural block
    CAI Mei-hua, ZHANG Ma-zhong, RONG Zheng-xing, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  584. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.013

    Abstract ( 1592 )   PDF (4566KB) ( 1282 )  

    Objective To compare the pharmacokinetics between 0.894% ropivacaine methanesulfonate and 0.75% ropivacaine hydrochloride. Methods Forty patients undergoing lower abdominal or lower limb surgery were randomly divided into ropivacaine methanesulfonate group (n=20) and  ropivacaine hydrochloride group (n=20). Blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein before administration and 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 720 and 1 440 min after administration, and the concentrations of ropivacaine methanesulfonate or ropivacaine hydrochloride were determined by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software and were compared between groups. Results The apparent volumes of distribution (Vd/F) of ropivacaine methanesulfonate and ropivacaine hydrochloride were (2.1±0.7) L/kg and (2.7±1.1) L/kg, respectively; the elimination half life time (T1/2β) were (333±89) min and (378±112) min, respectively; the total areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) were (480±168) mg·min/L and (425±126) mg·min/L, respectively; the clearance rates (CL/F) were (4.6±1.3) mL/(min kg) and (5.1±1.3) mL/(min kg), respectively; the peak time (Tpeak) were (26±13) min and (29±20) min, respectively; and the maximum concentrations (Cmax) were (1 732±833) ng/mL and (1 345±341) ng/mL, respectively. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between groups (P>0.05). Conclusion The pharmacokinetics of 0.894% ropivacaine methanesulfonate are similar to those of 0.75% ropivacaine hydrochloride, and the pharmacokinetic data are consistent with two-compartment model. In addition, the metabolism of ropivacaine is not influenced by the change of base.

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    Effects of Mitoxantrone on expression of PCNA, Caspase-3 and p53 genes in rats with gastric cancer
    YANG Hong-mei, XING Ying, ZHENG Mei-zhen
    2011, 31 (5):  588. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.014

    Abstract ( 1500 )   PDF (4566KB) ( 1404 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of Mitoxantrone on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Caspase-3 and p53 genes in gastric mucosa of rats with gastric cancer. Methods Rat models of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer were established, and blank control group (group N), model control group (group M), small dose Mitoxantrone group (group ML) and mega dose Mitoxantrone group (group MH) were divided, with 25 rats in each group. The expression of PCNA in tissues of gastric cancer was detected by immunohistochemical S-P method, the activity of Caspase-3 was determined by spectrophotometry, and the expression of p53 gene and protein was detected by Real-Time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results There was no expression of PCNA in group N, and the expression of PCNA in group ML and group MH was significantly lower than that in group M (P<0.01, P<0.05). The activity of Caspase-3 in group M and group MH was significantly lower than that in group N (P<0.01, P<0.05), while the expression of Caspase-3 in group ML and group MH was significantly higher than that in group M (P<0.01, P<0.05). The expression of p53 gene in group M was significantly higher than that in group N (P<0.01). The expression of p53 gene in group ML and group MH gradually decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05),while was still higher than that in group N. The expression of p53 protein in group M was higher than that in group ML, and the expression of p53 protein in group MH was lower than that in group ML. Conclusion Mitoxantrone is effective in the treatment of rats with gastric cancer by changing the expression of genes, which may inhibit or reverse the development of cancer.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene and risk of coronary artery disease in Shanghai Han population
    LIU Yan, LU Lin, WU Zhi-jun, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  592. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.015

    Abstract ( 1652 )   PDF (6590KB) ( 1402 )  

    Objective To investigate the association of 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their haplotypes in the promoter of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Shanghai Han population. Methods The genotypes of T-1031C, C-863A, C-857T, G-308A and G-238A polymorphisms were analysed by mass spectrometry in 438 patients with CAD and 330 healthy controls, and concentrations of blood glucose and blood lipid were measured. Results There were significant differences in genotype and allele frequency of C-857T polymorphism between CAD group and control group (P<0.05). Patients carrying -857C allele were associated with 1.45-fold higher odds of CAD compared to T allele carriers (95%CI, 1.092-1.927). In patients with CAD, serum levels of total cholesterol and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol of C/C genotype and C/T genotype carriers were significantly higher than those of T/T carriers (P<0.05). There were significant differences in allele frequency of G-308A polymorphism between two groups (P<0.05). Patients carrying -308A allele were associated with 1.43-fold higher odds of CAD compared to noncarriers (95%CI, 1.055-1.949). Haplotype analysis indicated that the frequencies of haplotype CCCGA and TCCAG were significantly higher in CAD group than in control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01), and the risks of suffering from CAD were 2.96 fold and 1.67 fold for homozygous carriers of haplotype CCCGA and TCCAG compared to noncarriers (95%CI, 1.176-7.430 and 1.166-2.379). In comparison, the frequency of haplotype TCTGG was significantly lower in CAD group than in controls, which was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CAD (OR, 0.57; 95%CI, 0.415-0.784; P<0.01). Conclusion Polymorphisms in the promoter of of TNF-α gene might be associated with the occurrence of CAD in Shanghai Han population.

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    Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes and survival of patients with gastric cancer undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine and paclitaxel
    ZHENG Lei-zhen, GU Jian-chun, GONG Ji-fang, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  598. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.016

    Abstract ( 1771 )   PDF (6596KB) ( 1551 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms of tumor-associated candidate genes and survival of patients with gastric cancer undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine and paclitaxel. Methods Ninety-three patients pathologically confirmed of gastric cancer were selected, and received chemotherapy with capecitabine and paclitaxel. Genotypes of protooncogene TP53 rs1042522 (G/C), metabolism-associated gene GSTP1 rs1695(A/G) and CYP11B2 rs1799998 (T/C), DNA repair-associated gene XRCC1 rs1799782 (C/T) and ERCC2 rs1799793 (G/A) were determined by TaqMan-MGB methods. The median survival time (MST) after chemotherapy was compared among patients with different genotypes, and influencing factors for prognosis were analysed. Results The median time of follow-up was 29.6 months, and MST was 34.93 months. TP53 rs1042522 (G/C) genotype was related to MST after chemotherapy, and patients with TP53 rs1042522 G/G genotype were borderline significantly higher than those with TP53 rs1042522 G/C+C/C genotype in MST (51.2 months vs 26.6 months, P=0.073). There was no significant correlation between the other gene polymorphisms and MST (P>0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that gender, operation status and pathological staging were the main influencing factors for the prognosis of gastric cancer after chemotherapy. Conclusion Polymorphisms of TP53 (rs1042522 G/C) are marginally significantly associated with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer after chemotherapy with capecitabine and paclitaxel.

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    Correlation of expression of IDO and FoxP3 with progression and prognosis of cervical cancer
    GU Zhuo-wei, DI Wen, YE Wei-yi, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  604. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.017

    Abstract ( 1532 )   PDF (7961KB) ( 1204 )  

    Objective To investigate the correlation of expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase(IDO) and FoxP3 with progression and prognosis of cervical cancer. Methods Twenty cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) Ⅰ-Ⅱ grade (CINⅠ-Ⅱ grade group), 20 cases of CIN Ⅲ grade (CIN Ⅲ grade group) and 60 cases of cervical cancer (cervical cancer group) were selected, and 20 cases of uterine myoma were served as control group. The expression of IDO and FoxP3 in CIN and cervical cancer lesions was detected by immunohistochemistry. Patients were followed up for prognostic indicators. Results The expression of IDO and FoxP3 in cervical cancer group was significantly higher than that in control group and CIN groups (P<0.01). In cervical cancer group, the expression of IDO was related to both FIGO stage and histological grade of cervical cancer (P<0.05), the expression of FoxP3 was related to FIGO stage (P<0.05), and the expression of IDO and FoxP3 in recurrence and death group was higher than that in survival group, with no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion The increased expression of IDO and FoxP3 in local lesions of cervical cancer is closely related to the occurrence and progression of the disease, which may serve as adjuvant indicators for screening, preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up of cervical cancer, as well as theory basis for therapeutic targets of cervical cancer.

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    Correlation of serum estrogen and progesterone levels and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors with stress urinary incontinence in late pregnancy
    WU Qing-kai, MAO Xiao-yuan, JIANG Li, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  610. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.018

    Abstract ( 2110 )   PDF (6632KB) ( 1532 )  

    Objective To investigate the correlation of serum estrogen and progesterone levels and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in pelvic floor tissues with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in late pregnancy. Methods Seventy-one pregnant primiparas undergoing vaginal delivery were divided into SUI group (n=33) and non-SUI group (n=38), and serum levels of estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and progesterone (P) were detected at gestational week 36 to 40. Muscular tissue samples were obtained from the top of lateral incision of perineum from 20 cases in SUI group and 31 cases in non-SUI group after delivery, and pathohistological and ultrastructure observations were performed. Another 3 nonpregnant female patients with carcinoma of vulva or rectum cancer undergoing surgery were served as controls. The expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor in pelvic floor tissues was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results There was no significant difference in serum E2 and E3 between SUI group and non-SUI group (P>0.05). The serum mass concentration of P in SUI group was significantly lower than that in non-SUI group [(184.7±48.2)μg/L vs (223.2±93.5)μg/L](P<0.05). Pathohistological and ultrastructure observations revealed that there were vacuolar degeneration, filament alteration and edema in smooth muscle cells of deep pelvic floor. The expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor in smooth muscle cells in non-SUI group was significantly higher than that in SUI group (P<0.05). There was no expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor in skeletal muscle cells of pelvic floor. Conclusion Both estrogen and progesterone may protect the structure and function of pelvic floor in pregnant primiparas.

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    Effects of different patterns of first delivery on pelvic diaphragm hiatus by transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound
    WU Qing-kai, ZHANG Rong, CHENG Hui, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  615. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.019

    Abstract ( 2154 )   PDF (5634KB) ( 1420 )  

    Objective To observe the morphological characteristics of pelvic diaphragm hiatus in postpartum women with different first delivery patterns by transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound. Methods Eighty-two postpartum women were selected, and transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound examinations were performed 6 to 12 weeks after delivery. Fifty-five cases underwent transvaginal delivery (transvaginal delivery group), and the other 27 Cesarean delivery (Cesarean delivery group). Cases in transvaginal delivery group were subdivided into spontaneous transvaginal delivery group (n=44) and forceps transvaginal delivery group (n=11). The morphological characteristics of pelvic diaphragm hiatus in each group were observed, and the parameters of pelvic diaphragm hiatus and maximum bladder neck mobility were measured at rest, with Valsalva maneuver and pelvic floor contraction, respectively. Results Transperineal three-dimensional ultrasound demonstrated that the structure of puborectal muscles on both sides of pelvic diaphragm hiatus was vague, and unilateral and bilateral puborectal muscle avulsion was observed in some cases. The structure inside pelvic diaphragm hiatus was vague, and bladder echo was observed in some cases. With pelvic floor contraction, the parameters of pelvic diaphragm hiatus in transvaginal delivery group were significantly larger than those in Cesarean delivery group (P<0.05). At rest and with Valsalva maneuver, there was no significant difference in the parameters of pelvic diaphragm hiatus between transvaginal delivery group and Cesarean delivery group (P>0.05). The maximum bladder neck mobility in transvaginal delivery group was significantly larger than that in Cesarean delivery group [(15.3±3.8)mm) vs (11.7±3.6)mm](P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the parameters of pelvic diaphragm hiatus between spontaneous transvaginal delivery group and forceps transvaginal delivery group (P>0.05), while the maximum bladder neck mobility in forceps transvaginal delivery group was significantly larger than that in spontaneous transvaginal delivery group [(21.2±2.9)mm vs (16.1±3.0)mm](P<0.01). Conclusion The diameters of pelvic diaphragm hiatus are similar in postpartum women with different delivery patterns at rest and with Valsalva maneuver. Transvaginal delivery may be associated with a significantly larger pelvic diaphragm hiatus with pelvic floor contraction, and forceps transvaginal delivery may lead to a greater degree of bladder neck mobility, which may be related to postpartum stress urinary incontinence.

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    Comparison of different strategies of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD of different severity
    REN Lei, LI Qing-yun, DU Jing-bo, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  620. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.020

    Abstract ( 2043 )   PDF (5886KB) ( 1388 )  

    Objective To investigate the strategies of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of different severity. Methods Eighty-nine patients with COPD in stable stage were divided into moderate COPD group (n=32), severe COPD group (n=36) and very severe COPD group (n=21). Each group of patients were randomly subdivided into pulmonary rehabilitation strategy group 1, pulmonary rehabilitation strategy group 2 and  control group, and were intervened for 20 weeks. BODE index, 6 minute walking distance (6MWD), Modified Medical Research Council Scale (MMRC), pulmonary function(FEV1), body mass index (BMI) and acute exacerbation frequency of COPD were compared before and after intervention and among groups. Results After pulmonary rehabilitation intervention for 20 weeks, 6MWD in patients with moderate and severe COPD treated with strategy 2 significantly improved (P<0.01), while BODE index, MMRC, BMI and FEV1 after intervention were not significantly different from those before intervention (P>0.05). MMRC of patients with very severe COPD treated with strategy 1 significantly improved after intervention (P<0.05), while BODE index, 6MWD, BMI and FEV1 after intervention were not significantly different from those before intervention (P>0.05). BODE index and 6MWD of severe COPD group treated with strategy 2 improved significantly (P<0.000 1), and MMRC of very severe COPD group treated with strategy 1 improved significantly (P<0.01). Poisson regression analysis revealed that acute exacerbation frequency of severe COPD patients significantly reduced by pulmonary rehabilitation (P<0.01), while there was no significant change in the other groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Patients with different severity of COPD may take different pulmonary rehabilitation strategies to achieve the optimal effect.

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    Meta-analysis of association of ApoE gene polymorphisms with |diabetic nephropathy
    WANG Yuan, WU Qi-jun, SHI Rong
    2011, 31 (5):  625. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.021

    Abstract ( 1580 )   PDF (6840KB) ( 1528 )  

    Objective To evaluate the association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphisms with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and provide evidence of gene diagnosis of DN. Methods All related literatures on association of Chinese patients with T2DM and ApoE gene polymorphisms were retrieved. ApoE genotype distribution and allele frequency of DN in patients with T2DM (DN group) and non-DN in patients with T2DM  (control group) were analysed and compared through Meta-analysis, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated, respectively. Results A total of 14 literatures were retrieved, and 2 730 patients with T2DM were included, with 1 528 in DN group and 1 202 in control group. Meta analysis revealed that compared with genotype E3/3, genotype E2/3 (OR=1.776,P=0.000) and genotype E3/4 (OR=1.417,P=0.003) were more susceptible to DN, and compared with allele ε3, allele ε2 (OR=1.678,P=0.000)and allele ε4 (OR=1.219,P=0.048) were more susceptible to DN. Conclusion ApoE gene polymorphisms may be associated with DN in patients with T2DM, and genotype E2/3, genotype E3/4, allele ε2 and allele ε4 may be risk factors of DN in Chinese patients with T2DM.

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    Clinical characteristics of acute anterior myocardial infarction complicated by complete atrioventricular block
    CHU Guang, ZHANG Guo-bing, ZHANG Feng, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  632. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.022

    Abstract ( 1818 )   PDF (7163KB) ( 1418 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of acute anterior myocardial infarction complicated by complete atrioventricular block (CAVB). Methods A total of 885 patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction were enrolled, and were divided into CAVB group (complicated by CAVB, n=19, 2.1%) and non-CAVB group(not complicated by CAVB, n=866, 97.9%). The serum peak levels of creatine kinase and its isoenzyme, BNP level, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), Killip heart performance stage, coronary artery lesion feature and hospital mortality were observed, and pathological factors of CAVB and their impact on prognosis were analysed. Results Compared with patients in nonCAVB group, those in CAVB group had significantly higher serum peak levels of creatine kinase and its isoenzyme [(1 804.5±65.4)U/L vs (1 251.3±46.7)U/L,(155.8±25.6)U/L vs (104.3±19.1)U/L,P<0.05 for both], significantly higher BNP level [(1 254.4±55.3)pg/mL vs (432.4±78.5)pg/mL,P<0.05], poorer Killip heart performance stage (P<0.05), significantly lower LVEF [(40.5±4.6)% vs (51.2±6.9)%,P<0.05], more severe coronary artery lesions (P<0.05)and significantly higher hospital mortality (63.2% vs 2.4%,P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction complicated by CAVB may have more severe coronary artery lesions, more extensive infarction area, worse heart performance and higher in hospital mortality.

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    Clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of triple-negative breast cancer
    XU Jie-ping, XU Shu-guang, ZHANG Yun, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  637. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.023

    Abstract ( 2056 )   PDF (5082KB) ( 1835 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods A total of 547 females with breast cancer were selected, and were divided into TNBC group and non-TNBC group. The clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of TNBC were analysed. Results The numbers of patients in TNBC group and non-TNBC group were 71 (13.0%) and 476 (87.0%), respectively. There were significant differences in the parameters of age low than 35 years (14.1% vs 1.1%), family history of breast cancer (29.6% vs 9.2%), diameter of tumor longer than 50 mm (22.5% vs 8.0%), tumor stage Ⅲ (23.9% vs 16.4%), tumor grade Ⅲ (40.8% vs 28.8%)and recurrence or metastasis (28.2% vs 10.9%) between TNBC group and non-TNBC group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the parameters of menopausal status, number of lymph node metastasis, pathological types and surgical approach between these two groups (P>0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that both 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) in TNBC group were significantly lower than those in non-TNBC group (65.8% vs 85.3%,P<0.01;77.7% vs 88.7%,P<0.05). Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis revealed that family history of breast cancer, tumor stage and number of lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic risk factors for DFS of TNBC. Conclusion Compared with patients with non-TNBC, patients with TNBC are younger, more often have family history of breast cancer, have larger tumor size, more advanced tumor stage and higher tumor grade, are more prone to recurrence and metastasis, and have lower DFS, lower OS and poorer prognosis.

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    Changes of intraocular pressure following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy
    XU Jian-min, ZHANG Shi-sheng, ZHANG Qiong, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  642. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.024

    Abstract ( 2109 )   PDF (3421KB) ( 1407 )  

    Objective To observe the changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy, and explore the possible causes. Methods The clinical data of 45 patients (45 eyes) undergoing silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy were retrospectively analysed, and IOP elevation was defined as IOP of 24 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) or higher. Results Postoperative IOP elevation occurred in 22 patients (48.9%), especially in the early period after operation (2 weeks after operation)(17/22, 77.3%). After using IOP-lowering drugs and adjusting or cessation of glucocorticoid eyedrops, the elevated IOP in all patients was controlled within normal limits. There was no significant difference in gender, age, course of disease, refractive diopters and volume of silicone oil tamponade between patients with and without elevated IOP (P>0.05 for all). Conclusion IOP elevation is a common complication following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy, and postoperative intraocular tissue edema, uveitis reaction and frequent use of glucocorticoid eyedrops may be the main causes.

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    Changes of peripheral blood cortisol, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 levels in patients with stroke-associated infection
    YANG Li-juan, GENG Zhi
    2011, 31 (5):  645. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.025

    Abstract ( 1443 )   PDF (4066KB) ( 1280 )  

    Objective To investigate the changes of peripheral blood cortisol, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in patients with stroke-associated infection(SAI). Methods Eighty-five patients with acute cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage admitted to hospital within 24 h after symptom onset were selected. Patients were divided into infection group (n=29) and non-infection group (n=56) according to the infection status within 7 d after admission. Serum cortisol levels were measured by chemiluminescence method, and plasma IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were determined by ELISA on the first day and seventh day after admission. Stepwise Logistic regression analysis was adopted to explore the correlation factors for SAI. Results On the first day and seventh day after admission, the levels of serum cortisol and plasma IL-4 and IL-10 in infection group were significantly higher than those in non-infection group (P<0.05), while the level of plasma IFN-γ in infection group was significantly lower than that in non-infection group (P<0.05). On the first day after admission, the correlation analysis indicated that there was a negative correlation between level of serum cortisol and level of plasma IFN-γ (r=-0.299,P=0.024), and there was a positive correlation between level of serum cortisol and levels of plasma IL-4 and IL-10 (r=0.298,P=0.040;r=0.306,P=0.026). Logistic regression analysis revealed that increased level of serum cortisol on the first day after admission was an independent risk factor for SAI (OR, 0.903; 95% confidence interval, 0.816-1.000; P=0.05). Conclusion Cortisol, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 may play important roles in the development of SAI.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Investigation and analysis of clinicians' cognition of adverse drug reaction in partial first class hospitals of Shanghai
    YAN Zhong-heng, HUANG Deng-xiao, HUANG Qi-min
    2011, 31 (5):  648. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.026

    Abstract ( 1908 )   PDF (5941KB) ( 1697 )  

    Objective To investigate the primary clinicians' cognition of adverse drug reactions (ADR) knowledge and reporting work of clinicians. Methods Three hundred and seventy primary clinicians of 10 affiliated hospitals of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine were selected for a random questionnaire survey. The questionnaires were composed of three parts: the basic data of investigated objectives (part one), cognition of ADR knowledge (part two) and cognition of ADR reporting work (part three). Results There were 347 effective questionnaires, and the effective rate was 96.12%. A total of 22.8% of clinicians knew the cause of ADR correctly, 17.6% could correctly determine ADR from a variety of drug damaging events,  58.8% had a certain degree of confidence when judging the common ADR, and 31.1% had a certain degree of confidence to judge the new or unreported ADR. Besides, 52.2% of clinicians were aware that ADR needed to be reported, 49.6% had cognition that reporting ADR was the obligation of medical staffs, 22.8% knew that ADR needed to be reported to the Adverse Reaction Monitoring Center, and 11.0% were aware of the deadline of reporting ADR. For the cognition scoring of reporting ADR, only 17.5% of clinicians got more than 3 points. When encountering ADR, 18.7% of the clinicians reported all the cases. The main reasons for omission of reporting procedures were unfamiliarity of reporting procedures (46.0%), busy working and lack of time (37.6%) and thinking it unnecessary to report (28.0%). Conclusion Clinicians have some basic understanding of ADR, with inconsistent understanding degree and poor familiarity with the unitary reporting work. Clinicians should learn more from publicity, education and training about ADR, enhance awareness of reporting work, improve the level of ADR judgment, and improve the quality of ADR monitoring report.

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    Investigation and analysis of practice-based training in Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences
    YING Wu-shuo, TANG Hong-mei, WANG Fu-ming
    2011, 31 (5):  654. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.027

    Abstract ( 1838 )   PDF (5498KB) ( 1375 )  

    Objective To investigate the current situation of practice-based training in Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences, and analyse the existing problems. Methods One hundred and ten teachers were randomly selected from Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences, and survey with questionnaires on practice-based training in Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences was conducted, including the condition of training hardware, quality and quality control of practice-based training. Results One hundred and ten effective questionnaires were recovered, with the recovery rate of 100%. Of all the teachers, 95.5% and 92.7% were satisfied with the condition of training hardware and quality of practice-based training, respectively. Those who thought the training equipment was  overloaded and in full use accounted for 14.5% and 59.1%, respectively. Besides, 41.8% teachers considered the training content was not updated fast and 10.0% believed there was no change in training content. Those who thought the training quality control system should be improved accounted for 73.6%. Conclusion As the characteristics of higher vocational education, practice-based training has been attached great importance to school leaders. The conditions of training hardware, number of training programs and proportion of training hours have reached a higher level. However, there still exist problems in the efficiency of equipment, updates of training content, humanistic care in training and practice-based training management. To enhance the quality of practice-based training, school-enterprise cooperation should be strengthened, practice-based training management system should be improved, and practice-based training quality management system should be built up.

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    Review
    Research progress of mechanism of potassium-chloride co-transporter-2 regulation
    ZHAO Hua-ping, XUE Qing-sheng, YU Bu-wei, et al
    2011, 31 (5):  659. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.028

    Abstract ( 1572 )   PDF (4229KB) ( 1681 )  

    Potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) is a member of cation-chloride co-transporters family, which expresses extensively in central nervous system. KCC2 is responsible for the maintenance of low concentration of intracellular chloride by excluding intracellular chloride outside the cells, which is the key mechanism of normal functions of inhibitory neurons. The down-regulation of KCC2 expression participates in the development and maintenance of several nervous system diseases and pain, and KCC2 expression is regulated by many factors. The mechanism of regulation of KCC2 is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of Pax6 gene mutation and development of pancreas and diabetes mellitus
    LU Yu-feng, LIU Li-mei
    2011, 31 (5):  663. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.029

    Abstract ( 2371 )   PDF (3988KB) ( 1185 )  

    Paired box 6(Pax6) is one of the members of Pax polygene transcription factor family, and plays an important role in the development of pancreas, α cell differentiation, transcription and activation of glucagon gene, β cell function and expression of insulin. Pax6 is the major gene in regulating the development of β cells, and its mutation contributes to the pathogenesis of impaired glucose tolerance and early-onset diabetes mellitus. The research progress of associations of Pax6 mutation with development of pancreas and diabetes mellitus is reviewed in this paper.

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    Effects of lead exposure in pregnancy on fetuses and infants
    MIAO Hong, CHENG Wei-wei
    2011, 31 (5):  667. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.030

    Abstract ( 1320 )   PDF (5077KB) ( 1592 )  

    Lead exposure in environment is increasingly more serious with the development of industry. According to recent reports, the prevalence of lead poisoning in pregnant women is 10% to 20%, with regional differences. Lowlevel exposure of lead may have negative impact on fetuses through pregnant women, which may influence the physical, intelligence, emotion and nervous system development of infants. The influential factors of blood lead level, the effects and mechanism of lead poisoning in pregnancy on fetuses and infants, and the monitoring and prevention measures of lead poisoning are reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of susceptible genes and genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer
    WU Qi-jun, XU Jian-feng, SHI Rong
    2011, 31 (5):  672. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.031

    Abstract ( 1757 )   PDF (4111KB) ( 1637 )  

    Many genetic researches have suggested that genetic factor plays an important role in the development of prostate cancer. Meanwhile, some case-control studies and population-based cohort studies have also revealed the complex genetic epidemiology characters of prostate cancer. This paper not only analyses the relationship between epidemic exposure factors, susceptible genes and prostate cancer, but also points out the present status of genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer and the prospects of research in this aspect.

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    Pathogenesis of complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia
    LE Yi-ping, LIN Jian-hua
    2011, 31 (5):  676. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.032

    Abstract ( 1903 )   PDF (5356KB) ( 1423 )  

    Pre-eclampsia is a disorder that is unique to pregnancy, with gestational hypertension and proteinuria as main clinical manifestations. Without proper management, pre-eclampsia may develop to eclampsia and cause a series of complications involving cardiovascular, renal, neurologic, hematologic and gastrointestinal systems, which may threaten lives of mothers and infants. The pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia is still unclear, and reduced placental perfusion is considered to be the pathological mechanism, which may result in endothelial cell injury and further aggravate dysfunction of maternal systems. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, incidence and research progress of complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.

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    Brief original article
    Investigation in prevalences of chronic diseases in retired cadres in Chongming County of Shanghai
    ZHOU Xi-lin, LIANG Hui
    2011, 31 (5):  681. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.033

    Abstract ( 1483 )   PDF (3211KB) ( 1464 )  

    Objective To investigate the prevalences of 9 common chronic diseases in retired cadres in Chongming County of Shanghai. Methods General epidemiological investigation was conducted in all retired cadres (n=268) living in Chongming County of Shanghai, and all data were collected from the cadre clinic, physical examination center and ward of cadres of Chongming Branch of Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and on-site investigation. The diagnostic standard of classification of diseases referred to the standards of International Classification of Diseases ICD-10. Two hundred and forty-nine people were investigated actually, and the response rate was 92.9%. The prevalences of chronic diseases and distribution of diseases in retired cadres were retrospectively analysed. Results The prevalences of chronic diseases were 98.39% (245/249), and the prevalences of coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastritis and gastric ulcer, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, dementia and malignant tumors were 73.1%, 72.3%, 35.7%, 34.5%, 33.7%, 28.1%, 20.5%, 14.5% and 14.1%, respectively. The prevalence of having 3 diseases in the same cadre was 83.5%, that of having 7 diseases in the same cadre was 9.1%, and that of tumor was 14.1%. Conclusion Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases dominate the disease spectrum of retired cadres. Various diseases may seize the same retired cadres at the same time, which is the most important epidemiological characteristics. The prevalence of tumors is higher in old people. Appropriate preventive measures should be taken, and proper treatment should be performed in the cadres.

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    Technique and method
    Effect of different 16S rDNA universal primers on DGGE patterns of periodontal microbial community
    ZHOU Yan-bin, SHU Rong, LIU Da-li
    2011, 31 (5):  684. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.034

    Abstract ( 2217 )   PDF (4873KB) ( 1544 )  

    Objective To preliminarily assess the effect of different 16S rDNA fragments on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of periodontal microbial community. Methods Three typical periodontal bacterial strains were selected, plasmid DNA was constructed to get 16S rDNA V3, V3-V5 and V6-V8 region fragments, and sequencing analysis and BLAST identification were performed. The bands of strains were obtained after DGGE isolation and silver nitrate staining of sequenced plasmid DNA. Results DGGE profiles by three universal primers were different. The bands of 16S rDNA V3 region fragments of typical strains were not single, and bands of different strains could not differ from each other. The single band of 16S rDNA V3-V5 and V6-V8 region fragments of each typical strain was found. Conclusion 16S rDNA V3-V5 and V6-V8 region fragments are suitable for periodontal bacteria structure analysis.

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    Clinical experience
    Clinical analysis of 152 patients undergoing transvaginal hysterectomy for non-prolapsed uterus
    QIAN Xiao-lei, WANG Gong-li
    2011, 31 (5):  688. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.035

    Abstract ( 1583 )   PDF (4254KB) ( 1468 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and applications of transvaginal hysterectomy for non-prolapsed uterus. Methods One hundred and fifty-two patients undergoing transvaginal hysterectomy for benign gynecological diseases were selected, and patients subjected to laparoscopic hysterectomy (n=122) and transabdominal hysterectomy (n=168) were served as controls. The clinical features and applications of these three surgical procedures were compared. Results There was no significant difference in age, times of delivery, menopause status and history of cesarean section among three groups (P>0.05), and there was also no significant difference in indications and size of uterus among three groups (P>0.05). Adnexectomy was performed in 62 patients (36.9%)undergoing transabdominal hysterectomy, 36 patients (29.5%) with laparoscopic hysterectomy and 18 patients (11.84%) subjected to transvaginal hysterectomy, and the percent of transabdominal hysterectomy group was significantly higher than that of transvaginal hysterectomy group (P<0.05). The time of operation and length of hospital stay of transvaginal hysterectomy group were the shortest, and the volume of intraoperative blood loss and cost of treatment of transvaginal hysterectomy group were the least among three groups. Conclusion Transvaginal hysterectomy for non-prolapsed uterus may yield favorable outcomes, with less complications, and may also be feasible in patients with larger uterus and history of pelvic surgery.

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    Case report
    One case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis complicated by subacute thyroiditis
    LIU Ye, WANG Yu-fan, PENG Yong-de
    2011, 31 (5):  691. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.05.036

    Abstract ( 1243 )   PDF (3704KB) ( 1378 )  

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis and subacute thyroiditis are clinically common types of thyroiditis with different pathogenesis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is one of the autoimmune thyroid diseases, the development of subacute thyroiditis is concerned with virus infection, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis complicated by subacute thyroiditis rarely occurs. The diagnosis and treatment of one case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis complicated by subacute thyroiditis is reported in this paper, and the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, etiology and treatment of this disease are discussed on the basis of literature review.

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