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    Original article (Basic research)
    Comparison of viability of Leptospira in macrophages from different hosts
    LUO Yun-man, HUANG Li-li, LIU Bo-yu, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  869. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.001

    Abstract ( 1969 )   PDF (8300KB) ( 1193 )  

    Objective To explore the role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis by comparing the viability of Leptospira in mononuclear macrophages of human and mouse origin. Methods Human monocytic cell lines (THP-1) treated with phorbol myfismte acetate (PMA) to be differentiated into macrophages and murine mononuclear macrophages cell lines (RAW264.7) were infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain autumnalis #56606 (56606v) and avirulent strain (56606a) in vitro. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was employed to determine the percentages of cells with intracellular leptospires in these two cell lines with immunofluorescence staining 2 h, 24 h and 72 h after infection, and Real-Time PCR was used to detect the expression of 16S rRNA of leptospires in these two cell lines 2 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after infection, which indirectly reflected the viability of intracellular Leptospira. Results The percentages of THP-1 and RAW264.7 cells with leptospires decreased with time of infection. RealTime PCR revealed that the expression of 16S rRNA of leptospires in these two cell lines decreased with time of infection, and the numbers of intracellular viable leptospires also decreased with time of infection. Conclusion Leptospira can not survive and replicate within macrophages of human or mouse origin, which indicates that anti-degradation of macrophages by pathogenic Leptospira may not be the major pathogenic mechanism of leptospirosis. Further studies are required to interpret the pathogenesis.

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    Association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1272 and Rv1273 with drug resistance
    CHENG Xu-hong, SUN Qing, YAO Yu-feng, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  875. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.002

    Abstract ( 1666 )   PDF (5919KB) ( 1578 )  

    Objective To investigate the association of two proteins coded by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1272 and Rv1273 with drug efflux. Methods The structures of Rv1272 gene, Rv1273 gene and proteins coded by them were analyzed by bioinformatics, and these two genes were amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector pMF406 to generate the recombinant plasmids. After verification by sequence analysis, the recombinant plasmids were transformed into M.Smegmatis mc2155 by electroporation. The subcellular localization of these two proteins was probed by Western blotting, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine commonly used antibiotics drugs were determined by test tube method, with M. Smegmatis as control strain. Results It was verified by sequence analysis that the recombinant plasmids were successfully constructed, and it was identified by Western blotting that Rv1272 and Rv1273 were membrane proteins. It was revealed by test tube method that there was no significant difference in MIC of nine commonly used antituberculosis drugs between recombinant strains and control strain (P>0.05). Conclusion Rv1272 and Rv1273 are membrane proteins, and their relationship with drug resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain.

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    Role of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in regulation of retinal cell apoptosis early after experimental retinal detachment
    XU Shan, WANG Wen-qiu, GONG Yuan-yuan, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  880. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.003

    Abstract ( 1985 )   PDF (4727KB) ( 1286 )  

    Objective To investigate the role of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) in the regulation of retinal cell apoptosis after experimental retinal detachment (RD). Methods Wistar rats were divided into normal control group (n=12), RD experiment group (n=15) and inhibition experiment group (n=15). RD model was established in RD experiment group and inhibition experiment group by injection of hyaluronic acid sodium under retina of left eyes, and MG132 (0.10 mg·kg-1·d-1) was intraperitoneally injected in inhibition experiment group after model establishment. Laser confocal microscope was used to observe cell apoptosis with TUNEL staining 4 d after model establishment. The expression of UPP markers of ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolases L1 (UCH-L1) mRNA and protein in retinal tissues was detected by RTPCR and Western blotting respectively. Results It was indicated by laser confocal microscopic observations that the number of apoptotic cells in inhibition experiment group was significantly higher than that in RD experiment group. The expression of Ub and UCH-L1 mRNA and protein in RD experiment group was significantly higher than that in normal control group and inhibition experiment group (P<0.05), and the expression of Ub and UCH-L1 mRNA and protein in normal control group was significantly higher than that in inhibition experiment group (P<0.05). Conclusion The activity of UPP increases early after RD, which plays a protective role in the regulation of apoptosis of retinal cells.

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    Correlation of changes of GR expression in Leydig tumor cells and cell apoptosis induced by corticosterone
    CHEN Yong, YANG Xiao-yu, CAI Ze-jun
    2011, 31 (7):  884. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.004

    Abstract ( 1688 )   PDF (6852KB) ( 1333 )  

    Objective To investigate the correlation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC) and cell apoptosis induced by corticosterone (CORT) at stress level. Methods In the experiment with GR overexpression, blank control group 1, GR plasmid group and control plasmid group were established, gene cloning was used to achieve the over-expression of GR in MLTC in GR plasmid group, and identification was performed by Western blotting. In the experiment with knockdown of GR expression, blank control group 2, Lipofectamine control group, GR siRNA group and control siRNA group were set, RNA interference was adopted to achieve the knockdown of GR in MLTC, and identification was performed by Western blotting. MLTC in these two experiments were treated by CORT at stress level (200 nmol/L)(GR over-expression+CORT group, control plasmid+CORT group, blank control group 1, and knockdown of GR expression+CORT group, control siRNA+CORT group and blank control group 2), MLTC in blank control group 1 and 2 treated by CORT were served as single CORT treatment group 1 and 2, apoptotic rate of MLTC in each group was detected by flow cytometry, and correlation of GR expression and cell apoptotic rate was analysed. Results The cell apoptotic rates in GR over-expression+CORT group, control plasmid+CORT group, single CORT treatment group 1 and blank control group 1 were (36.6±0.6)%, (23.8±0.8)%,(24.3±0.6)% and (4.1±0.5)% respectively, and the cell apoptotic rate of GR over-expression+CORT group was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.01). The cell apoptotic rates in knockdown of GR expression+CORT group, control siRNA+CORT group, single CORT treatment group 2 and blank control group 2 were (12.2±0.6)%,(22.5±0.6)%,(22.3±0.9)% and (4.1±0.5)% respectively, and the cell apoptotic rate of knockdown of GR expression+CORT group was significantly lower than control siRNA+CORT group and single CORT treatment group 2 (P<0.01). The expression of GR in MLTC was significantly positively related to cell apoptotic rate (r=0.947, P<0.05). Conclusion The changes of GR expression in Leydig cells are significantly positively related to the changes of cell apoptotic rates induced by CORT at stress level, and the glucocorticoid has direct effect on Leydig cell apoptosis induced by stress.

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    Preliminary study of mechanism of delayed early fracture healing in ovariectomized mice
    ZHAO Jian, ZHAO Qiang, ZHANG Lian-fang, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  890. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.005

    Abstract ( 1913 )   PDF (8272KB) ( 1167 )  

    Objective To observe the early fracture healing in ovariectomized mice, and explore the possible mechanism. Methods Forty female C57BL/6 mice aged 6 weeks were randomly divided into ovariectomy group (OVX group) and sham operation group, with 20 rats in each group. Four weeks after ovariectomy in OVX group, right femur fracture mouse models were established in both groups. Two weeks after model establishment, the fracture healing was observed by X-ray examinations, and Micro-CT was used to measure the volumes of callus and mineral density, observe the angiogenesis and determine the vessel volumes and vessel volume fractions in fracture sites after vessel perfusion. Bone tissue samples were prepared 2 weeks after model establishment, the fracture healing was observed by light microscopy with HE staining, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in callus tissues was observed with immunohistochemical staining. Results X-ray examinations and histological examinations of fracture samples indicated that the early fracture healing in OVX group was significantly delayed compared with sham operation group. Micro-CT detection revealed that compared with sham operation group, the volume of callus, mineral density, and number of vessels, vessel volume and vessel volume fraction in fracture sites after vessel perfusion were significantly decreased (P<0.05). It was observed by immunohistochemical staining that the expression of VEGF in callus tissues in OVX group was significantly lower than that in sham operation group. Conclusion The early fracture healing is significantly delayed in ovariectomized mice, which may be related to the reduction of angiogenesis in callus tissues.

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    Relationship between expression of COX-2, its signal transduction pathways and autoimmune-type recurrent miscarriage
    XIAO Shi-jin, ZHAO Ai-min, BAO Shi-min
    2011, 31 (7):  895. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.006

    Abstract ( 2215 )   PDF (5989KB) ( 1428 )  

    Objective To investigate the roles of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its signal transduction pathway related molecules in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-type recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Methods Eighty-three BALB/c mice were divided into experiment group, uterine cavity injection control group and normal pregnancy control group. Experiment group was subdivided into uterine cavity human β2 glycoprotein-1 (β2GP1) injection group (n=15), abdominal cavity β2GP1 injection group (n=10) and subcutaneous β2GP1 injection group (n=14). Uterine cavity injection control group was subdivided into uterine cavity normal saline (NS) injection group (n=10), uterine cavity unrelated protein injection group (n=6) and uterine cavity adjuvant injection group (n=13). Mice in normal pregnancy control group (n=15) did not receive any intervention. The embryo loss rates, the abortion rates and the average weight of placenta were compared among groups. The expression of COX-2 in placenta and its signal transduction pathway related molecules prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), interferon-inducible protein (IP), peroxisome proliferators activator receptors alpha (PPARα) and PPARγ mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Results The embryo loss rates in subgroups of experiment group were significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy control group (P<0.001), and the average weight of placenta in subgroups of experiment group was significantly lower than that in normal pregnancy control group (P<0.05). The abortion rate in uterine cavity β2GP1 injection group was significantly higher than those in the other groups (P<0.05). The expression of COX-2, PGD2, IP, PPARα and PPARγ mRNA in placenta in subgroups of experiment group was significantly lower than that in normal pregnancy control group (P<0.05), and the expression of COX-2, PGD2, IP, PPARα and PPARγ mRNA in placenta in uterine cavity β2GP1 injection group was significantly lower than that in uterine cavity injection control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Uterine cavity injection of human β2GP-1 can successfully establish mouse model which is consistent with the features of autoimmune-type RSA, and COX-2 and its signal transduction pathway related molecules may play important roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-type RSA.

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    In vitro injury effects of sera of patients with uremia on vascular endothelial cells
    LI Cong, HAO Xu, ZHOU Qiao, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  900. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.007

    Abstract ( 1742 )   PDF (6849KB) ( 1454 )  

    Objective To investigate the in vitro effects of sera of patients with uremia on vascular endothelial cells, and explore their clinical significance. Methods Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with sera of patients with uremia (uremic serum group, n=10) and healthy controls (normal serum group, n=10)(volume fraction of 25% for both group) for 24 h, and blank control group was established. The cell morphology was observed by immunohistochemical staining, cell apoptotic rates were determined by flow cytometry, and Real-Time PCR was employed to detect the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA in cells. The culture supernatant fluid was collected, the mass concentrations of IL-8 and ET-1 were measured by ELISA, and the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by nitrate reduction method. HUVEC were treated with sera of patients with uremia of different volume fractions (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%), and cell proliferation rates were determined by MTS method. Results The number of HUVEC in uremic serum group was smaller than those of blank control group and normal serum group, and condensed or fragmented nuclei and condensed cytoplasm were observed in uremic serum group. The cell apoptotic rate in uremic serum group [(55.59±5.21)%] was significantly higher than those in normal serum group [(12.20±6.20)%] and blank control group [(0.38±0.31)%] (P<0.05). Compared with normal serum group, the expression of IL-8 and ET-1 mRNA in HUVEC increased, the expression of eNOS mRNA in HUVEC decreased, the mass concentrations of IL-8 and ET-1 in cell supernatant fluid increased, and the concentration of NO decreased in uremic serum group. The cell proliferation rates of HUVEC treated with uremic sera of different volume fractions were significantly lower than corresponding ones in normal serum group and blank control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Treatment with sera of patients with uremia may change the morphology, inhibit the proliferation, promote the apoptosis, enhance the secretion of IL-8 and ET-1 and inhibit the secretion of eNOS and NO of HUVEC, and lead to the dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells. Patients with uremia are under chronic inflammatory state in a long term, and may have a greater risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

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    Effects of mechanical damage on oxidative stress and prostaglandin E2 secretion in human skin keratinocytes
    FU Xiu-jun, SHI You-zhen, FANG Yong, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  905. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.008

    Abstract ( 2140 )   PDF (4928KB) ( 1396 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of mechanical damage on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion in human skin keratinocytes, and explore its possible mechanism. Methods Human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) cultured in vitro were divided into injury group, NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) pretreatment group and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment group. Mechanical damage cell models were established by scratch method, and HaCaT cells without model establishment were served as control group. Cells and culture supernatant were collected from injury group, DPI pretreatment group and control group at different time points after model establishment, fluorescent probe and chemiluminescence method were employed to detect the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NOX activity respectively, and the mass concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in culture supernatant in each group was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results At each time point after model establishment, the intracellular ROS generation and NOX activity in injury group and DPI pretreatment group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the intracellular ROS generation and NOX activity in DPI pretreatment group were significantly lower than those in injury group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The mass concentrations of PGE2 in culture supernatant in injury group, DPI pretreatment group and NAC pretreatment group were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01), while the mass concentrations of PGE2 in culture supernatant in DPI pretreatment group and NAC pretreatment group were significantly lower than that in injury group at each time point after model establishment (P<0.01). Conclusion PGE2 secretion in human skin keratinocytes may increase after mechanical damage, which may be associated with oxidative stress mediated by increased intracellular ROS generation and NOX activity.

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    Synthesis of tropane compounds and their antagonistic activity to M3 receptors
    OU Mei-xian, SHI Yi-ming, LIU Hui-zhong, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  909. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.009

    Abstract ( 1775 )   PDF (4323KB) ( 1153 )  

    Objective To design and synthesize a series of tropane derivatives, test their antagonistic activity to M3 receptors, and investigate the structure-activity relationship. Methods 3α-benzoyloxy tropanes (D type) and 3α-benzoyloxy-6β-acetoxy tropanes (T type) were prepared by acetylating 3α-hydroxy-tropane (D0) or 3α-hydroxy-6β-acetoxy tropane (T0) respectively. Quaternary ammonium iodide of N-methyl-3α-benzoyloxy tropane (S type) was acquired by methylating the N atom of azabicyclic ring of D type of compounds with methyl iodide. The antagonistic activity of compounds to M3 receptors on isolated tracheal smooth muscles was evaluated by functional assays. Results Six new tropane compounds were prepared, and obvious antagonistic activity to M3 receptors was elicited. S1 had the highest antagonistic parameter (pA2), while T2 had the lowest one. Conclusion Changing the N atom of azabicyclic ring to quaternary from tertiary through methylation increases the antagonistic activity, while the 6β-acetoxy decreases the activity of compounds.

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    Effects of hypoxia pathway on multipotential differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells
    ZENG Wen, ZHANG Wei, WANG Jun, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  913. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.010

    Abstract ( 1707 )   PDF (6648KB) ( 1144 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α(HIF-1α) on the multipotential differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells (MSCs) in the hypoxia pathway. Methods Conditional gene knockout of VHL gene of MSCs from transgenic mice was performed with Ad-Cre (gene knockout group), and control group was established (MSCs from transgenic mice infected with Ad-GPF). The expression of HIF-1α mRNA was detected by Real-Time PCR. Chondrogenic culture and osteogenic culture of MSCs were conducted for 14 d in two groups, and osteogenic culture of MSCs was conducted for 21 d in two groups, with culture of MSCs under 5% O2 in gene knockout group and culture of MSCs under 20% O2 in control group. The expression of chondrocyte marker of typeⅡcollagen (ColⅡ), adipocyte marker of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARγ) and osteoblast markers of osteocalcin (OC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA was detected by Real-Time PCR. The distributions of positive cells with ColⅡ staining and ALP staining were observed by light microscopy in two groups. Results The expression of HIF-1α mRNA in gene knockout group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). The expression of ColⅡ, PPARγ, OC and ALP mRNA in gene knockout group cultured under 5% O2 was significantly higher than that in control group cultured under 20% O2 (P<0.05). Compared with control group, the numbers of positive cells with ColⅡ staining and ALP staining were larger. Conclusion HIF-1α can promote the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts under 5% O2.

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    In vitro study of ablation of rat bladder epithelial tissues by femtosecond laser
    PAN Yu-long, CHEN Fang, KANAG Jian, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  918. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.011

    Abstract ( 1729 )   PDF (6571KB) ( 1360 )  

    Objective To observe the efficiency and range of collateral tissue damage in ablation of rat bladder epithelial tissues by femtosecond laser. Methods Bladder epithelial tissues of SD rats were ablated by femtosecond laser with different working powers (1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 times of threshold power and equivalent frequencies). Sections with HE staining were prepared for the ablated tissues. The depth and range of collateral tissue damage of bladder epithelial tissues ablated by femtosecond laser were observed by light microscopy, and the ablation efficiency was calculated. Results When the working powers of femtosecond laser were 5 to 20 times of threshold power and the equivalent frequencies were 62.5 Hz to 1 000 Hz, the ablation efficiency varied from 10 to 120 μm/s and the collateral tissue damage ranged from 10 to 100 μm. Conclusion Femtosecond laser can precisely ablate the rat bladder epithelial tissues with minimal range of collateral tissue damage, and may be a potential alternative for treatment of urinary stricture.

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    Effects of Cordyceps militaris extract on human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line A549
    YAN Jing-jing, TANG Yong-fan, LU Wei-jie, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  922. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.012

    Abstract ( 1947 )   PDF (6568KB) ( 1218 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) on human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods A549 cells were treated with CME of different mass concentrations for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, and the inhibition rates of A549 cell proliferation were measured by CCK8 assay. A549 cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL of CME (treatment group) for 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, cell cycle and cell apoptosis rates were determined by flow cytometry, and the expression of proliferation-related proteins (p-ERK and p-Akt) and apoptosis related protein (caspase-3) of A549 cells was determined by Western blotting. A549 cells without treatment with CME were served as control group. Results The inhibition rates of A549 cell proliferation increased with the mass concentrations of CME and time of treatment with CME, exhibiting a significant dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.01). The percent of cells in G2/M phase in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The cell apoptosis rates in treatment group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.01), and were significantly positively related to time of treatment with CME (r=0.995, P<0.01). The expression of p-ERK and p-Akt in treatment group was significantly lower than that in control group, and were significantly negatively related to time of treatment with CME (r=-0.881,P<0.01;r=-0.932,P<0.01). The expression of caspase-3 in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05), and were significantly positively related to time of treatment with CME (r=0.681, P<0.01). Conclusion CEM can inhibit proliferation of A549 cells by inducing cell apoptosis and G2/M arrest, which may be used in the adjuvant therapy for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

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    Effects of heart preservation solution containing Pinacidil on donor heart preservation
    LIANG Wei-tao, Vitali Rusinkevich, ZANG Wang-fu, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  927. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.013

    Abstract ( 1559 )   PDF (6890KB) ( 1238 )  

    Objective To observe the effects of heart preservation solution containing different concentrations of Pinacidil on donor heart preservation. Methods Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, Celsior solution control group, Celsior solution+0.25 mmol/L Pinacidil group, Celsior solution+0.5 mmol/L Pinacidil group and Celsior solution+1 mmol/L Pinacidil group according to different ways of donor heart preservation, with 8 rats in each group. Langendorff model of isolated heart was established, and isolated hearts were preserved in preservation solutions for 6 h, followed by reperfusion for 30 min. The parameters of cardiac function such as left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP), left ventricular development pressure (LVDP), coronary flow (CF), maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (dp/dtmax) and minimum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (dp/dtmin), myocardial ultrastructure and myocardiocyte apoptotic index were observed and compared among groups. Results Compared with Celsior solution control group, Celsior solution+0.25 mmol/L Pinacidil group and Celsior solution+1 mmol/L Pinacidil group, the parameters of LVESP, LVDP, CF, dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin significantly increased (P<0.05), the myocardiocyte apoptotic index significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the structures of myocardiocytes and mitochondria were intact in Celsior solution+0.5 mmol/L Pinacidil group. Conclusion Compared with single Celsior heart preservation solution, Celsior heart preservation solution containing 0.5 mmol/L Pinacidil can decrease myocardiocyte apoptosis after donor heart preservation, promote recovery of cardiac function and improve the effects of hypothermic preservation of donor hearts.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms of growth hormone receptor with susceptibility to idiopathic short stature
    YU Yi, WANG Wei, WANG Ying, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  932. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.014

    Abstract ( 1782 )   PDF (5865KB) ( 1416 )  

    Objective To investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of human growth hormone receptor (GHR) with genetic susceptibility to idiopathic short stature (ISS) in Chinese Han populations. Methods Case-control method was employed, and 199 children with ISS (ISS group) and 469 adults with normal weight (control group) were enrolled. Genotyping and comparison were performed in 16 SNP sites of GHR gene, positive SNP sites (significant differences in specific genotypic frequency) were screened, and the associations of genotypes of positive SNP sites with risks of ISS and related clinical variables such as serum insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1)were analysed. Results Three positive SNP sites of rs6182 (P=0.027), rs4410646 (P=0.01) and rs10044169 (P=0.024)were found in ISS group and control group. For rs6182 (G/T), the risk of ISS of genotype TT and genotype GT decreased under T dominant mode (OR=0.624,95%CI:0.402-0.969,P=0.021). For rs4410646 (A/C), the risk of ISS of genotype AA decreased under C dominant mode (OR=0.674,95%CI:0.475-0.958,P=0.016). Multivariate Logistics regression analysis of this site revealed that serum IGF-1 was related to genotype AA (OR=1.011,95%CI:1.002-1.020,P=0.018) and genotype CA (OR=1.010,95%CI:1.001-1.019,P=0.037) with genotype CC as reference, and serum IGF-1 was related to genotype CC (OR=0.989,95%CI:0.980-0.998, P=0.018) with genotype AA as reference. For rs10044169 (A/C), the risk of ISS of genotype CC and genotype CA significantly decreased (OR=0.649,95%CI:0.424-0.993,P=0.027) under C dominant mode. Conclusion GHR plays a role in the growth promotion effect mediated by growth hormone, and 3 SNP sites of human GHR gene may be related to genetic susceptibility to ISS.

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    Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes pedigree
    HUANG Rong, HU Yao-min, CHEN Ya-wen, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  937. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.015

    Abstract ( 1896 )   PDF (4622KB) ( 1379 )  

    Objective To evaluate the insulin resistance and beta-cell function under different glucose tolerance status in firstdegree relatives of type 2 diabetes pedigree. Methods Four hundred and forty first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes pedigree were enrolled and divided into type 2 diabetes mellitus group (T2DM group, n=144), impaired glucose regulation group (IGR group, n=139) and normal glucose tolerance group (NGT group, n=157), and another 121 people without family history of diabetes mellitus, history of abnormal blood glucose and gestational diabetes were served as normal control group (NC group). All subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin releasing tests. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin action index (IAI). Basic insulin secretion function index (HOMA-β), early insulin secretion function index (ΔI30/ΔG30), modified betacell function index (MBCI) and glucose disposition indices (DI) were used to evaluate the beta-cell function. Results IAI in T2DM group and IGR group were significantly lower than those in NGT group and NC group (P<0.05), while HOMA-IR in T2DM group and IGR group were significantly higher than those in NGT group and NC group (P<0.05). HOMA-IR in T2DM group was significantly higher than that in IGR group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in HOMA-IR and IAI between NGT group and NC group (P>0.05). Comparison of parameters of beta-cell function revealed that progressive decrease was observed in each parameter from NC group, NGT group, IGR group and T2DM group, and there were significant differences in each parameter among groups (P<0.05)except for those in HOMA-β, MBCI and DI3 between NGT group and NC group. Conclusion No obvious insulin resistance is observed in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes pedigree with normal glucose tolerance, while there exists decrease in beta-cell function with early insulin secretion defect.

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    Relationship between DNA methylation of p73 gene and acute leukemia of children
    ZHANG Yan, GAO Yu, WANG Xiao-jin, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  942. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.016

    Abstract ( 1932 )   PDF (7170KB) ( 1309 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between DNA methylation of p73 gene and acute leukemia of children. Methods One hundred and forty-two children with newly diagnosed acute leukemia aged less than 15 years were selected as case group, among whom 112 were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 30 were acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Another 123 sex and age-matched children undergoing physical examinations, outpatient visit or treatment without hematological diseases and tumors were served as control group. The methylation status of p73 gene of children in case group and control group was analysed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). One sample of DNA methylated fragment and one sample of DNA non-methylated fragment of p73 gene were randomly selected for sequencing analysis of PCR product. Results The prevalence of DNA methylation of p73 gene in case group was significantly higher than that in control group (7.7% vs 0.8%, P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the deletion rate of p73 gene between case group and control group (6.3% vs 4.1%, P>0.05). The prevalence of DNA methylation of p73 gene in children with ALL in case group (8.9%) was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The sequencing results of two randomly selected samples were consistent with results of MSP. Conclusion DNA methylation of p73 gene may play an important role in the development of acute leukemia of children, especially in the development of ALL.

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    Association of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 gene polymorphisms with pemphigus
    WU Gui-ju, ZHANG Yong, ZHU Hai-qin, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  948. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.017

    Abstract ( 1753 )   PDF (4367KB) ( 1333 )  

    Objective To explore the genetic association of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 allele polymorphisms with pemphigus. Methods Fifty-eight patients with pemphigus (case group) and 89 normal controls (control group) were selected in Shanghai as study objectives. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles in two groups were typed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). Direct count method was adopted to calculate allele frequencies, and comparison was performed between groups. Odds ratios (OR) of allele frequencies were used to evaluate the association of gene with disease. Results A total of 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles and 5 HLA-DQB1 alleles were detected in case group and control group. The frequencies of HLA-DRB1*14 allele and HLA-DQB1*05 allele in case group were significantly higher than those in control group (17.24% vs 1.69%, P=0.000, Pc<0.05, OR=12.150; 18.97% vs 6.74%, P=0.001,Pc<0.05,OR=3.238). The frequency of HLA-DQB1*06 allele in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (15.52% vs 30.90%, P=0.003, Pc<0.05, OR=0.411). Conclusion HLA-DRB1*14 and HLA-DQB1*05 may be predisposing genes, while HLA-DQB1*06 may be protective gene of pemphigus in Shanghai.

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    Clinical efficacy of PTRAS in treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis
    WU Sheng-jun, ZHANG Lan, ZHANG Ji-wei, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  952. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.018

    Abstract ( 1730 )   PDF (6573KB) ( 1353 )  

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of percutaneous transluminal renal artery stenting (PTRAS) in treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). Methods Twenty-eight patients with ARAS treated with PTRAS were divided into group A (50% to 75% of renal artery stenosis, n=10) and group B (≥75% of renal artery stenosis, n=18) according to the severity of renal artery stenosis. The success rate of surgery was obtained. Patients were followed up for 6 to 18 months, the obstruction status of renal arteries was examined, and the peak systolic velocity (PSV) of main renal arteries was measured after PTRAS by color Doppler ultrasound. Besides, the blood pressure and main parameters of renal function such as serum creatine (SCr) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were compared before and after treatment in two groups. Results PTRAS was successfully performed in 27 of the 28 patients, with the technical success rate of 96.43%. It was demonstrated by color Doppler ultrasound that the renal arteries were unobstructed, and PSV of main renal arteries significantly decreased after treatment (P<0.05). The systolic pressure significantly decreased, and the number of anti-hypertension medications significantly reduced in group A after PTRAS (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in blood pressure and number of anti-hypertension medications before treatment and after treatment in group B (P>0.05). The overall benefit rate of hypertension in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P<0.05). After PTRAS, SCr significantly decreased, there was no significant change in GFR grading, and the overall benefit rate of renal function was 100% in group A. After PTRAS, there was no significant change in SCr, GFR grading significantly decreased, and the overall benefit rate of renal function was 81.25% in group B. Conclusion PTRAS is a minimally invasive method in treatment of ARAS, with less complications. Patients with ARAS and 50% to 75% renal artery stenosis may result in better control of blood pressure and stable renal function after treatment with PTRAS.

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    Application of MLPA in gene diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
    YU Guo-peng, QI Jun, LONG Fei, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  957. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.019

    Abstract ( 1955 )   PDF (5204KB) ( 1606 )  

    Objective To investigate the application of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the gene diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods MLPA was employed to detect the PKD1 gene and PKD2 gene in 20 patients with ADPKD. Verification with RT-PCR was performed for those with single exon duplication or suspected duplication detected by MLPA. Those with single exon deletion or suspected deletion detected by MLPA were verified with PCR, and sequencing analysis was conducted in those with amplification products. Results One patient with single exon deletion (PKD1 Exon40), 5 patients with single exon suspected deletion (PKD1 Exon1, PKD1 Exon25, PKD2 Exon8, PKD2 Exon8 and PKD1 Exon25) and 3 patients with single exon suspected duplication (PKD1 Exon6, PKD1 Exon7 and PKD1 Exon7) were detected by MLPA. One patient with single exon duplication (PKD1 Exon6) was verified by RT-PCR, and one patient with single exon missense mutation (PKD1 Exon40) and one patient with single exon deletion (PKD2 Exon8) were verified by PCR and sequencing analysis. Conclusion MLPA may serve as a new method for gene diagnosis of ADPKD.

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    Effects of various stimuli on IL-4 release of umbilical cord blood-derived basophils from neonates of mothers with allergic asthma
    YANG Ling, XU Yi-ping, YAO Su-hang, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  962. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.020

    Abstract ( 1745 )   PDF (5794KB) ( 1217 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of various stimuli on interleukin-4 (IL-4) release of umbilical cord blood-derived basophils from neonates of mothers with allergic asthma. Methods Samples of umbilical cord blood from neonates of mothers with allergic asthma and healthy mothers were divided into asthma group (n=12) and normal control group (n=16). Basophils were sorted and purified by flow cytometry, and the cell viability was identified by trypan blue staining. The purified basophils were incubated with ACM buffer (negative control), peptidoglycan (PGN), Dermatophagoides farinae and mannitol respectively, and the mass concentrations of IL-4 in the supernatants of culture fluid were detected by ELISA. Results The result of cell sorting indicated that the purity of basophils was (95.64±3.15)%, with the recovery rate of (60.22±7.18)%, and trypan blue staining revealed that the cell viability was (99.4±0.89)%. Compared with negative control, the mass concentrations of IL-4 in the supernatants of culture fluid significantly increased after stimulation by PGN, Dermatophagoides farinae and mannitol in asthma group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). After stimulation by PGN and mannitol, the mass concentrations of IL-4 in the supernatants of culture fluid in asthma group were significantly higher than those in normal control group (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Conclusion PGN, Dermatophagoides farinae and mannitol may stimulate the IL-4 release of umbilical cord blood-derived basophils from neonates of mothers with allergic asthma, induce differentiation of Th2 cells and participate in the pathogenesis of asthma.

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    Effects of ovarian poor response on incidences of hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy after in vitro fertilization
    MA Jue, SUN Xiao-xi, WU Yu, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  967. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.021

    Abstract ( 2318 )   PDF (4366KB) ( 1199 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of ovarian poor response on incidences of hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Methods Patients (≤35 years old)with successful delivery after IVF-ET were divided into ovarian poor response group (number of retrieved oocytes≤4, n=92) and ovarian normal response group (number of retrieved oocytes 8-12, n=92). Patients in two groups were matched for age, type of infertility, daily dose of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone, singleton or twin pregnancy and therapeutic regimen (in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection), and the incidences of hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy and preeclampsia were compared between two groups. Results There was no significant difference in the incidences of hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy and preeclampsia between ovarian poor response group and ovarian normal response group (P>0.05). There was also no significant difference in the birth weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, rates of viginal delivery and rates of live birth between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Ovarian poor response may have no significant effect on incidences of hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy after IVF-ET.

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    Detection of mass concentrations of ATP in CD4+T cells for immunity monitoring in renal transplant recipients
    LI Chun-jing, ZHOU Pei-jun, XU Da, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  971. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.022

    Abstract ( 2006 )   PDF (4676KB) ( 1309 )  

    Objective To investigate the value of detection of mass concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CD4+ T cells in immunity monitoring of renal transplant recipients. Methods Seventy renal transplant recipients were divided into infection group (with infection, n=20) and control group (without infection, n=50) according to the clinical status, and both groups received immunosuppressive therapy based on calcineurin inhibitors of ciclosporin and tacrolimus. Peripheral blood samples were collected from renal transplant recipients. The mass concentrations of ATP in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood were detected by ImmuKnow method, the percentages of T lymphocyte subset of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells and ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells (CD4+/CD8+) in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry, and the plasma mass concentrations of ciclosporin and tacrolimus were measured by homogeneous immunoassay. The correlations of mass concentrations of ATP in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood with the other parameters were analysed. Results The mass concentration of ATP in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood in infection group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05), and the percentages of CD3+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in infection group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in percentage of CD4+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ in peripheral blood, and plasma concentrations of ciclosporin and tacrolimus between two groups (P>0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that the mass concentration of ATP in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood was significantly negatively related to the percentage of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood (r=-0.299, P=0.041), and was significantly positively related to CD4+/CD8+ (r=0.324, P=0.026). Conclusion Compared with detection of T lymphocyte subset in peripheral blood and plasma concentrations of CNI, detection of mass concentration of ATP in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood is more accurate in immunity monitoring of renal transplant recipients, and can serve as guidance for adjustment of immunosuppressants.

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    Effects of liposome prostaglandin E1 on prethrombotic state of patients with severe burn
    MA Yu, YUAN Ke-jian, YANG Hui-zhong, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  975. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.023

    Abstract ( 1621 )   PDF (5134KB) ( 1359 )  

    Objective To observe the effects of liposome prostaglandin E1 (Lipo-PGE1) on prethrombotic state of patients with severe burn. Methods Twenty-five patients with severe burn whose total burn area≥ 50% total body surface area(TBSA) and/or burn area of degree Ⅲ≥ 20% TBSA were randomly divided into Lipo-PGE1 group (n=15) and control group (n=10). Patients in both groups were given conventional treatment after admission, and those in Lipo-PGE1 group were managed with intravenous injection of Lipo-PGE1 (10 μg once a day for 7 d). Blood samples were collected 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 7 d and 14 d after burn, and antithrombin antigen (AT:Ag), antithrombin activity (AT:A), protein C activity (PC:A), protein S activity (PS:A), P-selectin (P-sel), soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC) and plasmin-α2-antiplasmin complex (PAP) were determined. Thromboelastogram (TEG) was recorded with coagulation analyzer, and the parameters of TEG in Lipo-PGE1 group were compared before and after treatment to assess the coagulation function. ResultsThere was no significant difference in AT:Ag, AT:A, PC:A, PS:A, SFMC and PAP between tow groups at different time points after burn (P>0.05). The expression of P-sel in Lipo-PGE1 group was significantly lower than that in control group 3 d and 7 d after burn (P<0.05). Analysis of TEG parameters revealed that the thromboplastin generation time was (3.77±0.90) min before treatment and (4.98±0.72) min after treatment in Lipo-PGE1 group, and the latter was significantly longer than the former (P<0.05). Conclusion Early application of Lipo-PGE1 after severe burn may effectively improve the prethrombotic state.

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    Influence of serum estradiol mass concentrations on day of hCG administration during in vitro fertilization on pregnancy outcomes
    CHEN Qian, NIU Zhi-hong, ZHANG Shao-zhen, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  980. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.024

    Abstract ( 2511 )   PDF (3999KB) ( 1520 )  

    Objective To evaluate the influence of high estradiol (E2) mass concentrations on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on pregnancy outcomes of fresh IVF cycles and subsequent frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. Methods The data of patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with long protocol were collected, and patients were divided into two groups according to serum mass concentrations of E2 on the day of hCG administration. The serum mass concentration of E2 on the day of hCG administration was ≥5 000 pg/mL in group A (n=154), and that was <5 000 pg/mL in group B (n=294). Patients in group A were subdivided into group A1 (fresh embryo transfer group, n=78) and group A2 (frozen embryo transfer group, n=76). The characteristics of transfer cycles and pregnancy outcomes were compared among groups. Results There was no significant difference in the fertilization rates and cleavage rates between group A and group B (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the pregnancy rates and embryo implantation rates between group A and group B (P>0.05). The incidence of moderate and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (4.55% vs 1.36%)(P<0.05). The pregnancy rate (48.68%) and embryo implantation rate (29.14%) in group A2 were significantly higher than those in group A1 and group B (P<0.05). Conclusion High serum E2 mass concentrations on the day of hCG administration are related to ovarian hyperresponsiveness and increased risk of OHSS, while have no significant relationship with IVF outcomes. Patients with high serum E2 mass concentrations on the day of hCG administration treated with all-embryo cryopreservation may result in favorable pregnancy outcomes.

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    Application of health education pathway on relatives of patients with lung cancer during perioperation
    WU Xue-hong, YANG Xiu-mu, XU Shu-xiu, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  984. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.025

    Abstract ( 1783 )   PDF (4158KB) ( 1337 )  

    Objective To investigate the application of health education pathway on the relatives of patients with lung cancer during perioperation. Methods One hundred and seventeen relatives of patients with lung cancer undergoing surgical treatment were divided into control group (hospital admission between January 2009 and June 2009, n=58) and experiment group (hospital admission between July 2009 and December 2009, n=59) according to different time of hospital admission, and were intervened by conventional health education and self-designed health education pathway respectively. The mastery of disease-related knowledge and nursing skills, satisfaction with quality of nursing during hospitalization and compliance to advice from doctors were compared between relatives of patients in two groups, and the length of hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and prevalences of complications were also compared between patients in two groups. Results The relatives of patients in experiment group gained better results than those in control group in mastery of disease-related knowledge and nursing skills, satisfaction with quality of nursing during hospitalization and compliance to advice from doctors (P<0.05). Compared with patients in control group, those in experiment group had shorter length of hospital stay, less cost of hospitalization and lower prevalence of complications, with significant differences between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Application of health education pathway on relatives of patients with lung cancer can improve the quality of medical nursing and disease-related recognition of relatives, which may enhance the participation of relatives of patients in medical treatment and nursing, instruct the cooperation of patients with medical treatment and promote the rehabilitation of patients.

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    Electrophysiological analysis of relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar nerve entrapment at wrist
    LIU Xiao-lin, YIN Wen-jing, SHENG Jia-gen
    2011, 31 (7):  988. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.026

    Abstract ( 1778 )   PDF (4174KB) ( 1454 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and ulnar nerve entrapment at wrist with neural electrophysiological methods. Methods Twenty patients (22 wrists) with CTS (CTS group) and 20 healthy adults (20 wrists) (control group) were selected. Sensory conduction velocity, motor conduction velocity, distal sensory latency and distal motor latency of median nerve and ulnar nerve were measured and compared between two groups, and the differences in distal sensory latency between median nerve and ulnar nerve were calculated and compared between groups. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between sensory conduction velocity of median nerve and that of ulnar nerve in CTS group. Results Compared with control group, the sensory conduction velocity and motor conduction velocity of median nerve and the sensory conduction velocity of ulnar nerve were slower (P<0.05 or P<0.01),and the distal sensory latency of ulnar nerve were longer in CTS group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the motor conduction velocity and distal motor latency of ulnar nerve between two groups (P>0.05). The difference in distal sensory latency between median nerve and ulnar nerve in CTS group was significantly larger than that in control group (P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the sensory conduction velocity of median nerve was significantly positively related to that of ulnar nerve in CTS group (r=0.802,P=0.002). Conclusion There is correlation between CTS and ulnar nerve entrapment at wrist, and ulnar nerve entrapment at wrist should be attached great importance when dealing with patients with CTS.

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    Repair of hand skin and soft tissue defect with reverse island forearm posterior interosseous flap
    GUO Xiao-bo, SU Wei-jie, ZHU Wen, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  992. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.027

    Abstract ( 1583 )   PDF (5047KB) ( 1476 )  

    Objective To repair the hand skin and soft tissue defect with the reverse island forearm posterior interosseous flap, observe the outcomes and summarize the characteristics of flap and surgical experience. Methods The clinical data of 36 patients with hand skin and soft tissue defect repaired with the reverse island forearm posterior interosseous flap were collected. The flap location, flap design, surgical procedures and clinical outcomes were retrospectively analysed, and the characteristics of flap and surgical experience were summarized. Results Among the 36 patients, the skin and soft tissue defect involved region dorsalis manus (n=24), first web space (n=4), region volaris manus (n=4) and thumb (n=4). The sizes of flaps ranged from 4 cm×5 cm to 10 cm×14 cm, and the pedicle length ranged from 3.0 cm to 7.5 cm. There were 12 patients with 11 to 15 perforators, 20 patients with 5 to 10 perforators, and 4 patients with 1 to 4 perforators. The flaps were clinically viable in all the 36 patients (100%). Patients were followed up for 6 months to 12 months, and the flaps were similar to skin in texture and elasticity, and had reliable blood supply. All patients had a favorable functional recovery of hands. Conclusion The reverse island forearm posterior interosseous flap has a reliable blood supply, is easy to operate, and can be an ideal donor choice for repair of hand skin and soft tissue defect. The proper flap design may be the key to a successful operation.

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    Effects of personalized health education on quality of life in patients with stroke
    SUN min, LING Xia-min, YU Di-fei
    2011, 31 (7):  996. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.028

    Abstract ( 1651 )   PDF (3965KB) ( 1237 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of personalized health education on quality of life in patients with stroke. Methods Seventy patients with stroke were randomly divided into control group and treatment group. Patients in control group were given rehabilitation training and routine health education, while specific and systematic health education on the basis of rehabilitation training were conducted in treatment group. Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) was employed to assess the anxiety status, Banthel index scale was adopted to evaluate the daily living, and life satisfaction index was used to assess the life satisfaction of patients. The anxiety status, daily living and life satisfaction were compared between groups before and after treatment. Results There was no significant difference in the scores of HAMA, Banthel index and life satisfaction index between groups before treatment (P>0.05). The scores of HAMA after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment in two groups (P<0.05), and the scores of Banthel index and life satisfaction index after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment in two groups (P<0.05). After treatment, the score of HAMA in treatment group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05), and the scores of Banthel index and life satisfaction index in treatment group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion On the basis of rehabilitation training, specifically and systematically personalized health education may improve the quality of life in patients with stroke.

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    Effects of immune-enhanced enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition on immune |and nutritional function in elderly patients with gastric cancer after total gastrectomy
    LIU Hua, LING Wei, CAO Hui
    2011, 31 (7):  1000. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.029

    Abstract ( 1912 )   PDF (5629KB) ( 1633 )  

    Objective To evaluate the effects of immune-enhanced enteral nutritional support on the immune and nutritional function in elderly patients with gastric cancer after total gastrectomy. Methods Eighty-four elderly patients with gastric cancer undergoing total gastrectomy were randomly divided into glutamine-enhanced enteral nutrition  group (Gln group, n=28), conventional enteral nutrition group (EN group, n=28) and parenteral nutrition group (PN group, n=28). The time of anal exhaust after operation, incidences of postoperative complications and duration of hospitalization were observed. Serum total protein, albumin, proalbumin and transferrin were measured 1 d before operation, 2 d and 10 d after operation. Ten days after operation, the percentages of CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells in peripheral blood were measured, the ratio of CD4+T cells to CD8+T cells (CD4+/CD8+)was calculated, and the serum IgM and IgG were detected. Results The time of anal exhaust after operation and duration of hospitalization in Gln group and EN group were significantly shorter than those in PN group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the incidences of postoperative complications among three groups (P>0.05). Two days after operation, the mass concentrations of serum total protein, albumin, proalbumin and transferrin were significantly lower than those before operation in three groups (P<0.05). Ten days after operation, the mass concentrations of serum total protein, albumin and proalbumin in Gln group and EN group were significantly higher than those in PN group (P<0.05). Ten days after operation, the percentages of CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells in peripheral blood, CD4+/CD8+ , and serum mass concentrations of IgM and IgG in Gln group recovered to those before operation, and were significantly higher than those in EN group and PN group at the same time point (P<0.05). Conclusion For elderly patients with gastric cancer undergoing total gastrectomy, glutamine-enhanced nutritional support early after operation is safe and feasible, which can improve nutritional and immune function, promote recovery and reduce duration of hospitalization.

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    Original article (Preventive medicine)
    Reliability and validity of questionnaire of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention for senior high school students
    CAI Yong, SHI Rong, HUANG Hong, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  1005. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.030

    Abstract ( 1575 )   PDF (3950KB) ( 1394 )  

    Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of questionnaire of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention for senior high school students. Methods The questionnaire of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention for senior high school students was designed on the basis of health promotion theory. A total of 12 313 students of grade 1 in senior high schools were selected by cluster random sampling from Shanghai, Sanming of Fujian Province and Beihai of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and survey with the questionnaire was conducted. Two hundred and fifty-one students were retested, and the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined. Results Cronbach's α coefficient of the reliability of the questionnaire ranged from 0.608 to 0.916. Spearman correlation coefficients were all higher than 0.7 in the evaluation of test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the questionnaire was good by factor analysis, and 15 common factors including knowledge, attitude, belief and practice could explain 58.381% of the questionnaire. Conclusion The questionnaire of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention for senior high school students designed in this study has favorable reliability and validity, and can be applied in related researches.

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    Application of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 in elderly orthopedics inpatients without severe diseases
    SUN Juan, CAO Yun, FENG Xiao-hui, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  1009. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.031

    Abstract ( 1880 )   PDF (4269KB) ( 1405 )  

    Objective To investigate the application of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) in elderly orthopedics inpatients without severe diseases. Methods Nutritional risk screening was performed in 63 elderly orthopedics inpatients without severe diseases by NRS2002, Subjective Globe Assessment (SGA) and Body Composition Assessment (BCA). With Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA) as criteria, the nutritional risk screening result, sensitivity, specificity and Kappa value of each evaluation method were assessed, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were drafted for calculation of areas under the curves. Results The sensitivity of NSR2002, BCA and SGA in nutrition risk screening was 26.09%, 86.96% and 43.45% respectively. Kappa values of NRS2002, SGA and BCA were 0.309, 0.494 and 0.554 respectively, and areas under the ROC were 0.630, 0.717 and 0.776 respectively. Conclusion The sensitivity of NSR2002 in nutrition risk screening in elderly orthopedics inpatients without severe diseases is relatively lower, and is not well consistent with MNA.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Comparative analysis of children's medical insurance system in Shanghai
    WANG Han-song, REN Yi-jiong, ZHANG Yun-ting, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  1012. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.032

    Abstract ( 2266 )   PDF (5071KB) ( 1719 )  

    Objective To investigate the current status of children's medical insurance system in Shanghai, and find out ways to improvement. Methods Relevant policies of children's medical insurance in Shanghai were systematically collected and analysed, and comparisons were made with those in Beijing, Tianjin and Chongqing on financing, deductibles, reimbursement proportions and cap lines. Reimbursements of medical expenses of 320 children with leukemia, malignancies and congenital heart diseases were retrospectively analysed. Results Children's medical insurance in Shanghai was “double insurance”, which contained Children's Hospitalization Fund and Basic Medical Insurance for Urban Residents of school students and infants. Compared with the other age groups, the financing of children's Basic Medical Insurance for Urban Resident was relatively lower,  the outpatient reimbursement rate was roughly equal, while the hospital reimbursement rate for children (50%) was less than that of people over the age of 60. Compared with the other municipalities, the individual financing of children's “double insurance” in Shanghai (140 RMB) was the highest, but the reimbursement cap line was not set. Through case analysis, it was found that the actual reimbursement rates of medical expenses of children with leukemia and malignancies (87.76%) and congenital heart diseases (88.18%) were lower than the theoretical level (100%). Conclusion The financing of children's medical insurance in Shanghai has not yet been established organic links with economic development. There is room for improvement in the medical aid system for poverty-stricken children with serious illness. The reimbursement rate of children's medical insurance is not in line with the theoretical level, and needs to be enhanced.

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    Analysis of compensation characteristics of responsible parties for adverse drug reactions
    HUANG Deng-xiao, SHENG Hong-bin, HUANG Qi-min
    2011, 31 (7):  1017. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.033

    Abstract ( 1350 )   PDF (5292KB) ( 1251 )  

    Objective To investigate the selection of lowest grade of injury in compensation of adverse drug reactions (ADR) for responsible parties, and analyse the characteristics. Methods The selection of lowest grade of injury in compensation of ADR and the amount of compensation for injury higher than grade 7 were investigated among responsible parties of pharmaceutical manufacturers (260 units), government departments (115 units) and medical institutions(125 units) by questionnaire survey, and comparisons were made among these three parties. Results A total of 480 questionnaires were recovered, with the recovery rate of 96.0%. There were 467 effective questionnaires, and the effective rate was 93.4%. Most units (n=81, 17.34%) chose grade 7 as the lowest grade in compensation, and 5 units (1.07%) only compensated for death of ADR. More severe injury led to larger amount of compensation, and the largest amount of compensation for death was 300 thousand RMB yuan. The willingness of compensation significantly increased in all parties when the severity of injury increased from grade 4 to grade 3. However, there were disparities among parties in compensation for slight injury. There were significant differences in the distributions of lowest grade of injury in compensation among three parties (P<0.05). Conclusion Responsible parties for ADR may provide compensation for the injured, and the amount of compensation may vary according to the severity of injury. There exist disparities in the lowest grade of injury in compensation among different parties. All parties lay emphasis on the severely injured rather than the slightly injured.

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    Review
    Interaction of long noncoding RNAs and other epigenetic mechanisms in tumors
    SUN Tian-tian, FANG Jing-yuan
    2011, 31 (7):  1022. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.034

    Abstract ( 1693 )   PDF (5188KB) ( 1705 )  

    As a newly discovered RNA interference method, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) play an important role in the development and progression of carcinomas, just as other epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodeling. Recent researches have highlighted that lncRNA can interact with other epigenetic mechanisms. lncRNA can regulate DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and other RNA interference through many ways, and the expression and role of lncRNA can be regulated by DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. The complex relationship affects the development and progression of carcinomas.

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    MicroRNA and gene regulation in hematopoietic tumors
    ZHUANG Li-kun, TONG Jian-hua
    2011, 31 (7):  1027. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.035

    Abstract ( 1781 )   PDF (4159KB) ( 2206 )  

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a family of non-coding RNA with 20-25 nt in length, which has a wide distribution in eukaryotes. It can regulate the gene expression at the level of post-transcription by binding to the mRNA. miRNA is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including early embryonic development, cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Abnormal expression of miRNA usually correlates with various human tumors, acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Increasing studies have indicated that miRNA play an important regulatory role in hematopoietic tumorigenesis, and the research progress in this field is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of human somatic cell nuclear transfer
    GUAN Xiao-hong, FENG Yun
    2011, 31 (7):  1031. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.036

    Abstract ( 1670 )   PDF (4015KB) ( 1387 )  

    To solve the problem of immune incompatibility, nuclear transfer has been deeply developed. The successful development of animal nuclear transfer and the requirements from regenerative medicine and drug therapy promote the research of human specific embryonic stem cells. This review discusses the research progress of human somatic cell nuclear transfer and obstacles and challenges of interspecies nuclear transfer.

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    Research progress in immunology of rheumatoid arthritis
    MIAO Yi, HU Chao-ying, QIAN Liu, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  1035. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.037

    Abstract ( 1758 )   PDF (6114KB) ( 1405 )  

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of synovial joints. RA is presented as the malfunction of immune system especially mediated by Th1 cells. B lymphocytes are also closely associated with RA in the process of antigen presentation, antibody generation and cytokine secretion. Besides, γδ T lymphocytes, Th17 cells, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 also function in different stages of RA. This paper discusses the correlation of cells, antibodies and cytokines with the development, diagnosis and treatment of RA.

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    Research progress of clinicopathology of parathyroid tumors and hyperplasia
    HU Na, JIN Xiao-long
    2011, 31 (7):  1041. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.038

    Abstract ( 1753 )   PDF (6276KB) ( 1578 )  

    Histopathological examination can determine the pathological types of hyperparathyroidism, which is a classical method to differentiate among parathyroid hyperplasia, parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma. In recent years, there has been rapid progress in research of immunohistochemical labelling and molecular pathology of parathyroid tumors and hyperplasia, including Cyclin D1, MEN1, HRPT2 and CaSR gene and protein. The development of clinical imaging techniques makes the preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid diseases more accurate, and the parathyroid hormone levels measured during operation may serve as parameters for evaluation of surgical outcomes.

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    Brief original article
    Effects of periodontal therapy on Archaea colonization in subgingival plaque
    LI Chao-lun, LIU Da-li, QIAN Jie-lei, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  1047. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.039

    Abstract ( 1714 )   PDF (3457KB) ( 1213 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of periodontal therapy on Archaea colonization in subgingival plaque. Methods The periodontal treatment process of 49 patients with moderate to severe periodontitis were followed up, and subgingival plaque samples were collected after supragingival plaque scaling (baseline), 4 weeks after periodontal basic treatment and 12 weeks after periodontal flap surgery for DNA extraction. PCR was performed with 16S rRNA gene of Archaea, and the expression of 16S rRNA of Archaea in plaque samples was qualitatively detected. The positive samples were determined, and the detection rate of Archaea was calculated. Real-Time PCR was employed to quantitatively detect the 16S rRNA gene of total bacteria and Archaea in positive samples, and the relative abundance of Archaea was calculated. Results The detection rates of Archaea and relative abundance of Archaea in subgingival plaque samples 12 weeks after periodontal flap surgery were 17.6% and 0.58% respectively, which were significantly lower than those at baseline (69.4% and 2.32%) and 4 weeks after periodontal basic treatment (57.1% and 2.30%)(P<0.05). Conclusion The Archaea colonization in subgingival plaque rapidly decreases with the periodontal treatment process, which indicates that the subgingival anaerobic environment is the key factor for Archaea colonization.

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    Occlusal reconstruction for patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta typeⅡ
    LING Yue-hua, HUANG Qing-feng, ZHAO Jun
    2011, 31 (7):  1050. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.040

    Abstract ( 1673 )   PDF (8423KB) ( 1183 )  

    Objective To perform occlusal reconstruction for patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta type Ⅱ (DGI-Ⅱ), observe the clinic effect and summarize the clinical experience. Methods The data of one family of DGI-Ⅱ were collected, and the clinical characteristics, treatment process and follow-up status of the proband (patient 1, female, 21 years old) and her relative (patient 2, male, 40 years) were retrospectively analysed. Results The main feature of these two cases of DGIⅡ was severe wear of the dentition, including upper and lower dentition defect in patient 2. After occlusal reconstruction and crown lengthening, patient 1 was restored by ceramic fixed partial denture to reconstruct the occlusion. Patient 2 was restored by removal partial denture after occlusal reconstruction. Patients were followed up 1 year after prosthetic treatment, and the subjective feelings of patients and clinical examinations indicated that the esthetics, mastication function and pronunciation of patients were significantly improved. Conclusion The principle of prosthetic treatment of patients with DGI-Ⅱ should be occlusal reconstruction of worn dentition. Occlusal reconstruction in combination with fixed or removable partial denture may yield favorable clinic effect.

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    Clinical experience
    Preliminary construction of multidisciplinary database for colorectal cancer
    WANG Bing, CHEN Ying-chao, LIANG Yong-kang, et al
    2011, 31 (7):  1055. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2011.07.041

    Abstract ( 1673 )   PDF (4880KB) ( 1223 )  

    Objective To construct a multidisciplinary database for colorectal cancer using Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 software, and investigate its value in systematic preservation and statistical analysis of clinical information and follow-up of patients. Methods The clinical data of 946 patients with colorectal cancer admitted to Department of General Surgery, the Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine between 2005 and 2009 were collected, and multidisciplinary database for colorectal cancer was established with database software, in which the text message input was composed of four pages of baseline information (12 fields), preoperative data (7 fields), surgical treatment (14 fields) and postoperative follow-up (3 fields).ResultsThe database for colorectal cancer was successfully established based on the software platform, and the functions of data storing, adding, retrieving and sorting were attained. Conclusion Data input and retrieval are convenient with this database, which greatly facilitates the management of data of colorectal cancer and fundamentally meets the requirement of clinical practice and scientific research.

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