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    Editorial
    Exploration of development of nursing discipline
    ZHANG Ya-qing
    2011, 31 (6):  693. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.001

    Abstract ( 1562 )   PDF (2840KB) ( 2000 )  

    Based on the opportunity of becoming a first-class discipline and the clinical experience and research findings from home and abroad, this article explores the development of nursing discipline under new circumstances. A training mode for advanced nursing talents from bachelor degree to doctor degree should be set up, and a training and practicing mode for specialized nursing talents should be explored. Nursing research may be promoted by building diversified and internationalized research team with scientific methodology, and research direction and development orientation of key speciality should be formed. Quality of clinical care can be improved, and better social service be provided by transforming nursing research achievements. The sustainable development of nursing science is to be constantly promoted by building scientific research and innovation culture, establishing and improving management system and innovation mechanism.

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    Monographic report (Clinical nursing and management)
    Analysis of related factors of infusion phlebitis in patients with tumor
    QIU Yuan-jun, WANG Cai-feng
    2011, 31 (6):  696. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.002

    Abstract ( 1992 )   PDF (4968KB) ( 1427 )  

    Objective To investigate the related factors of infusion phlebitis in patients with tumor. Methods One hundred and nineteen patients with tumor were selected from three hospitals. Patients were observed for 5 d from the first day of infusion after admission, and the prevalences and severity of phlebitis were recorded. Related factors of infusion phlebitis were compared between patients with and without phlebitis and among patients with different severity of phlebitis, and risk factors of infusion phlebitis were further explored by multiple Logistic regression analysis. Results Phlebitis was observed in 57 patients (47.9%, 139 case-times). Multiple Logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender, history of phlebitis, poor physical status, long time of chemotherapy, large amount of infusion per day, potassium chloride infusion and receiving infusion through peripheral intravenous needle could increase the risks of phlebitis. Patients with diabetes mellitus, history of phlebitis, poor physical status, receiving infusion through peripheral intravenous needle and steel needle, long time of chemotherapy, large amount of infusion per day, potassium chloride infusion, chemotherapeutics infusion and nutrient solution infusion were more likely to have severe phlebitis. Conclusion Patients with tumor are high risk group of phlebitis, and the possible high risk factors include female gender, poor physical status, history of phlebitis and receiving chemotherapy. Irritant drugs may lead to obvious topical venous stimulation. Central venous catheter may be preferred due to obvious irritation through peripheral infusion.

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    Investigation and analysis of compliance of PICC among patients with tumor in top first-class hospitals
    XU Jia-yi, FANG Fang, ZHANG Hui-ying, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  701. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.003

    Abstract ( 1906 )   PDF (5412KB) ( 1265 )  

    Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of compliance of peripherally inserted central catheterization (PICC) among patients with tumor in top first-class hospitals. Methods Self-designed questionnaire of compliance of PICC among patients with tumor in top first-class hospitals was adopted, and convenient sampling was used to investigate the compliance of PICC in 80 patients who were suited for PICC and were not performed PICC. The investigation included will of PICC, general data, basic medical condition, level of worry and awareness for PICC. Results The compliance of PICC in all the patients was 72.5%. Higher educational background, medical insurance coverage, poorer condition of vein during hospital stay and better support from family led to higher compliance of PICC (P<0.05), while gender, working condition, marital status and family monthly income had no significant impact on compliance of PICC (P>0.05). A total of 48.7% of patients learned the main knowledge of PICC from medical staff. Patients with higher level of worry had lower compliance of PICC, and patients who disagreed to perform PICC got higher score of worry (24.88±6.02) than those who agreed (19.14±3.30) (P<0.01). Conclusion There is much room for improvement for compliance of PICC in patients. Nurses should take influencing factors into full consideration, enhance introduction of PICC to patients, and promote PICC step by step.

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    Status of feeding related anxiety and influencing factor analysis in parents of infants with congenital heart diseases
    YU Jun-juan, FU Li-juan
    2011, 31 (6):  706. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.004

    Abstract ( 1852 )   PDF (3328KB) ( 1437 )  

    Objective To investigate the status of feeding related anxiety in parents of infants with congenital heart diseases, and explore the influencing factors. Methods Convenient sampling was used to select 144 parents of infants with congenital heart diseases. General data questionnaire, state anxiety inventory and feeding knowledge assessment questionnaire were adopted to investigate the general conditions, status of feeding related anxiety and feeding knowledge acquisition of parents, and influencing factors of feeding related anxiety were explored by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Results In all the 144 parents of infants with congenital heart diseases, the score of state anxiety inventory was 45.23±10.10, and that of feeding knowledge acquisition was 3.10±0.46. The birth weight, score of feeding difficulty, gender of infants and level of feeding knowledge acquisition were related to feeding related anxiety. Conclusion Effective education on feeding should be conducted for parents of infants with low birth weight and symptoms of feeding difficulty in order to enhance feeding knowledge acquisition and reduce feeding related anxiety.

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    Investigation and analysis of dietary knowledge about urolithiasis among nurses
    HUANG Rong, YANG Yan
    2011, 31 (6):  709. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.005

    Abstract ( 1466 )   PDF (4967KB) ( 1488 )  

    Objective To investigate the dietary knowledge about urolithiasis among nurses of Department of Urology, and analyse the influential factors. Methods One self-designed questionnaire of dietary knowledge about urolithiasis was utilized to investigate the nurses of Department of Urology in 6 tertiary hospitals, and all data were analysed with SPSS 16.0 software. Results The average score of dietary knowledge about urolithiasis of nurses in 6 hospitals was (9.41±1.84)(total score, 20). There were significant differences in scores of dietary knowledge about calcium oxalate among nurses of different ages and working periods (P<0.05). Conclusion Nurses of Department of Urology have deficiency in dietary knowledge about urolithiasis. Nurses should have more chances to obtain up-to-date information, and have more ways of education to learn dietary knowledge about urolithiasis.

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    Application of health promotion model in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    ZHU Ping, LI Xian-hua
    2011, 31 (6):  713. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.006

    Abstract ( 2139 )   PDF (4409KB) ( 2087 )  

    Objective To investigate the application of health promotion model (HPM) in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and evaluate its effect on therapy compliance of patients. Methods Systemic and comprehensive health education was conducted with HPM in 48 elderly patients with COPD. Health Promoting Interview Outline was employed for case analysis, Patient Therapy Questionnaire was utilized to assess the therapy compliance and admission rate of patients before intervention and one year after intervention. Results Health promotion behavior assessment indicated that all the 48 patients knew benefits of health promoting behaviors and accepted walking as the form of exercise, while 19 patients did not quit smoking, and 2 patients were lack of support from significant others. The main complaints of patients were the long distance from residence to hospital and the subjective ignorance, and the health promotion behavior of 3 patients was affected by working factors. All patients identified their health behavior programs. One year after intervention, the therapy compliance of patients significantly improved in the aspects of medicine taking, out-patient follow-up and physical therapy (P<0.05), and the admission rate significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion Health education with HPM can improve the therapy compliance and decrease the admission rate of elderly patients with COPD.

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    Effects of cognition and behaviors of caregivers on quality of life in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    ZHU Yuan, YU Xiao-ping, PAN Li-qian
    2011, 31 (6):  717. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.007

    Abstract ( 1679 )   PDF (3315KB) ( 1344 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of cognition and behaviors of caregivers on quality of life in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Fifty-seven elderly patients with moderate COPD and their caregivers were surveyed. Caregiver questionnaire was designed to investigate the cognition and behaviors of caregivers, which concerned the cognition of disease and treatment, behavior of monitoring of medication and pulmonary rehabilitation, behavior of accompanying of examination and treatment, and behavior of encouragement of rehabilitation. St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire was adopted to investigate the quality of life of patients. Results Among the 57 caregivers, 5 (8.78%) knew nothing about COPD and treatment, 8 (14.04%) never monitored medication, 27 (47.37%) never monitored pulmonary rehabilitation, 12 (21.05%)never accompanied patients to take examinations and treatment, and 19 (33.33%) never encourage patient to attend pulmonary rehabilitation. The mean score of caregiver questionnaire was (6.81±3.47), the mean score of quality of life was (46.30±20.10), and there was significantly negative relationship between them (r=-0.49, P<0.01). Conclusion There is much room for improvement for the cognition and behaviors of caregivers for elderly patients with COPD, and effective care may improve the quality of life of patients.

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    Application of intra-aortic balloon pump in perioperative nursing for patients with severe coronary heart diseases
    PENG Cai-hong, KANG Lei
    2011, 31 (6):  720. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.008

    Abstract ( 1776 )   PDF (3160KB) ( 1395 )  

    Objective To apply intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in perioperative nursing for patients with severe coronary heart diseases. Methods The clinical data of 54 patients with severe coronary heart diseases undergoing perioperative IABP support were collected. The catheterization process of IABP and nursing procedures were retrospectively analysed, and the guideline for nursing was summarized on the basis of literature review. Results IABP was applied to 2 patients with severe postoperative low cardiac output syndrome after unsuccessful treatment with high dose of vasoactive drugs, and the other patients received IABP catheterization before anesthesia induction. The time of IABP application was 48 h to 120 h, with the median time of 62 h. Forty-eight patients (88.9%) survived, and 6 (11.1%) died, with no IABP associated complications. Conclusion IABP application is an effective perioperative treatment for patients with severe coronary heart diseases. Intensive and proper nursing is important to improve the clinical outcomes of IABP application, promote recovery and facilitate rescue.

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    Research progress of nursing ethics in liver transplantation
    LU Ye-feng, ZHAO Ai-ping, WANG Yan
    2011, 31 (6):  723. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.009

    Abstract ( 1555 )   PDF (4238KB) ( 1617 )  

    Liver transplantation brings not only hopes to patients with end-stage hepatic diseases, but also many ethical problems to society. The research status of nursing ethics in liver transplantation is reviewed in this paper, in hopes of offering some ideas to nurses working for liver transplantation.

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    Development of post-baccalaureate nurse residency program in the United States
    HU Yun
    2011, 31 (6):  727. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.010

    Abstract ( 1421 )   PDF (3368KB) ( 1229 )  

    As a successful way to culture post-baccalaureate nurses, nurse residency program is treated as an important method to attract new graduate nurses, enhance the nurse job satisfaction, reduce the turnover of nurses and resolve the shortage of nurses. In this article, the general development of nurse residency program in the United States is outlined to provide some considerations for the post-baccalaureate nurse training in China.

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    Factors and interventions for mental disorders in patients with prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy
    YANG Yan, CHEN Li
    2011, 31 (6):  730. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.011

    Abstract ( 1723 )   PDF (2985KB) ( 1385 )  

    Though androgen deprivation therapy is the first choice for patients with advanced prostate cancer, it significantly decreases the quality of life and causes lots of mental disorders in patients, such as self-image disturbance, inferiority, anxiety, phobia, suspicious, fatigue, frustration, depression and so on. Psychological intervention may be an important method to recover from their mental trauma. Nursing staff, who contact with patients most frequently, are responsible for realizing psychological problems of patients in different periods, analyzing the possible causes, mastering the effective countermeasures and providing high-quality psychological care service to improve the quality of life of patients. This paper reviews the causes and corresponding countermeasures for mental disorders of patients with prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy, in hopes of helping nurses to conduct effective psychological intervention.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Evaluation of transfection efficiency of novel non-viral nano gene vector PEI-β-CyD on chondrocytes and bone marrowderived mesenchymal stem cells
    TONG Hai-jun, HUANG Jin-gang, TANG Gu-ping, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  733. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.012

    Abstract ( 1791 )   PDF (9170KB) ( 1218 )  

    Objective To evaluate the transfection efficiency of novel non-viral nano gene vector polyethyleneimine-β-cyclodextrin (PEI-β-CyD) on chondrocyte cell line C5.18 and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2. Methods Chondrocyte cell line C5.18 and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 were cultured in vitro, and the cytotoxicity of PEI-β-CyD and PEI25KDa (polyethyleneimine of 25 000 in molecular weight) on C5.18 cells and C3H10T1/2 cells was observed and compared by MTT method. C5.18 cells and C3H10T1/2 cells were transfected with PEI-β-CyD and PEI25KDa respectively under different ratios of effective nitrogen content in vectors to effective phosphorus content in exogenous gene (N/P), and the transfection efficiency was analysed by inverted fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Results The cytotoxicity of PEI-β-CyD was significantly lower than that of PEI25KDa to both C5.18 cells and C3H10T1/2 cells. For C5.18 cells, there was no significant difference in transfection efficiency between PEI-β-CyD and PEI25KDa (P>0.05), and for C3H10T1/2 cells, transfection efficiency of PEI-β-CyD was significantly higher than that of PEI25KDa (P<0.05). Conclusion PEI-β-CyD is an ideal non-viral nano gene vector with low cytotoxicity and favorable transfection efficiency for chondrocyte cell line C5.18 and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2, which is promising in the research and application of cartilage tissue engineering and cell therapy.

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    Effects of BMSCs on expression of CD4+CD25+Treg in rats with unilateral ureter obstruction
    ZHUANG Feng, LIU Ying-li, ZHANG Wei, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  739. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.013

    Abstract ( 1697 )   PDF (9300KB) ( 1148 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on expression of CD4+CD25+ Treg in peripheral blood in rats with unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO). Methods BMSCs were isolated from Wistar rats, and were cultured and passaged in vitro. Cell suspension was prepared after identification of adipocytes differentiated from BMSCs. Fifty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, BMSCs intervention group and normal saline infusion group (n=18). Obstructive nephropathy models were established in rats of BMSCs intervention group and normal saline infusion group by UUO, and were injected with BMSCs and normal saline respectively through inferior vena cava. Three days, 7 d and 14 d after model establishment, peripheral blood was taken, and renal tissue samples were obtained after sacrifice of rats (n=6 on each day in each group). The percents of CD4+CD25+Treg in CD4+T cells (CD4+CD25+Treg/CD4+Treg) were detected by flow cytometry, the pathological changes of renal tissues were observed with HE staining by light microscopy, and the expression of CD4+CD25+Treg specific marker FoxP3 in renal tissues was detected by immunohistochemical method. Results CD4+CD25+Treg/CD4+Treg in peripheral blood in BMSCs intervention group and normal saline infusion group were significantly higher than that in sham operation group at each time point after model establishment (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between BMSCs intervention group and normal saline infusion group (P>0.05). Three days and 7 d after model establishment, rats in normal saline infusion group experienced renal interstitial edema, progressive development of renal and renal interstitial lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, and rats in BMSCs intervention group had better renal tissue structure than those in normal saline infusion group. Three days and 7 d after model establishment, the expression of FoxP3 in renal tissues in BMSCs intervention group was significantly higher than that in sham operation group and normal saline infusion group (P<0.05). Conclusion Renal interstitial fibrosis of early stage can be improved by BMSCs injection in rats with obstructive nephropathy, which may be related to the increase of local expression of FoxP3 and generation of CD4+CD25+Treg.

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    Cloning of p16 gene and its role in inhibition of colon cancer SW480 cell growth
    MENG Qing-kai, ZHANG Jing-ru, WANG Hui
    2011, 31 (6):  744. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.014

    Abstract ( 1788 )   PDF (4925KB) ( 1317 )  

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of p16 gene on the growth of colon cancer cell line SW480. Methods p16 gene was cloned into eukaryotic express vector pEGFP-N3 using subclone technique, and the recombinant plasmid was transfected into SW480 cells using Lipofectamine method. MTT assay was performed to analyse the proliferation of cells without transfection (SW480 group), cells transfected with blank plasmid (SW480-GFP group) and cells transfected with p16 (SW480-p16 group) after culture for 24, 48 and 72 h. Real-Time PCR and Western blotting were employed to detect the expression of p16, CDK4 and cyclin D1 mRNA and protein respectively.ResultsCompared with SW480 group and SW480-GFP group, the expression of p16 gene in SW480-p16 group was significantly increased (P<0.01). MTT assay indicated that the cell proliferation in SW480-p16 group was significantly lower than that in SW480 group and SW480GFP group after culture for 48 h and 72 h (P<0.01). Real-Time PCR analysis revealed the expression of p16 mRNA in SW480-p16 group which was 2.59 times of that in SW480, and 2.38 times in SW480-GFP (P<0.01). The expression of cyclin D1 mRNA in SW480-p16 group was significantly lower than that in SW480 group and SW480-GFP group (P<0.05), and the expression of CDK4 mRNA in SW480-p16 group was slightly lower than that in SW480 group and SW480-GFP group (P>0.05). Western blotting demonstrated that the expression of p16 protein in SW480-p16 group was significantly higher than that in SW480-GFP group and SW480 group (P<0.01), while the expression of CDK4 and cyclin D1 protein in SW480-p16 group was significantly lower than that in SW480-GFP group and SW480 group (P<0.01). Conclusion Colon cancer cells transfected with p16 gene can resume the function of inhibiting tumor growth.

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    Proteomics study of effects of propofol on expression of proteins in hippocampus tissues of diabetic rats
    LI Chan, HU Jiang, WEN Da-xiang, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  748. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.015

    Abstract ( 2092 )   PDF (5998KB) ( 1541 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of propofol on the expression of proteins in hippocampus tissues of Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus by proteomics method. Methods GK rats were randomly allocated to propofol group (n=12), control group (n=12) and parameter group (n=5). Rats in propofol group and parameter group were anesthetized with propofol intraperitoneally under an initial bolus injection (100 mg/kg), followed by supplemental doses of 50 mg/kg 1 h and 2 h later, and the anesthesia maintained for 3 h. Rats in control group were injected with the same amount of normal saline. Rats in propofol group were sacrificed 3 h, 24 h, 72 h and 1 week after anesthesia respectively, and hippocampus tissues were obtained and subjected to global protein expression profiling based on SDS-PAGE. Expression factors were compared with results from control group at each time point, and spots expressed more than four-fold change were cut out for mass spectrometry. Rats in parameter group were selected for blood gas analysis 0.5 h, 1.5 h and 2.5 h after administration of propofol. Results Compared with control group, down-regulated spots were found 3 h (7 spots), 24 h (3 spots) and 72 h (2 spots) after anesthesia, 2 up-regulated spots were detected at the time point of 1 week, and 14 differentially expressed proteins were identified in relation to redox reactions, energy metabolism, synaptic transmission, cytoskeleton and movement, and cell apoptosis in propofol group. Blood gas analysis indicated that there were significant differences in pH and PaO2 between the time points of 0.5 h and 2.5 h after administration of propofol in parameter group (P<0.05), while both were in the normal physiological range. Conclusion Propofol anesthesia may result in changes of expression of proteins in hippocampus tissues of GK rats, and proteins such as hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide precursor and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 are associated with cognitive function.

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    Effects of lentivirus-mediated co-transfection of BMP2 gene and VEGF165 gene on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells
    JIANG Jia, FAN Cun-yi, ZENG Bing-fang
    2011, 31 (6):  753. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.016

    Abstract ( 1858 )   PDF (7981KB) ( 1150 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of lentivirus-mediated co-transfection of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) gene on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Methods The expression lentivirus vectors carrying VEGF165,BMP2 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were constructed respectively, and recombinant lentivirus carrying VEGF165 (Lv-VEGF), BMP2 (Lv-BMP) or GFP (Lv-GFP) were packaged and produced respectively. Rat bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and were transfected with Lv-VEGF (VEGF group), Lv-BMP (BMP group) or Lv-GFP (GFP group), co-transfected with Lv-VEGF and Lv-BMP (BMP+VEGF group), or transfected with no virus (control group). The expression of VEGF165 and BMP2 mRNA 7 d after transfection and that of osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA 1, 2 and 4 weeks after transfection in MSCs was detected by RT-PCR in each group. The expression of VEGF165 and BMP2 protein 1, 4 and 8 weeks after transfection and that of OCN protein 1, 2 and 4 weeks after transfection in supernatant fluid of culture was detected by ELISA in each group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining was conducted, and ALP activity of MSCs was measured 14 d after transfection in each group. Results VEGF165 and BMP2 mRNA and protein effectively coexpressed in BMP+VEGF group. There was no significant difference in the expression of BMP2 mRNA and protein between BMP+VEGF group and BMP group (P>0.05), and there was also no significant difference in the expression of VEGF165 mRNA and protein between BMP+VEGF group and VEGF group (P>0.05). There was no expression of BMP2 mRNA and protein in control group, GFP group and VEGF group, and there was also no expression of VEGF165 mRNA and protein in control group, GFP group and BMP group. The expression of OCN mRNA and protein in BMP+VEGF group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.01). The area with positive staining of ALP in BMP+VEGF group was larger than that in control group, VEGF group and BMP group, and the ALP activity in BMP+VEGF group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.01). Conclusion Lentivirus-mediated co-transfection of BMP2 gene and VEGF165 gene may promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived MSCs.

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    Content of tyrosine kinase B in hippocampus of mouse during persistence of spatial memory
    LU Zhi-jun, XIN Yi-chun, CHEN Ken, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  759. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.017

    Abstract ( 1595 )   PDF (5892KB) ( 1399 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of tyrosine kinase B (trkB) protein and mRNA in hippocampus of mouse during persistence of spatial memory in Morris water maze. Methods Twenty-eight C57BL/6 mice were divided into test group (n=14) and control group (n=14). MWM were performed on mice in test group, which included four trail days and one probe day, and mice in control group only experienced one probe day. During trail days, the latencies, swimming distances and swimming velocities were recorded. On probe day, the times across platform and time percent during platform quadrant were recorded. All mice were sacrificed after probe, and hippocampi were dissected for determination of contents of trkB protein and expression of trkB mRNA by ELISA and Real-Time RCR respectively. Results During trail days, the latencies and swimming distances of mice in test group decreased after repetitive training (P<0.05). On probe day, the times across platform and time percent during platform quadrant in test group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the expression of trkB protein and mRNA in hippocampi between test group and control group (P>0.05). Conclusion Long-term spatial memory of mouse is established in Morris water maze, but the content of trkB is not upregulated during persistence of spatial memory.

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    Effects of selective blockade of cGMP-dependent protein kinase on contractility of vascular rings incubated with lipopolysaccharide in rats
    GUO Jun, WANG Xue-min, ZHI Jian-ming, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  764. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.018

    Abstract ( 1594 )   PDF (4865KB) ( 1475 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of selective blockade of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) on contractility of vascular rings incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Methods Thoracic aortic rings of SD rats were obtained, and were randomly divided into control group, LPS group, Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) group and DT-2 trifluoroacetate salt group (DT-2 group). The contraction concentration-response curve, maximal tension (Emax) and concentration required for half maximal response (EC50) of vascular rings to phenylephrine (PE) were measured in vitro at different time points (2 h, 3 h and 4 h after incubation with LPS) in each group. Results The contraction concentrationresponse curves of vascular rings after incubation with LPS for different time were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05). L-NAME effectively improved the contractility of vascular rings after incubation with LPS for 2 h, 3 h and 4 h, and EC50 and Emax were significantly different from those of LPS group (P<0.05). DT-2 significantly enhanced the contractility of vascular rings after incubation with LPS for 3 h (P<0.01), and EC50 and Emax were significantly different from those of LPS group (P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in contraction concentration-response curves between DT-2 group and LPS group at the time points of 2 h and 4 h (P>0.05). Conclusion Selective blockade of PKG can partially recover the contractility of thoracic aortic rings incubated with LPS in rats.

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    Gender differences of oxidative stress reactions in ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons
    TAO Qing-qing, FAN Xiao-lan, LE Wei-dong
    2011, 31 (6):  769. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.019

    Abstract ( 1576 )   PDF (10164KB) ( 1209 )  

    Objective To investigate the gender differences of oxidative stress reactions in ventral mesencephalic (VM) dopamine neurons. Methods VM dopamine neurons of male and female Balb/c fetal mice were cultured, and were divided into control group (without treatment), rotenone group (treated with 25 nmol/L rotenone for 8 h) and estrogen+rotenone group (treated with 1×10-7 mol/L 17 β-estradiol for 1 h and 25 nmol/L rotenone for 8 h). Immunohistochemistry was employed to observe the neuron injury of mice of different genders, MTT assay was adopted to measure the cell viability, and Western blotting was used to detect the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein in cells of mice of different genders. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed that cell injury of male mice was more severe than that of female mice, and cells of male mice with positive TH were more significant than those of female mice with positive TH in rotenone group. MTT assay indicated that there were significant differences in cell viability between male mice (66%) and female mice (75%) in rotenone group (P<0.05), and cell viability of male mice (81%) and female mice (86%) in estrogen+rotenone group was significantly higher than that of mice of corresponding genders in rotenone group (P<0.05). Western blotting demonstrated that the expression of TH protein in cells of male mice was significantly lower than that in cells of female mice in rotenone group (P<0.05), and the expression of TH protein in estrogen+rotenone group was significantly higher than that of corresponding genders in rotenone group (P<0.05). Conclusion There exist gender differences of oxidative stress reactions in VM dopamine neurons. Male is more vulnerable than female in respond to rotenone, and estrogen has protective effects on both male and female neurons.

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    Computer-based molecular structure model analysis of some estrogens
    YAN Jun-jie, LU Yang
    2011, 31 (6):  775. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.020

    Abstract ( 1584 )   PDF (3700KB) ( 1199 )  

    Objective To explore the structure features of some estrogens, and make supplementation to Schueler rule of estrogen activity. Methods Biomolecular model and computer-based simulation software ChemBio3D Ultra11.0 were employed to observe the three dimensional structure model of common estrogens including steroid estrogen (estradiol) and non-steroidal estrogen (diethylstibestrol), and parameters of molecular distance and conjugate planes were analysed. Results The molecular structure parameters of steroid estrogen were inline with estrogen activity as described by Schueler rule, while some molecular structure parameters of non-steroidal estrogen were not. The angles between the planes of benzene rings and alkene in diethylstibestrol were 56.7° and 72.6°respectively. Conclusion The steroid nuclei of estrogens are important for estrogen activity as described by Schueler rule. The conjugate plane in diethylstibestrol is not coplanar due to intramolecular steric interaction.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    PAX4 gene polymorphism and clinical characteristics of early-onset type 2 diabetes in Chinese
    LU Ming, LIU Li-mei, LU Yu-feng, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  778. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.021

    Abstract ( 1634 )   PDF (5092KB) ( 1543 )  

    Objective To screen the polymorphism in exon 3 and 9 of paired box4 (PAX4) gene and investigate the clinical characteristics of early-onset type 2 diabetes in Chinese. Methods Ninety-six patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes (early-onset diabetes group) and 100 people with normal results in oral glucose tolerance test (control group) were enrolled. PCR-direct sequencing was employed to detect polymorphism in exon 3 and 9 of PAX4 gene in two groups, and genotypic and allelic frequencies and clinical characteristics were statistically analysed.ResultsHis321Pro (A→C)polymorphism in exon 9 of PAX4 gene was detected in both groups, while no polymorphism was found in exon 3 of the gene. In comparison with control group, higher frequencies of CC genotype and C allele of His321Pro (A→C) polymorphism in exon 9 of PAX4 gene were detected in early-onset diabetes group, while there was no significant difference between groups (16.7% vs 11.0% and 41.1% vs 34.0%, P>0.05 for both). The frequencies of CC genotype and C allele of His321Pro (A→C) polymorphism in exon 9 of PAX4 gene in controls of this study were significantly lower than those in studies of Switzerland, Germany, Finland and Hungary (P<0.001). The fasting C peptide (FCP) levels of homozygous CC genotype carriers were significantly lower than those of AA and AC genotype carriers with His321Pro (A→C) polymorphism in exon 9 of PAX4 gene in early-onset diabetes group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion PAX4 gene polymorphism may not be the genetic susceptibility marker associated with the development of early-onset type 2 diabetes in Chinese. His321Pro (A→C)polymorphism in exon 9 of PAX4 gene may be associate with impaired fasting insulin secretion.

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    Analysis of clinical manifestations and gene mutations in children with primary adrenal insufficiency
    CHANG Guo-ying, DONG Zhi-ya, WANG Wei, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  782. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.022

    Abstract ( 2030 )   PDF (6907KB) ( 1436 )  

    Objective To observe the clinical manifestations in children with primary adrenal insufficiency, investigate the prevalences of DAX1 and SF1 gene mutations, and explore the possible mechanism of the disease. Methods Twentyfive boys with primary adrenal insufficiency were enrolled, the clinical characteristics were observed, and assistant examinations were performed. Genome DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, exon 1 and exon 2 of DAX1 gene were amplified by PCR for sequencing, and mutation screening of SF1 gene (exon 2-7) was conducted. Results There were symptoms of hyperpigmentation in skin, fatigue and weakness, nausea, vomiting and dehydration in all patients. Adrenal crisis occurred in 18 patients, and 8 patients had definite family history. Eight (53.3%) of the 15 adolescents had impaired sex development. Analysis of DAX1 gene identified 8 mutations (6 frameshift mutations,1 missense mutation and 1 nonsense mutation), six of which were novel (c.291delC, c.332-333delCT, p.E137X, c.605delG, c.731delG and c.838delG), and the other two (p.L262P in two male cousins and c.652-653delCA in 1 patient) had been reported. No SF1 gene mutation was identified. DAX1 gene mutations were found in 40% (10/25) of patients, in 62.5% (5/8) of those with impaired sex development, and in 100%(8/8) of those with family history. There were various clinical presentations and ages in patients with DAX1 gene mutations. Conclusion DAX1 gene mutations may be a frequent cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in children, while mutation in SF1 seldomly occurs. There are various clinical manifestations for gene mutations, and there may be no definite relationship between gene mutations and clinical manifestations.

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    Physical and chemical properties of novel stabilized neutral potential water and its antimicrobial effect on common multi-drug resistant pathogens isolated from wards
    WANG Wen-kui, LI Zuo-zhen, ZHANG feng, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  788. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.023

    Abstract ( 1969 )   PDF (6518KB) ( 1216 )  

    Objective To evaluate the physical and chemical properties of a novel stabilized neutral potential water, and observe its antimicrobial effect on common multidrug resistant pathogens isolated from burn wards. Methods Novel neutral potential water samples freshly prepared (prepared within 1 month) and preserved for 8 months were selected, parameters of effective chlorine content, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value and pH value were employed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties, and investigate the effects of long-term preservation on the physical and chemical properties. Colony growth of common multi-drug resistant pathogens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from burn wards in culture media with novel stabilized neutral potential water was observed by living bacterial counting, and sterilized normal saline was used to substitute neutral potential water as positive control for parallel test. Results The effective chlorine content, ORP value and pH value of novel stabilized neutral potential water samples freshly prepared and preserved for 8 months were 50 to 100 mg/L, >800 mV and 6.0 to 7.0 respectively, and there was no significant difference in physical and chemical properties between freshly prepared sample and that preserved for 8 months. Living bacterial counting revealed that no colony growth was observed in culture media with novel stabilized neutral potential water freshly prepared and preserved for 8 months. Conclusion Novel stabilized neutral potential water has less side effects on skin, stable physical and chemical properties and favorable antimicrobial effect, and can be an ideal disinfectant in burn wards.

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    Clinical study of routine repeat CT after traumatic brain injury
    DING Jun, GUO Yan, CHEN Shi-wen, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  793. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.024

    Abstract ( 1422 )   PDF (4463KB) ( 1408 )  

    Objective To investigate the necessity of routine repeat CT after traumatic brain injury. Methods One hundred and three patients with traumatic brain injury without emergency operations at admission were selected and randomly divided into routine repeat CT group (n=53) and non-routine repeat CT group (n=50). Age, gender, score of Glasgow coma scale (GCS) at admission, mechanism of injury, time between first CT scan and injury (HCT1), type and location of injury, volume of hematoma, blood coagulation function at admission, length of stay at intensive care unit (ICU), length of hospital stay, score of GCS at discharge and hospital charge were compared between groups. Related factors of progressive hemorrhage were investigated by Logistic regression analysis. Patients in routine-repeat CT group were subdivided into three groups according to GCS scores (3 to 8 points group, 9 to 12 points group and 13 to 15 points group), and the necessity for routine repeat CT was evaluated. Results There were significant differences in score of GCS at discharge, length of stay at ICU and length of hospital stay between these two groups (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in hospital charge between these two groups (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that age, fibrin degradation products (FDP), international normalized ratio (INR) and D-dimer concentration (DD) were risk factors for progressive hemorrhage (OR>1, P<0.05). Lower GCS score at admission, HCT1 and platelet count (PLT) were associated with a greater likelihood of developing progressive hemorrhage (OR<1, P<0.05). In routine repeat CT group, 53 patients underwent 161 times of repeat CT, 1 (4%) of the 25 patients with mild traumatic brain injury (13 to 15 points group) developed progressive injury and changed the therapy, and 18 (64.3%)of the 28 patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (3 to 8 points group and 9 to 12 points group) changed the therapy. Conclusion Routine repeat CT has definite value in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

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    Time-effect relationship of Kangliu Zengxiao Decoction in reducing chemotherapy-associated adverse reactions in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer
    ZHU Li-min, ZHANG Hui, ZHOU Hao, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  797. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.025

    Abstract ( 1830 )   PDF (4976KB) ( 1335 )  

    Objective To observe the time-effect relationship of Kangliu Zengxiao Decoction in reducing chemotherapy-associated adverse reactions in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Methods One hundred and twenty-four patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were randomly divided into four groups. Patients in group A, group B and group C were treated with Kangliu Zengxiao Decoction 10 d, 5 d and 0 d before chemotherapy respectively, and those in group D received chemotherapy only. The main clinical symptoms, quality of life, immune function and adverse reactions of myelosuppression, liver and kidney function, and digestive system were compared among groups. Results The improvement rates of clinical symptoms (fatigue, aching lumbus and limp legs), the percentages of CD3 and CD4, and the ratio of  CD4 to CD8 in group A were significantly higher than those in group B, group C and group D (P<0.05), and the improvement rate of quality of life in group A was significantly higher than that in group D (P<0.01). The incidences of myelosuppression (decrease in numbers of white cells and neutrophils), hepatotoxicity, nausea and vomiting in group A were significantly lower than those in group D (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the incidences of the other adverse reactions among groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Application of Kangliu Zengxiao Decoction 10 d before chemotherapy may gain better results in reducing adverse reactions of chemotherapy, improving quality of life and immune function than administration 5 d and 0 d before chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Relationship between type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy and severity of osteoarthritis of knee
    SUN Chang-hui, CEN Jian-ping, LU Jiong, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  802. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.026

    Abstract ( 1998 )   PDF (4201KB) ( 1495 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy and severity of osteoarthritis of knee. Methods Two hundred patients with osteoarthritis of knee and type 2 diabetes mellitus and 171 patients with osteoarthritis of knee and no type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected. The severity of osteoarthritis of knee was determined by X-ray examination, the status of peripheral neuropathy was assessed by electromyography, the diabetes mellitus-related parameters of fasting blood glucose, 2 h post-prandial blood glucose, glycosylated serum protein and glycated hemoglobin were detected by autoanalyser, and the relationship between diabetes mellitus, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and severity of osteoarthritis of knee was evaluated by Logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic analysis revealed that the status of diabetes mellitus (OR=1.66, P=0.009), fasting blood glucose (OR=2.11, P<0.001), 2 h post-prandial blood glucose (OR=1.57, P<0.001), glycosylated serum protein (OR=1.63, P<0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (OR=2.22, P<0.001) were significantly related to the severity of osteoarthritis of knee. The status of diabetes mellitus was significantly related to the status of peripheral neuropathy (OR=1.73, P<0.001). The status of diabetic peripheral neuropathy was significantly related to the severity of osteoarthritis of knee (OR=1.92, P=0.016), and diabetic peripheral neural degeneration (OR=2.2, P=0.008) and diabetic peripheral neural abnormality (OR=6.35, P=0.029) were significantly related to the severity of osteoarthritis of knee. Conclusion Type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy might be related to the severity of osteoarthritis of knee. The relatively mild symptoms in some patients with severe osteoarthritis might be caused by diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and should be attached greater importance.

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    Effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of sRAGE and esRAGE in patients with unstable angina
    LI Ruo-gu, FANG Wei-yi, QU Xin-kai, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  806. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.027

    Abstract ( 1427 )   PDF (4250KB) ( 1324 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products(sRAGE) and endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end products(esRAGE) in patients with unstable angina. Methods Forty patients with unstable angina (UA group) were selected, and 20 mg/d of atorvastatin was orally administrated. Venous blood samples were obtained before treatment and 3 months after treatment, and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C), glucose, glycated hemoglobin(HbA1C), sRAGE and esRAGE were measured. Another 20 age and gender matched healthy subjects were served as control group. Results Before treatment, serum levels of TC and LDL-C in UA group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), and serum levels of sRAGE and esRAGE in UA group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05, P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in the other parameters between groups (P>0.05). After treatment with atorvastatin for 3 months, serum levels of glucose and HbA1C in UA group were not significantly different from those before treatment (P>0.05), serum levels of TC and LDL-C were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and serum levels of sRAGE and esRAGE were significantly higher than those before treatment (P<0.05). Linear correlation analysis revealed that there was a negative correlation between serum level of esRAGE and serum level of LDL-C (r=-0.36,P=0.01). Conclusion Statins have pleiotropic effects, and atorvastatin can increase serum levels of sRAGE and esRAGE in patients with unstable angina.

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    Effectiveness of combined therapy with terazosin and tolterodine for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia
    SHEN Jian, CHEN Jian-hua, YU Qi-wei, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  809. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.028

    Abstract ( 1442 )   PDF (3969KB) ( 1292 )  

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of combined therapy with terazosin and tolterodine for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods Seventy-four patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia without serious obstructive symptom were randomly assigned to terazosin group (treated with terazosin only, n=31) and combined therapy group (treated with terazosin and tolterodine, n=43). The International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), score on the urinary storage phase symptoms, maximum urinary flow rate, mean voiding volume per 24 h, residual urine volume, number of micturation per 24 h, number of incontinence per 24 h and number of enuresis nocturna were obtained before and after treatment, and the adverse events were recorded. Results Twelve weeks after treatment, the IPSS, score on the urinary storage phase symptoms, residual urine volume, number of micturation per 24 h, number of incontinence per 24 h and number of enuresis nocturna significantly decreased in terazosin group (P<0.05), while maximum urinary flow rate and mean voiding volume significantly increased (P<0.05). There were significant differences in IPSS, score on the urinary storage phase symptoms, number of incontinence and number of enuresis nocturna between two groups after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion Combined therapy with terazosin and tolterodine can well relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia without serious obstruction of urinary tract.

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    In vitro experiment of retention strength attenuation of three attachments
    WANG De-fang, DONG Zheng-jie, BAO Xiang-jun, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  813. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.029

    Abstract ( 1485 )   PDF (4423KB) ( 1464 )  

    Objective To investigate the changes of retention strength of magnetic attachment, precise attachment and semiprecise attachment after repeated dislocation in vitro. Methods Magnetic attachment (Magfit EX 600W), precise attachment (Mini-SG attachment) and semi-precise attachment (ERA attachment) were fixed on universal material test machine respectively. The retention strength of each attachment was measured initially and after repeated stretching (500 times, 1 000 times, 1 500 times and 2 000 times of stretching) with the speed of two times per second. The attenuation of retention strength of each attachment was observed and analysed. Results The initial retention strength of magnetic attachment, Mini-SG attachment and ERA attachment was 2.67 N, 7.30 N and 40.20 N respectively. There was no significant change in retention strength of magnetic attachment during 2000 times of stretching. The curve of retention strength of Mini-SG attachment was relatively smooth, and the retention strength exhibited a downward trend. The retention strength of ERA attachment decreased significantly during the first 500 times of stretching, and the curve of retention strength turned to be smooth later. The attenuation rates of retention strength of magnetic attachment, MiniSG attachment and ERA attachment were 0.75%, 45.75% and 69.95% respectively. Conclusion The retention strength of magnetic attachment may not be influenced by times of dislocation, and the initial retention strength and attenuation rate of Mini-SG attachment were smaller than those of ERA attachment. The results of this experiment provide reference for attachment selection for both dentists and patients.

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    Therapeutic effects of individualized comprehensive treatment for Wilms tumor in children
    YANG Jing-wei, JIANG Hui, LU Zheng-hua, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  817. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.030

    Abstract ( 1906 )   PDF (4170KB) ( 1417 )  

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of individualized comprehensive treatment for Wilms tumor in children. Methods The clinical data of patients with Wilms tumor confirmed by clinical features, radiology and pathology from September 2005 to December 2009 were collected. Thirty-eight patients were included, with 24 males and 14 females, and the mean age was 2.67 years. There were unilateral lesions in 37 cases and bilateral lesions in 1 case. Individualized comprehensive treatment regimen was designed. Tumorectomy and nephrectomy were optimal approaches for unilateral lesions. For those with high risks for operation, chemotherapy was performed after fine needle aspiration biopsy to constrict the masses and eliminate the metastatic lesions, and operations were followed. Chemotherapy and chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy were designed after operation according to the histological types and clinical stages of tumors. Patients were followed up for 12 to 60 months. Results The total remission rate was 97.37% (37/38), the overall survival was 89.47% (34/38), and the disease-free survival was 86.84% (33/38). The disease-free survival of patients with clinical stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ were 100% (17/17)and 91.67% (11/12)respectively, which were significantly higher than those of patients with clinical stage Ⅲ (60.00%, 3/5) and stage Ⅳ (66.67%, 2/3)(P<0.01). The overall survival was 96.77% (30/31) in patients with favorable histological types, that was 57.14% (4/7) in patients with unfavorable histological types, and there were significant differences between them (P=0.001). Five patients experienced recurrence (13.16%), 3 of whom were rhabdomyosarcoma type. Conclusion Individualized comprehensive treatment may yield good therapeutic effects for Wilms tumor in children. Patients of unfavorable histological types (rhabdomyosarcoma type for example) and advanced stages (clinical stage III and stage IV) may have worse prognosis, and should be attached greater importance.

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    Role of videoendoscopic swallowing study in evaluation of surgical outcome of Zenker's diverticulum
    CHEN Jia-rui, Jean Lacau Saint Guily, WANG Jia-dong
    2011, 31 (6):  821. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.031

    Abstract ( 1536 )   PDF (3378KB) ( 1106 )  

    Objective To investigate the role of rising tide sign (RTS) in videoendoscopic swallowing study (VESS) in the diagnosis and evaluation of surgical outcome of Zenker's diverticulum. Methods The clinical data of 148 patients with Zenker's diverticulum undergoing operations consecutively between May 1998 and April 2010 were retrospectively analysed. VESS was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and the results were compared for the presence of RTS. Videoendoscopic characteristics based on the times of swallow before onset of RTS and the preoperative size of Zenker's diverticulum on barium swallow were also compared with a randomly selected subset of 38 patients with Zenker's diverticulum. Finally, the videoendoscoic recordings of 25 patients with isolated upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction without Zenker's diverticulum were retrospectively reviewed to look for RTS. Results All these 148 patients presented RTS on the preoperative VESS. No correlation was observed between the times of swallow before onset of RTS and the size of diverticulum (P>0.05). Follow-up data were available for 121 patients, and 111 patients were significantly improved in symptoms with complete disappearance of RTS. Recurrence of symptoms was observed during follow-up in 10 patients, 7 of whom had recurrence of RTS after a mean follow-up of 37 months. In contrast, RTS was never observed in the 25 patients with isolated upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Conclusion RTS observed in VESS is a specific feature of Zenker's diverticulum. VESS can be used as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of Zenker's diverticulum and evaluation of surgical outcome during follow-up.

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    Analysis of related factors for erectile dysfunction in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension
    ZHANG Jia-hui, YANG Hai-yun, ZHOU Hui, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  824. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.032

    Abstract ( 1935 )   PDF (4402KB) ( 1355 )  

    Objective To explore the related factors for erectile dysfunction (ED) in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension. Methods Two hundred and fifty-seven patients with essential hypertension aged between 40 to 70 years were selected, the data of age, duration of hypertension, blood pressure, status of hypertensive target organs, body mass index and waist circumference were recorded, the erectile function was evaluated by International Index of Erectile Function-5, the status and severity of depression were investigated by Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS), and univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analyses were employed to explore the relationship between ED and related factors. Results There were 188 patients (73.15%) with ED in all the 257 patients, and the SDS score of patients with ED (47.49±10.74) was significantly higher than that of Chinese norm (41.88±10.57)(P<0.01). Logistic regression analyses revealed that duration of hypertension, pulse pressure, status of hypertensive target organs and depression were significantly related to ED in middle-aged patients (40 to 59 years old) with hypertension (P<0.05), and duration of hypertension and pulse pressure were significantly related to ED in elderly patients (60 to 70 years old) with hypertension (P=0.00). Conclusion The chance of ED should be considered in patients with long duration of hypertension, high pulse pressure, hypertensive target organ damage and depression.

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    Clinical comparison of minimizing ventricular pacing mode
    ZHANG Min, GU Gang, SHEN Yong-chu, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  828. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.033

    Abstract ( 2297 )   PDF (4210KB) ( 1328 )  

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of minimizing ventricular pacing mode. Methods The Medtronic Adapta ADD01 pacemakers were implanted in 32 patients with sick sinus syndrome. The percentages of ventricular pacing and incidences of arrhythmia were compared two months after application of managed ventricular pacing (MVP) mode, fixed long extension of atrioventricular delay (LAVD) mode and enhanced automatic atrioventricular interval search (Search AV+) mode. Results Patients were followed up for 6 months, and no pacemaker-associated atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and other adverse events were observed. In MVP mode, the percentage of ventricular pacing (0.35%) was significantly lower than those in LAVD mode (0.65%) and Search AV+ mode (0.7%)(P<0.05). Compared with LAVD mode, Search AV+ mode mildly increased the percentage of ventricular pacing (P>0.05). Conclusion MVP mode is better than Search AV+ mode and LAVD mode in minimizing ventricular pacing.

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    Relationship between fasting blood glucose at admission and outcomes in hospitalized patients
    HU Yi-ming, REN Ying, SHAO Qi, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  832. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.034

    Abstract ( 1680 )   PDF (4281KB) ( 1305 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between fasting blood glucose at admission and outcomes in hospitalized patients. Methods The clinical data of 186 192 hospitalized patients between 2006 and 2009 were screened, and patients confirmed with diabetes were excluded. Patients who received fasting blood glucose measurement on the second day of admission and died in hospital were selected as death case group (n=1 731), and 1 731 matched controls were recruited according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The associations of fasting blood glucose at admission with hospital mortality and hospital cost were statistically analysed. Results The fasting blood glucose at admission and hospital cost in death case group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Patients with fasting blood glucose at admission of 5.0 mmol/L to 7.9 mmol/L had the lowest hospital mortality and hospital cost, while the hospital mortalities of those with fasting blood glucose at admission lower than 5.0 mmol/L or 7.9 mmol/L significantly increased (P<0.01), and the hospital cost also markedly increased. The risk of hospital mortality was the highest when fasting blood glucose at admission was lower than 3.0 mmol/L, with odds ratio (OR) of 1.67 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.42 to 1.98 (P<0.01). Fasting blood glucose at admission was independent risk factor for hospital mortality after adjustment by age, sex and ICD (OR=1.486,95%CI =1.423 to 1.552)(P<0.001). Conclusion Fasting blood glucose at admission is independent risk factor for hospital mortality in hospitalized patients, and hypoglycemia may be more risky for hospital mortality.

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    Surgical treatment of 375 cases of valvular heart disease with large left ventricle
    YE Yi-zhou, SHEN Feng, DONG Li-ya, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  836. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.035

    Abstract ( 1490 )   PDF (4213KB) ( 1257 )  

    Objective To retrospectively summarize the experience of surgical treatment of valvular heart disease with large left ventricle. Methods The clinical data of 375 cases of valvular heart disease with large left ventricle were collected. All cases were performed operations under general anesthesia with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, including mitral valve replacement in 88 cases, aortic valve replacement in 206 cases and combined mitral and aortic valve replacement in 81 cases. Two hundred and twentyfive cases received tricuspid valvoplasty at the same time. The early postoperative complications, early mortality rate, causes of death and follow-up data were retrospectively analysed. The experience of surgical treatment was summarized on the basis of literature review. Results The early postoperative complications occurred in 97 cases (25.87%), including low cardiac output syndrome (12 cases,3.20%), lung infection (17 cases,4.53%), renal insufficiency (18 cases, 4.80%), ventricular arrhythmia (46 cases,12.27%) and a second operation due to postoperative hemorrhage (4 cases,1.07%). The early mortality rate was 3.20% (12 cases), and the death causes were low cardiac output syndrome (4 cases), ventricular arrhythmia (3 cases), renal insufficiency (3 cases) and lung infection (2 cases). All the other cases were cured and discharged. There was no death during the follow-up (2 months to 1 year), and the cardiac function of these cases was significantly improved. Conclusion The comprehensive preoperative preparation, precise operative procedure, sufficient myocardial preservation and proper management in intensive care unit were the keys to the successful surgical treatment of valvular heart disease with large left ventricle.

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    Original article (Preventive medicine)
    Meta-analysis of correlation between tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer
    WU Shi-yu, LI Miao-zhu, LIU Yan, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  840. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.036

    Abstract ( 1729 )   PDF (4942KB) ( 1195 )  

    Objective To explore the correlation between tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer through Meta-analysis. Methods Relative studies published between 1995 and 2010 about tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer were searched in Pubmed, EMbase, CBMdisc, CNKI and Wanfang Data. All reports were systemically reviewed, and Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.1.0 software. Results A total of 9 domestic and overseas case-control studies and cohort studies were included, with 4 571 cases and 65 215 controls. Meta-analysis revealed that tea consumption significantly decreased the risk of ovarian cancer (RR, 0.82; 95%CI, 0.70-0.96; P<0.001), and the effect was more significant for green tea consumption (RR, 0.69; 95%CI, 0.54-0.90; P=0.006). Conclusion Tea consumption, especially green tea consumption, may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Research on obstetric service process reengineering in a tertiary general hospital
    JIANG Yi-feng, FENG You-ji, XI Xiao-wei, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  844. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.037

    Abstract ( 1386 )   PDF (3953KB) ( 1427 )  

    Objective To investigate the flaws of obstetric service process, and reengineer the process in a tertiary general hospital. Methods The obstetric outpatient data of a tertiary general hospital from June 2009 to May 2010 were analysed, and spot investigations were conducted in the obstetric department. The flaws of obstetric service process were explored, and the obstetric service process was reengineered. Results The distribution disequilibrium in number of obstetric outpatient visit led to the unbalanced workload of medical staff and unreasonable use of medical resources. These problems could be resolved by improving the outpatient reservation system. In addition, obstetric service process could be reengineered by means of perfecting outpatient reservation, establishing emergency plans and optimizing sickbed allocation. Conclusion To stagger initial visits, subsequent visits and emergency are the kernels of obstetric service process. To set up effective reservation system and to build comfortable environment are the basic ways of obstetric process reengineering.

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    Review
    Impact of oncolytic viruses in combination with radiotherapy on tumor cells
    YAO Yu-ting, QIAN Guan-xiang, GE Sheng-fang
    2011, 31 (6):  848. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.038

    Abstract ( 1752 )   PDF (4794KB) ( 1182 )  

    Oncolytic viruses have been developed as a new approach for the treatment of cancer. Oncolytic viruses in combination with radiotherapy may have an important impact for the treatment of metastatic cancer after the approval of oncolytic adenovirus for clinical tumor treatment. In this review, the killing effects on tumor cells of oncolytic viruses in combination with radiotherapy are discussed.

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    Research progress and clinical implication prospect of TMPRSS2-ETS fusion gene in prostate cancer
    DING Yi-xing, QI Juan
    2011, 31 (6):  852. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.039

    Abstract ( 1997 )   PDF (6864KB) ( 1377 )  

    There is a high incidence of prostate cancer in western countries, and there has been an increasing incidence in China. Early detection of prostate cancer is the key to management and prognosis. There exist limitations in non-invasive diagnostic approaches for prostate cancer. TMPRSS2-ETS fusion gene is a novel biomarker proved to have correlation with prostate cancer, and TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is the most common subtype of ETS fusions. Urinary detection of TMPRSS2-ETS fusion gene has a definite value in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, with higher specificity and positive predictive value. The research progress and clinical implication prospect of TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusion in prostate cancer are reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 4F2
    LI Jie-hui, XU Jian-jun
    2011, 31 (6):  858. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.040

    Abstract ( 1262 )   PDF (3978KB) ( 1019 )  

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4F2, a member of the CYP4F enzyme subfamily, takes part in a series of biochemical reaction in vivo. Recent researches have revealed the new mechanism the enzyme plays in the cardiovascular and hematological fields, such as essential hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke and metabolism of arachidonic acid and warfarin.

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    Technique and method
    Preparation of sustained-release urokinase nanoparticles
    JIN Hai-jiang, ZHANG Hao, ZHANG Bai-gen, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  862. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.041

    Abstract ( 1520 )   PDF (4563KB) ( 1419 )  

    Objective To prepare urokinase water soluble chitosan (WSC) nanoparticles, and investigate its activity. Methods Urokinase WSC nanoparticles were prepared by ionic crosslinking method, and the encapsulation efficiency of urokinase nanoparticles was measured. The effects of quality ratio of WSC to tripolyphosphate, concentration of urokinase, time and velocity of magnetic stirring, and time and power of ultrasound on encapsulation efficiency were determined, and the conditions for the highest encapsulation efficiency were obtained. The diameters of urokinase nanoparticles were measured by particle size instrument. Urokinase nanoparticles were purified by centrifugal ultrafiltration, and were injected into New Zealand rabbits (urokinase nanoparticles group). Blood samples were taken from rabbits at different time points, and the activity of urokinase nanoparticles was examined. Rabbits injected with single urokinase were served as control group. Results Under room temperature, when tripolyphosphate solution (0.6 g/L) was dropped into WSC solution (1.0 g/L) containing urokinase (1 mg/10 mL), urokinase nanoparticles with the highest encapsulation efficiency (94.8%) were obtained with the time and velocity of stirring of 60 min and 800 r/min respectively, and the time and power of ultrasound in ice bath of 30 s and 10 W respectively. The serum activity of urokinase gradually decreased with time after reaching the peak in control group, while that maintained at a higher level after reaching the peak in urokinase nanoparticles group. Conclusion Urokinase WSC nanoparticles have been successfully prepared, which possess not only sustained-release function, but also activity of urokinase.

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    Case report
    One case report of intravenous leiomyomatosis with right atrium extension
    XU Ying-chun, YE Ming, SUN Li, et al
    2011, 31 (6):  866. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.06.042

    Abstract ( 1899 )   PDF (5310KB) ( 1348 )  

    Intravenous leiomyomatosis with right atrium extension is a rare tumor with potential lethality, hormonal dependency and vascular extension. Surgical excision and hormonal therapy-based multi-discipline cooperation therapeutics may be the optimal therapy and helpful to improve the prognosis. One case of intravenous leiomyomatosis with right atrium extension which was diagnosed by examinations of echocardiography, chest and abdomen CT, CT angiography and pathology was reported in this paper. Tamoxifen and luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist were administered as endocrine therapy, and the tumor was resected through a two-stage approach. The patient underwent one-stage resection for the mass of right atrium and inferior vena cava, and the outcome was satisfactory.

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