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    Translational medicine
    2016, 36 (09):  1254. 
    Abstract ( 384 )   PDF (1880KB) ( 849 )  
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    Expert forum
    Analysis of key indexes for cultivating talents in clinical disciplines
    LI Dong-liang, LI Chun-hong, LI Guo-hong, LI Na, ZHANG Wei-wei, WU Cheng-wei, YU Jia-yi, WENG Yi-yi, SHI Qiong-yun, SHEN Bai-yong, GU Shuo, HAO Yong-qiang, TAO Ye-xuan
    2016, 36 (09):  1259. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.001

    Abstract ( 820 )   PDF (1805KB) ( 650 )  

    Objective·To analyze the association between talent cultivation and clinical discipline development level for affiliated hospitals of a medical school in Shanghai, determine key indexes, and propose suggestions for talent cultivation. Methods·Questionnaire survey and data search were used to collect the information on talent cultivation, medical care, teaching, and research. Based on the performance evaluation index system, the discipline development level was calculated. According to quantitative results, disciplines were classified into two categories, i.e. superior disciplines (n=33) and ordinary disciplines (n=129). The rank sum test method was used to analyze the differences in talent cultivation indexes between two types of discipline. Indexes with statistical significance were key indexes associated with the discipline development level. Results·Indexes with statistical difference (P<0.05) between two types of disciplines were the number of faculty in one discipline, the proportion of faculty with a senior professional title, the proportion of faculty with a doctoral degree, the proportion of faculty aged between 41 and 50 years, academic status of discipline leaders, talent aggregation level, the number of researchers, the number of talent projects, and the number of faculty who were trained abroad. Conclusion·We should enhance talent cultivation, pay attention to key indexes, increase the number of faculty, improve talent structure, focus on training talents aged less than 50 years, introduce and cultivate discipline leaders with high influence, elevate talent aggregation, increase the number of researchers, and obtain more talent projects and abroad training opportunities, so as to improve the discipline development level.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Expression and biological effect of long non-coding RNA  ST20-AS1  in T-cell lymphoma
    SUN Yi-feng, XU Peng-peng, ZHAO Wei-li
    2016, 36 (09):  1265. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.002

    Abstract ( 887 )   PDF (3067KB) ( 683 )  

    Objective·To measure the expression of ST20-AS1, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in patients with T-cell lymphoma, and to explore its effects on the proliferation and invasion of T-cell lymphoma cells. Methods·Study lncRNA was screened using the lncRNA array. The association between high expression of ST20-AS1 and NOTCH signaling pathway was detected via the data from the lncRNA array. The expression level of ST20-AS1 in T-cell lymphoma patients was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and its activation effect on NOTCH signaling pathway was verified. ST20-AS1-overexpressing T-cell lymphoma cell line Jurkat was constructed and cell proliferation test and Transwell assay were performed to observe changes in cell proliferation and invasion. Results·ST20-AS1 was overexpressed and NOTCH signaling pathway was significantly activated in T-cell lymphoma patients. The overexpression of ST20-AS1 activated the NOTCH signaling pathway and promoted lymphoma cell proliferation and invasion in Jurkat. When NOTCH1 was knocked down by siRNA, cell proliferation and invasion was reduced in ST20-AS1-overexpressing cell line Jurkat. Conclusion·ST20-AS1 can activate the NOTCH signaling pathway and promote lymphoma cell proliferation and invasion.

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    Effect of S1P-receptor agonist FTY720 in non-infarcted myocardium of rats
    LIU Ye-hong, FAN Qin, ZHANG Feng-ru, LU Lin, SHEN Wei-feng, TAO Rong
    2016, 36 (09):  1271. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.003

    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (3938KB) ( 778 )  

    Objective·To analyze the effect of S1P-receptor agonist FTY720 on the expression of different receptor subtypes of S1P, explore the major receptor subtype of S1P that binds FTY720 in cardiomyocytes of rats with myocardial infarction (MI), and further investigate the protective function on non-infarcted myocardium after MI. Methods·The SD rat model of MI was constructed and SD rats were randomly allocated to sham and MI groups, both of which were further divided into three groups treated with saline, low dosage (0.04 mg/kg) of FTY720, and high dosage (0.4 mg/kg) of FTY720. Tests were performed to compare cardiac function between different groups four weeks after treatment. RT-PCR was used to measure the expressions of S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3 receptors in myocardium before and after MI and to analyze the effect of high dosage of FTY720 on the expression of S1P receptors. Histochemical staining was used to analyze the effects of FTY720 treatment on myocardial structure, interstitial fibrosis, and cell apoptosis in non-infarcted myocardium. Western blotting was conducted to detect the effect of high dosage of FTY720 on the expressions of phosphorylated AKT and ERK in non-infarcted myocardium. Results·In normal myocardium of rats without MI, S1P1 receptor was the most predominantly expressed subtype, followed by S1P3 subtype. Four weeks after MI, the expressions of S1P receptors were significantly reduced, while high dosage FTY720 treatment could remarkably elevate the expressions of S1P1 and S1P3. Similarly, FTY720 treatment could reduce pathological changes in non-infarcted myocardial tissues after MI, including cardiac remodeling, fibrosis, and cell apoptosis. Moreover, the levels of phosphorylated AKT and ERK were significantly elevated after FTY720 treatment. Conclusion·As an important agonist of S1P receptors, FTY720 may activate the AKT and ERK pathways through acting on S1P1 and S1P3 receptors in cardiomyocytes, so as to protect the non-infarcted myocardium after MI.

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    Effects of maternal vitamin D deficiency on the immune function of Th1/Th2 in offspring rats
    WEI Zhen-zhen, CHEN Wei-wei, WANG Lei, YU Xiao-dan
    2016, 36 (09):  1278. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.004

    Abstract ( 688 )   PDF (828KB) ( 692 )  

    Objective·To investigate the effects of maternal vitamin D deficiency and supplementation on the immunomodulatory function of Th1/Th2 in offspring rats. Methods·Forty-eight female SD (8-week-old) rats were randomly assigned to three groups, i.e control group (C group, n=16), vitamin D deficiency group (VDD group, n=16), and vitamin D supplementation group (VDS group, n=16). C group was fed a normal diet and VDD and VDS groups were fed a vitamin D deficiency diet. After four weeks, females and males were housed in a 2∶1 ratio. After gestation, C group and VDS group were fed a normal diet and VDD group was still fed a vitamin D deficiency diet. The vitamin D level in female rats was measured using LC-MS/MS at gestational day 10 (second trimester). The vitamin D level, the ratio of Th1/Th2, and expressions of serum IFN-γ and IL-4 in offspring were measured using LC-MS/MS, flow cytometry, and ELISA 4 weeks after birth, respectively. Results·For C group, VDD group, and VDS group, the 25(OH)D levels in female rats were (23.23±2.08), (5.52±2.36), and (11.35±1.84) ng/mL, respectively, while the 25(OH)D levels in offspring were (7.15±1.30), (0.93±0.22), and (6.82±1.37) ng/mL, respectively. The 25(OH)D levels in female rats and their offspring of VDD group were significantly lower than those of C group and VDS group (P<0.05). The Th1/Th2 ratios in offspring of C group, VDD group, and VDS group were 0.90±0.35, 0.24±0.08, and 0.94±0.26, respectively. The Th1/Th2 ratio in VDD group was significantly polarized toward Th2 and polarization of Th2 in VDS group was remarkably improved compared with C group. The IFN-γ levels in C group, VDD group, and VDS group were (18.72±5.66), (8.27±3.86), and (19.31±5.68) pg/ml, and the IL-4 levels were (3.49±0.52), (4.14±0.55), and (3.52±0.52) pg/ml. The IFN-γ level significantly decreased and the IL-4 level significantly increased in VDD group compared with C group and VDS group (P<0.05). Conclusion·Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant rats caused the imbalance of Th1/Th2 (Th2 polarization) and IFN-γ/IL-4 (drifting toward IL-4) in offspring. Vitamin D supplementation significantly improved the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and IFN-γ/IL-4 in offspring.

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    Study on the expression of amyloid precursor protein family in chronic periodontitis
    ZHOU Wei, ZHANG Xuan, LI Xiao-tian, ZHANG Jing, SONG Zhong-chen
    2016, 36 (09):  1282. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.005

    Abstract ( 682 )   PDF (2370KB) ( 650 )  

    Objective·To observe the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) family in chronic periodontitis-affected gingival tissues and in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) under inflammatory microenvironment. Methods·Gene expression and protein level of APP family in healthy and chronic periodontitis-affected gingival tissues were measured by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively. HGFs were cultured in vitro. The inflammatory microenvironment was simulated by 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide from P. gingivalis (P. g-LPS). The gene expression of APP family in HGFs was also measured using real-time PCR. Results·The gene expression and protein level of APP and APLP2 significantly increased in chronic periodontitis-affected gingival tissues compared with healthy gingival tissues, while the gene expression of APLP1 showed no significant change. The gene expressions of APP, APLP1, and APLP2 in HGFs all increased after being treated with P. g-LPS. Conclusion·APP family may play a role in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Clinical application of domestic customized 3D-printing total temporomandibular joint prostheses
    ZHENG Ji-si, ZHANG Shan-yong, YANG Chi, YU Yang, JIANG Wen-bo, LI Hui-wu, WANG Xiang-yu, JIAO Zi-Xian,ZHONG Xiao-Qi
    2016, 36 (09):  1287. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.006

    Abstract ( 773 )   PDF (2358KB) ( 807 )  

    Objective· To verify the safety, efficiency, and precision of the clinical application of domestic customized 3D-printing total temporomandibular joint prostheses. Methods·2 patients with temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis were included in this study. The maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) was performed before surgery and the CT data were input into the Mimics 18.0 software. The customized total joint prostheses were designed according to the anatomy of patients’ temporomandibular joints and were made with 3D printing. The surgeries were performed after the mechanical performance test for the prostheses. The modified preauricular approach was used and the prosthesis was placed and fixed after removing affected joint nodules and condyles. The wound was closed and sutured after occlusion was examined. The clinical follow-up and radiography examinations were performed 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. The preoperative designed position and postoperative implant position of prosthesis in CT images were compared and the deviation was analyzed. Results·The average static yield strength of the prosthesis was 3100 N. No cracks or fractures were detected during fatigue tests. Biological examinations were qualified after disinfection and sterilization. All prostheses were positioned smoothly and firmly attached to bone surfaces. Prostheses showed no displacement, loosening, and fracture in X-ray images 1 week and 3 months after surgery. The pain, diet, and mouth opening of patients were significant improved 3 months after surgery. The fitting results of preoperative and postoperative CT images indicated that the mean error between preoperative designed position and postoperative implant position of prosthesis was (0.904±0.292) mm at the fossa and (0.528±0.198) mm at the ramus. The overall mean error was (0.878±0.259) mm. Conclusion·The domestic customized 3D-printing total temporomandibular joint prosthesis is safe and efficiency for the clinical application.

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    Clinical investigation of the digital simulation technology in predicting the prosthesis size for total knee arthroplasty
    ZHANG Jin, SUN Li, YANG Xian-teng, HU Ru-yin, TIAN Jia-liang, HAN Wei, TIAN Xiao-bin, WANG Jin-wu, DAI Ke-rong
    2016, 36 (09):  1292. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.007

    Abstract ( 606 )   PDF (1823KB) ( 880 )  

    Objective·To compare the pros and cons between digital simulation technology and conventional film template in predicting the prosthesis size before total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and provide evidence for perfect minimally invasive TKA. Methods·Sixty patients who underwent TKA from January 2015 to June 2015 were selected and assigned to the digital simulation group (DSG, n=30) and the conventional template group (CTG, n=30) based on a random number table method. In DSG, the prosthesis sizes were predicted by digital simulation of surgery, including osteotomy and placement of the prosthesis. In CTG, the comparisons between the film template and the knee X-ray radiographs were conducted to determine the prosthesis sizes. Predictive sizes and final sizes selected by surgeries were compared. The accuracies of prediction in the two groups were compared through statistical analysis of related data. Results·For the femoral prosthesis size prediction, there were 2 cases with a size difference of 1# and 1 case  with a size difference of 2# in DSG, and  7 cases with a size difference of 1# and 2 cases with a size difference of 2# in CTG. The accuracies for predicting femoral prosthesis size were 90.0% and 70.0% in DSG and CTG, respectively. For the tibial prosthesis size prediction, there were 2 cases with a size difference of 1# in DSG, and 8 cases with a size difference of 1# and 2 cases  with a size difference of 2# in CTG. The accuracies for predicting tibial prosthesis size were 93.3% and 66.7% in DSG and CTG, respectively. The differences between two groups were statistically significant. Conclusion·The prediction of prosthesis size with digital simulation technology is more accurate compared with conventional film template. This technology can provide evidence for preoperative planning, minimal invasion, and prosthesis preparation for TKA.

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    Study on the effects of ANK3 gene on the development of cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia
    Lü Wang-qiang, TANG Wei, CAI Jun, LU Wei-hong, YU Yue-guo, FAN Wei-xing, ZHANG Chen
    2016, 36 (09):  1297. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.008

    Abstract ( 923 )   PDF (887KB) ( 703 )  

    Objective·To investigate the effects of ANK3 gene on the cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Methods·A total of 254 schizophrenia patients with stable condition and 72 healthy controls were recruited. Cognitive function was tested using RBANS and SNP rs10994336 was genotyped using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results·The difference in sex between case group and control group was not statistically significant (P=0.18), while the differences in age and education were statistically significant (P<0.01). In the RBANS evaluation, patients in case group had much higher total scores and scores in immediate memory, visual span, language ability, attention, and delayed memory compared with the control group (P<0.01). The differences in the total score and scores of immediate memory, attention, and delayed memory between patients carrying three different genotypes of rs10994336 were statistically significant (P<0.01). Patients carrying T/T genotype had significantly lower RBANS scores than those carrying C/C genotype. Conclusion·ANK3 gene is significantly associated with cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia, especially in terms of immediate memory, attention, and delayed memory, suggesting ANK3 gene may participate in the development of cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Feasibility study of the targeted next-generation sequencing technology in the diagnosis of childrens genomic disease
    ZHANG Huan-huan, LI Niu, YU Ting-ting, YAO Ru-en, QING Yan-rong, WANG Xiu-min, SHEN Yi-ping, WANG Jian
    2016, 36 (09):  1301. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.009

    Abstract ( 749 )   PDF (3232KB) ( 965 )  

    Objective·To perform clinical molecular diagnosis for 10 Chinese children with highly-suspected genomic disorders and to evaluate the feasibility of next generation sequencing (NGS) with target capture library in decteting copy number variants (CNVs). Methods·All the patients were evaluated by NGS with SureSelect Inherited Diseases library. The location and size of pathogenic CNVs were identified through bioinformatics analysis. Meanwhile, chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) was used to verify these CNVs. Results·NGS results showed that a 9 345 kb duplication (3 copies) in 17q25.1—q25.3 was detected in chromosome 17 of case 1 and a 8 232 kb heterozygous deletion in 15q11.2—q13.1 was detected in chromosome 15 of case 2. No suspicious CNVs were identified in other 8 cases. The CMA testing results were highly consistent with those of NGS. Conclusion·Two patients were diagnosed with genomic disorders by molecular diagnosis approach. Our research indicates that targeted NGS technique is quite feasible for CNV detection.

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    Efficacy and safety of abiraterone combined with prednisone for treating chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
    FAN Lian-cheng, DONG Bai-jun, CHI Chen-fei, PAN Jia-hua, SHA Jian-jun, HUANG Yi-ran, ZHOU Li-xin, XUE Wei
    2016, 36 (09):  1306. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.010

    Abstract ( 893 )   PDF (1466KB) ( 832 )  

    Objective·To assess the efficacy and safety of abiraterone acetate (AA) plus prednisone for treating patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Methods·The clinical data of 60 patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC who were treated in Renji Hospital from September 2012 to March 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-three patients received AA (1 000 mg once daily) plus prednisone (5 mg twice daily) (the AA group) and 17 patients received prednisone alone (the control group). Co-primary endpoints were prostate specific antigen progression-free survival (PSA PFS), radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), and overall survival (OS). Results·The median follow-up time was 14.0 months. There were 11 (25.58%) deaths in the AA group and 8 (47.06%) deaths in the control group. The AA group had significantly longer median PSA PFS, rPFS, and OS compared with the control group. The most frequently reported grade 3/4 adverse effect (AE) in the two groups was alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased. There was no AE leading to discontinuation of drug therapy in this study. Conclusion·The AA plus prednisone treatment significantly prolonged PSA PFS, rPFS, and OS in patients with chemotherapy-naive mCRPC. The tolerance of patients was satisfactory and it is an effective and safe option for treating chemotherapy-naive mCRPC patients.

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    Digital technique assisted three-dimensional measurement of acetabular orientation for Chinese people
    ZHANG Heng-hui, QU Yang, CHEN Xiao-jun, DAI Ke-rong, WANG Liao, AI Song-tao
    2016, 36 (09):  1311. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.011

    Abstract ( 607 )   PDF (2563KB) ( 703 )  

    Objective·To develop a reliable and accurate 3D acetabular orientation measurement method for Chinese people. Methods·CT data of 60 (30 males and 30 females) adult patients with disease irrelevant to bones were collected. 3D models of osseous pelves were generated and the 3D coordinates of osseous pelves were manually selected and optimized via iterations. A surface-based method was used to realize semi-automatic measurement of acetabular spatial parameters and describe acetabular characteristics of Chinese people. A software was developed to verify the accuracy and reliability of this method. Results·3D model based acetabular measurement method was quite reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]>0.999) and accurate. Both anteversion (average: 3.1°, 95%CI 2.0°-4.2°, P=0.004) and anatomic inclination (0.9°, 95%CI 0.4°-1.4°, P=0.028) of females were greater than those of males. There was no significant difference in bilateral acetabular orientation. However, bilateral differences in anteversion (maximum 9.1°) and inclination (maximum 5.7°) were observed in some individuals. Conclusion·Differences in acetabular orientation between males and females were statistically significant (P<0.05). The variation ranges of acetabular orientation were wide, especially the anteversion. Individual acetabular orientation was relatively symmetrical. 3D acetabular measurement and analysis are helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of hip disease and the design of prosthesis.

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    Evaluation of hepatitis C virus infection and treatment motivation among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment
    ZHANG Lei, LI Zhi-bin, HAN Hui, DU Jiang, ZHAO Min
    2016, 36 (09):  1317. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.012

    Abstract ( 633 )   PDF (1090KB) ( 597 )  

    Objective·To investigate the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, knowledge related to hepatitis C virus, and treatment motivation among the heroin dependents treated in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics and to provide evidence for formulating related intervention strategies in the future. Methods·Two hundred and forty participants receiving MMT underwent serologic test to evaluate HCV infection among them. HCV related knowledge questionnaire, AUDIT, Stigma Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess patients. Results·The HCV infection rate among participants was 70.0% (168/240) and most of them were co-infected with hepatitis A (43.3%). HCV knowledge scores were low due to lack of self-protection consciousness and average scores were 6.5±3.5. The main factor affecting the motivation to treatment is treatment costs. Conclusion·The HCV infection rate in MMT patients is high and the patients lack related knowledge. The factors influencing the motivation for treatment are complicated.

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    Value of combining inflammation, malnutrition, and calcification for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients
    ZHOU Yan, FANG Wei, YAN Hao, YUAN Jiang-zi, LI Zhen-yuan, YU Zan-zhe, HUANG Jia-ying, NI Zhao-hui, QIAN Jia-qi
    2016, 36 (09):  1322. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.013

    Abstract ( 675 )   PDF (1788KB) ( 623 )  

    Objective·To explore whether the combined use of inflammation, malnutrition, and cardiac valve calcification allows better all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk stratification in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods·Patients underwent regular PD in PD center of Renji Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from March 2011 to August 2013 were enrolled in this study. Cardiac valve calcification (CVC) in patients was detected using two-dimensional echocardiography. The patients were assigned to 4 groups based on 0, 1, 2 and all 3 risk markers, namely high high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), low serum albumin and CVC. All patients were followed up prospectively until death, PD discontinuation, or October 31, 2015. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by 0, any 1, 2 and all 3 risk markers. Results·A total of 189 PD patients with mean age of (55.8±15.2) years and median dialysis time of 20 months (9-42.5) were enrolled in this study. Among them, 99 (52.4%) were males and 32 (16.9%) had diabetes mellitus. CVC was presented in 60 (31.7%) patients. By the end of study, 46 patients died and 28 deaths were due to cardiovascular events. The patients with 3 and 2 markers had adjusted HR of 4.933 (95%CI 1.674-14.540,P=0.004) and 2.762 (95%CI 1.107-6.892,P=0.029) for all-cause mortality compared with those with 0 risk marker. The adjusted HR for cardiovascular mortality were 7.719 (95%CI 1.916-31.088, P=0.004) and 3.728 (95%CI 1.126-12.344, P=0.031) in patients with 3 and 2 markers. A combination of 3 markers increased the area under the curves of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with any single marker. Conclusion·A combination of inflammation, malnutrition, and CVC can better predict the prognosis of PD patients and allow better all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk stratification in PD patients.

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    Factors influencing the efficacy of facial nerve decompression
    WANG Jing-jing, FENG Yan-mei, WU Ya-qin, WANG Hui, SHI Hai-bo, CHEN Zheng-nong, YIN Shan-kai
    2016, 36 (09):  1329. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.014

    Abstract ( 714 )   PDF (852KB) ( 582 )  

    Objective·To explore factors influencing the efficacy of facial nerve decompression. Methods·Thirty-two patients with peripheral facial palsy who underwent facial nerve decompression in the Department of ENT Head and Neck Surgery at Shanghai Sixth Peoples Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University between 2013 and 2015 were included in this study. The House-Brackmann facial nerve grade was used as the evaluation standard to analyzed factors such as course of disease, age, sex, cause of disease, and results of pre-operative facial nerve ENoG test. Results·Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that the efficacy of decompression performed within 8 weeks of the onset of facial palsy was much better than that after 8 weeks and the difference was statistically significant. Other factors did not influence the efficacy of facial nerve decompression. Conclusion·The timing of surgery is a factor influencing the efficacy of facial nerve decompression surgery.

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    Retrospective analysis of the procedure of digital orthognathic surgery and its clinical effects
    DAI Jie-wen, WANG Bi-xia, WEI Hong-pu, LI Biao, SHEN Shun-yao, FANG Bin, SHEN Guo-fang, WANG Xu-dong
    2016, 36 (09):  1333. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.015

    Abstract ( 646 )   PDF (5060KB) ( 757 )  

    Objective·To establish a standardized procedure of digital orthognathic surgery and to evaluate its effects. Methods·788 patients with dentofacial deformities who received digital orthognathic surgery between 2014 and 2015 were included in this study. Patients were treated based on the procedure of clinical data collection, data processing, computer assisted surgery planning and simulation, 3D printing and occlusal splint processing, orthognathic surgery, surgery evaluation and feedback, and comprehensive verification and recording and the effects of this procedure was evaluated. Results·All 788 patients had satisfactory surgical outcomes.  All preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and follow up data and surgeons’ evaluation and feedback were completely recorded. No major mistakes such as occlusal splint lost or mismatch were found. The surgeons, related medical staff, and staff formulating the procedure cooperated smoothly and were satisfied with this procedure. Human errors such as improper adjustment of the occlusal splints or leave them without disinfection were promptly found and dealt with. Conclusion·A standardized digital orthognathic surgery procedure should include clinical data collection and processing, computer assisted surgery planning and simulation, 3D printing and occlusal splint processing, orthognathic surgery, evaluation and feedback, and comprehensive verification and recording, which can effectively eliminate human errors, improve the satisfaction of patients, ensure the accuracy of occlusal splint, enhance efficiency and efficacy, and promote the development and advance of orthognathic surgery.

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    Original article (Public health)
    Study on the association between metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling residents in Shanghai
    GAO Jin-li, PENG Kui, NI Heng-ru, HUANG Xiao-lin, BI Yu-fang, XU Min
    2016, 36 (09):  1341. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.016

    Abstract ( 496 )   PDF (1110KB) ( 661 )  

    Objective·To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in community-dwelling residents ≥ 40 years of age in Shanghai. Methods·The cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 185 residents aged≥40 years selected by cluster sampling from Songnan community of Baoshan District. The questionnaire was used to collect relevant medical history. Anthropometry and biochemistry measurements were also performed. Results·The prevalences of MS and CVD in study population were 30.99% and 5.97%, respectively. The prevalence of MS was significantly higher in females than in males (35.34% vs 24.40%) and increased with age. The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher in males than in females (7.45% vs 4.99%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that MS was associated with an increased risk of CVD in males (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.11-1.92) and in females (OR 1.34, 95%CI 1.03-1.74) after adjustment for covariates including age, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, and education level. Elevated blood pressure, high fasting glucose, and abdominal obesity were associated with increased risk of CVD in males with MS, while high triacylglycerol level and high fasting glucose were associated with increased risk of CVD in females. Conclusion·About one third of the residents aged ≥40 years in Songnan community had MS. MS and its components were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD.

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    Review
    Research progresses of vestibular compensation mechanism and its clinical significance
    SHI Hai-bo
    2016, 36 (09):  1346. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.017

    Abstract ( 973 )   PDF (1569KB) ( 1163 )  

    The vestibular system is a complicated operating system contributing to monitor and control balance and has functions such as motion perception, gaze, and truck stability. More recently, the vestibular system has been recognized for its contribution to emotion, memory and social cognition. Patients with vestibular dysfunction present with loss of balance, blurred vision, vertigo and so on, resulting in serious social-behavioral impairments. At the early stage of vestibular dysfunction, the vestibular system often experiences a spontaneous recovery from the static and dynamic deficit, i.e. vestibular compensation. As an extrinsic intervention, vestibular rehabilitation can actively promote the compensation in unilateral vestibular impairment. This article reviews the latest research progresses of vestibular compensation mechanism and vestibular rehabilitation ideas, i.e. the best vestibular compensation relies on cross-talk windows between retraining processes and post-lesion brain-plasticity mechanisms, rather than rehabilitation techniques.

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    Application of hepatic stem cells and spermatogonial stem cells in treatment of liver disease
    ZHANG Zhen-zhen, CHEN Zheng, YUAN Qing-qing, SUN Min, NIU Ming-hui, HE Zu-ping
    2016, 36 (09):  1351. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.018

    Abstract ( 662 )   PDF (1311KB) ( 574 )  

    Severe shortage of liver donors and hepatocytes has become a major handicap for the treatment of liver disease. Extra-liver tissues and stem cells can provide an essential source of hepatocytes, which brings new promise for treating liver-related disease. Here we address the advances on the potential application of hepatic stem cells, spermatogonial stem cells, and other stem cells in the treatment of liver disease and future research directions based on studies from home and abroad, as well as our research.

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    Application of nano drug delivery system to treatment of myocardial ischemia
    XUE Xiao-mei, CAO Hui-min, YOU Sha-sha, HE Bin
    2016, 36 (09):  1356. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.019

    Abstract ( 661 )   PDF (1498KB) ( 664 )  

    Myocardial ischemia caused by coronary artery atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease death. Currently, administration of drugs is still an important strategy for myocardial ischemia therapy. Recent studies showed that nano drug delivery system can enhance the safety and efficacy of therapeutic agents and has great value in clinical application. Nano-DDS can deliver drugs via direct heart injection or intravenous injection. The “passive targeting” and “active targeting” properties of the nano-DDS facilitate the delivery of drugs to the site of ischemic myocardium, enhancing the concentration of drugs in the ischemic area, and improving the efficacy. This review summarizes recent studies on the application of nano-DDS to the treatment of myocardial ischemia.

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    Association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and recurrent spontaneous abortion
    GAN Yue-xin, ZHANG Jun, CHEN Dan
    2016, 36 (09):  1362. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.020

    Abstract ( 613 )   PDF (1559KB) ( 933 )  

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive abortions before 20 weeks of gestation. Cytokines are proteins or small molecular peptides for cell signaling, immune regulation and response, which affect all stages of pregnancy and play a vital role in pregnancy outcome. Because cytokines are very important in maternal-fetal immune regulation and genetic polymorphisms have potential impact on function and expression of cytokines, the association between cytokine genetic polymorphisms and RSA has become a hot topic of international research recently. There are some problems in reported studies. For example, the results of different studies are inconsistent or even conflicting, therefore it is difficult to determine the role of cytokine polymorphisms in RSA; most studies reported several positive cases and lack verification from other populations, thus the false positive risk may exist; the sample size of case-control studies was small (<400) with low statistical power, resulting in false negative findings; tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were not fully studied, thus the causal variants may be missed; the impact of gene-gene interaction and gene-environment interaction on RSA was not investigated. Therefore, increasing the sample size, systematically studying representative genetic polymorphisms, and exploring the impact of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction on RSA become an urgent need in this field.

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    Effects of ovarian function and menopausal hormone therapy on cognitive function
    SUN Jun-yan, LAI Dong-mei
    2016, 36 (09):  1368. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.021

    Abstract ( 619 )   PDF (938KB) ( 591 )  

    Menopause is an inevitable natural event in a womans life and results from hypo-ovarianism. Symptoms such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular dysfunction, and urogenital tract atrophy are common in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) can remarkably improve the symptoms of menopause. Recent studies have shown that MHT is associated with cognitive function, while there are significant differences in approaches and results. This article explores several factors that significantly influence cognitive function, including therapeutic time window, type of menopause, baseline condition, and therapeutic regimen, so as to provide reference for the therapy opportunity choice of clinical MHT.

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    Long-term effects of gestational diabetes mellitus on mothers and offspring and strategies of postpartum follow up
    HUANG Ying, ZHAO Li, FANG Fang, ZHEN Qin, YAN Shuai, WANG Yu-fan
    2016, 36 (09):  1373. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.022

    Abstract ( 610 )   PDF (968KB) ( 665 )  

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance that is first identified during pregnancy, excluding diabetic patients diagnosed before pregnancy. GDM not only can cause adverse events in mother and infant during pregnancy, but also has long-term effects after pregnancy. GDM can increase the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and depression in mothers and elevates risks of abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, and obesity in offspring. Effective postpartum follow up and intervention can reduce those risks. This article reviews long term effects of GDM on mothers and offspring and strategies and methods of postpartum follow up.

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    Factors influencing gut microbiota in early life and childhood obesity
    OUYANG Feng-xiu, WANG Xu
    2016, 36 (09):  1378. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.023

    Abstract ( 833 )   PDF (1584KB) ( 1049 )  

    Accumulating evidences suggest that gut microbiota is associated with the development of obesity. Early life is a critical period for gut microbial colonization and development. Maternal vaginal flora and breast milk microbiota are important microbial sources for infant gut microbiota. In early life, the factors that influence the colonization and composition of gut microbiota include intrauterine microbial exposure, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding, antibiotic use, infant behavior and habits, geographical environment, and child genetic factors, etc. These factors may influence the development of childhood obesity via changing the composition of intestinal microbiota.

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    Research progress of orbital decompression for the treatment of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy
    ZHANG Yi-dan, FAN Xian-qun, ZHOU Hui-fang
    2016, 36 (09):  1383. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.024

    Abstract ( 607 )   PDF (2659KB) ( 682 )  

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune orbital disease which seriously damages visual function and craniofacial appearance. When TAO develops to compressive optic neuropathy or corneal exposure and is unable to be conservatively treated, orbital decompression surgery is the only way to save sight. With the advancement of surgical incision and procedures, more and more patients have undergone orbital decompression surgery to reconstruct craniofacial appearance. How to achieve effective orbital decompression in a most precise and safest way with minimal invasion has become a research hotspot of modern orbital surgery. Recently, with the proposition of orbital gradient decompression scheme, the development of digital orbital surgery technology, and the application of assistant devices such as endoscopes and computer navigation systems, precise customized pre-operative design for decompression range, precise intra-operative decompression with minimal invasion, and objective postoperative assessment have been achieved, which significantly improve the value of orbital decompression surgery in the treatment of TAO.

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    Research progresses of regulating the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer by long non-coding RNA
    PAN Tao, YU Zhen-jia, WU Xiong-yan, SU Li-ping
    2016, 36 (09):  1388. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.025

    Abstract ( 726 )   PDF (1008KB) ( 570 )  

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common digestive tract malignancies in Asia and prones to lymph node metastasis and hematogenous metastasis. Tumor remote metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with gastric cancer, while the molecular mechanism underlying the invasion and metastasis is still not fully clarified. Long non-coding RNA is a class of non-coding RNA molecules with a length of more than 200 nt and lack of open reading frames. Numerous studies have shown that long non-coding RNA plays an important role in multiple biological processes, including immune response, pluripotency of stem cells, and cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Recent research indicated that long non-coding RNA is closely associated with invasion, metastasis, and prognosis of gastric cancer, as well as regulation of tumor invasion and metastasis through multiple pathways. This article reviews the latest research progresses of regulating the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer by long non-coding RNA.

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    Research advances on intra-arterial chemotherapy for the treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma
    JIA Ruo-bing, JIA Ren-bing, FAN Xian-qun
    2016, 36 (09):  1394. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.026

    Abstract ( 897 )   PDF (885KB) ( 771 )  

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children. Chemotherapy remains the main method for the treatment of intraocular RB in term of saving affected eyes. Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a novel way to treat intraocular RB and can avoid systematic toxic side effects caused by intravenous chemotherapy. This article reviews the research advances on intra-arterial chemotherapy for the treatment of RB.

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    Research progresses of eye movement in Parkinsons disease
    ZHOU Li-che, LIU Jun
    2016, 36 (09):  1399. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.09.027

    Abstract ( 581 )   PDF (1287KB) ( 718 )  

    Parkinsons disease is a multifaceted neurodegenerative disorder with complicated mechanism and various symptoms. In recent years, with the deepening of the research on the pathogenesis and biomarkers of Parkinsons disease, a growing number of researchers have found that eye movement abnormalities play an important role in Parkinsons disease. This paper mainly summarizes the latest research progresses of eye movement disorders and Parkinsons disease, and explores pathophysiological mechanism, design of clinical research, and the value of eye movement as a biomarker in diagnosis and differentiation of Parkinson’s disease.

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