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    Monographic report (Radionuclide therapy for thyroid carcinoma)
    Analysis of influential factors for efficacy of 131I thyroid remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma
    FU Hong-liang, DU Xue-liang, GU Zhen-hui, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  249. 
    Abstract ( 2083 )   PDF (4447KB) ( 1544 )  

    Objective To analyse the influential factors for efficacy of radioiodine (131I) thyroid remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after operation. Methods The clinical data of patients undergoing 131I thyroid remnant ablation after operation for DTC were collected. Binary Logistic regression analysis and chi-square test were employed to analyse the effects of gender, age, pathologic type, metastasis, volume of thyroid remnant tissues, serum thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) level, rate of thyroid iodine uptake and 131I ablative dose on efficacy of thyroid remnant ablation. Results The clinical data of 183 patients were collected, among whom 109 (59.56%) achieved successful thyroid remnant ablation at first dose. Binary Logistic regression analysis indicated that the volume of thyroid residue and ablative dose of 131I were the main factors for the efficacy of ablation (Wald=8.59, P=0.003; Wald=6.40, P=0.011). Chi-square test revealed that the ablation efficacy in patients with TSH≥30 μIU/mL was higher than that in those with TSH<30 μIU/mL (χ2=7.291, P=0.007), while there was no significant difference between patients with TSH<60 μIU/mL and those with TSH≥60 μIU/mL (P>0.05). Conclusion The volume of thyroid residue and ablative dose are the main factors for the efficacy of 131I thyroid ablation for DTC. Patients with serum TSH≥30 μIU/mL may have favourable efficacy in thyroid ablation, while excessive serum TSH level may not yield better result.

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    Effects of iodinated contrast media on therapeutic effect of 131I in patients with pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma
    SHENG Shi-wei, CHEN Li-bo, LU Han-kui, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  253. 
    Abstract ( 2575 )   PDF (3002KB) ( 1401 )  

    Objective To explore the effects of iodinated contrast media on therapeutic effect of 131I in patients with pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods The clinical data of 82 patients with pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma were collected, and were classified into three groups according to the conduction of contrast CT scan: contrast CT scan group 1(<3 months of the interval between 131I treatment and contrast CT scan, n=32), contrast CT scan group 2 (≥3 months of the interval between 131I treatment and contrast CT scan, n=27) and negative control group (without contrast CT scan, n=23). After 131I treatment, the condition of iodine intake of pulmonary metastatic lesions in each group was observed and analysed by 131I scan, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated. Results The positive rate of iodine intake of pulmonary metastatic lesions revealed by 131I scan in contrast CT scan group 1 was significantly lower than those of contrast CT scan group 2 and negative control group(P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between contrast CT scan group 2 and negative control group(P>0.05). There was no significant difference in therapeutic effect of 131I treatment among three groups (P>0.05). However, the therapeutic effect of patients with negative results in initial 131I treatment was poorer than those with positive results. Conclusion 131I scan may predict the therapeutic effect of 131I treatment in patients with pulmonary metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and the application of iodinated contrast media within 3 months before 131I treatment may affect the iodine intake of pulmonary metastatic lesions.

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    Clinical value of combination of multiple radionuclide imaging methods in 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma
    ZOU Ren-jian, FU Hong-liang, WU Jing-chuan, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  256. 
    Abstract ( 1594 )   PDF (3477KB) ( 1583 )  

    Objective To explore the optimal method of radionuclide imaging in detection of recurrence or metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods The clinical data of 89 patients with DTC were retrospectively analysed. The results of radionuclide imaging methods of 131I whole body scan complemented with serum thyroglobulin(Tg) measurement, 99mTc-MIBI tumor scan and 18F-FDG coincidence SPECT/CT were compared and analysed. Results The sensitivities of 131I whole body scan, 99mTc-MIBI tumor scan and 18F-FDG coincidence SPECT/CT were 83.05%, 79.66% and 16.95%, respectively. Conclusion As complementary methods, 99mTc-MIBI tumor scan and 18F-FDG coincidence SPECT/CT can make up the limitation of 131I whole body scan simply complemented with serum Tg measurement, which may help to detect the recurrence and metastasis of DTC, evaluate the therapeutic effects and guide the therapy.

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    Dedifferentiation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC-133 and its relationship with 131I radiation
    FENG Fang, FU Hong-liang, YE Zhi-yi, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  259. 
    Abstract ( 2171 )   PDF (5809KB) ( 1141 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between dedifferentiation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) cell line FTC-133 cultured in vitro and radioactive iodine (131I) radiation. Methods DTC FTC-133 cells cultured in vitro were divided into experiment group (long-term cultivation after Na131I radiation for 48 h), control group (long-term cultivation without Na131I radiation) and blank group (cryopreservation and revitalization for experiment). Iodide uptake of each group was determined, and RT-PCR, Western blotting and radioimmunoassay (RIA) were employed to detect the expression of thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) mRNA and protein. Results The iodide uptake rate of blank group was the highest and that of experiment group was the lowest, with significant differences among groups (P<0.01). Compared with blank group, the expression of Tg, TPO, NIS and TSHR protein in experiment group and control group decreased, especially in experiment group, with significant differences among groups (P<0.05). The changes of expression of Tg, TPO, NIS and TSHR mRNA were in accordance with those of expression of Tg, TPO, NIS and TSHR protein. Conclusion DTC FTC133 cells may experience dedifferentiation during long-term in vitro culture, and 131I radiation may promote this process, which may be associated with decreased expression of thyroid specific protein.

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    Analysis of 131I treatment for children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma
    YE Zhi-yi, FU Hong-liang, LI Jia-ning, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  264. 
    Abstract ( 1995 )   PDF (4045KB) ( 1290 )  

    Objective To investigate the characteristics and outcomes of radioactive iodine (131I) therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods The clinical and follow-up data of 20 patients with DTC who received initial 131I treatment at the age ≤21 years old (5 to 21 years old) were retrospectively analysed. There were 18 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 2 with follicular thyroid carcinoma. Seven patients experienced simple lymph node metastases, and 8 had lung metastases. All patients received 131I ablation of residual thyroid tissues. 131I therapeutic doses of metastatic loci were adjusted according to age, illness status, location of metastasis and uptake of 131I of lesions. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by 131I whole body imaging, 18F-FDG tumor imaging and levels of serum thyroglobulin and its receptor, and adverse effects were also observed. Results The median time of follow up was 48.50 months (6 to 110 months), and all the patients survived. The lesions of 13 patients eliminated, 5 improved or controlled, and 2 progressed. Four of the 7 patients with simple lymph node metastases and 4 of the 8 patients with lung metastases experienced lesion elimination. No pulmonary fibrosis, secondary malignancies and abnormity of growth and development were found during follow-up. Conclusion 131I therapy is an effective and safe method for young patients with DTC, especially for those with metastatic lesions.

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    Efficacy of 131I thyroid remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after partial thyroidectomy
    FU Hong-liang, DU Xue-liang, GU Zhen-hui, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  268. 
    Abstract ( 1907 )   PDF (3466KB) ( 1242 )  

    Objective To observe the efficacy of radioactive iodine (131I) thyroid remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after partial thyroidectomy. Methods The clinical data of 103 patients with 131I thyroid remnant ablation after DTC were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into partial thyroidectomy group (n=33)and complete thyroidectomy group (n=70)according to the findings of thyroid planar imaging. The first ablation dose was 1.11—3.7 GBq (30—100 mCi). Diagnostic 131I whole body scan was used to evaluate the efficacy of ablation 3 to 6 months later. If no visible radioactive uptake in thyroid bed was found, the ablation was defined to be complete. Otherwise, the ablation was defined to be partial, and patients needed a second or third dose of 131I with routine follow-up. Results After the first, second and third ablation, the rates of complete ablation in complete thyroidectomy group were 61.43%, 88.89% and 100%, and those in partial thyroidectomy group were 21.21%, 46.15% and 78.57%. There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the first and second ablation in complete thyroidectomy group and that of the second and third ablation in partial thyroidectomy group (P>0.05). Conclusion The efficacy of 131I thyroid remnant ablation in patients with DTC after partial thyroidectomy may not be favourable at the first dose, while a high rate of complete ablation can be achieved at the second or third dose.

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    Effects of 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma on liver and renal function
    WU Shu-qi, LI Jin, YE Zhi-yi, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  271. 
    Abstract ( 1973 )   PDF (4142KB) ( 1360 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on liver and renal function. Methods The clinical data of 106 patients with DTC were collected, and patients were divided into low dose group (≤1.85 GBq, n=19), middle dose group (2.22 GBq and 2.96 GBq, n=50) and high dose group (≥3.7 GBq, n=37) according to 131I doses. The results of liver and renal examinations were compared and analysed before and after 131I therapy among groups. Results The data of liver function were complete in 67 patients before and after 131I therapy (low dose group, n=18; middle dose group, n=37; high dose group, n=12). Compared with those before treatment, the total aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were higher (P<0.05), while the AST and ALT levels of the majority (82.1%) were in the normal ranges. The data of renal function were complete in all the 106 patients before and after 131I therapy. There was no significant difference in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr) and uric acid (UA) before and after treatment in each group (P>0.05). Conclusion 131I therapy is safe for DTC, with no significant effect on liver and renal function.

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    Research progress of redifferentiation of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma
    HOU Sha-sha
    2010, 30 (3):  275. 
    Abstract ( 2369 )   PDF (4306KB) ( 1305 )  

    Thyroid iodide-metabolizing genes are established markers for differentiation of thyroid carcinoma. The loss or downregulation of iodide-metabolizing genes represents progression of dedifferentiation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which results in the disability to take up and accumulate radioiodine (131I). Therefore, the research of redifferentiation is important for 131I therapy of thyroid carcinoma. BRAF gene mutation has been confirmed to be closely related to the dedifferentiation of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The research progress of redifferentiation of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma by up-regulation of thyroid iodide-metabolizing genes expression and suppression of BRAF mutation is reviewed in this paper.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Experimental study of baculovirus-mediated reporter gene expression in thyroid carcinoma cells
    ZHOU Xiang, YIN Hong-yan, WU Hai-fei, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  279. 
    Abstract ( 1774 )   PDF (6510KB) ( 1334 )  

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of baculovirus in gene transfer and therapeutic vector for thyroid carcinoma. Methods Recombinant baculovirus carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) (Bac-GFP) was constructed with baculovirus Bac-to-Bac expression system. Human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC-133 was infected with Bac-GFP at different multiplicity of infection (MOI), and infection efficiency and GFP expression intensity were identified by flow cytometry. FTC-133 cells were infected by Bac-GFP with MOI of 100, and the duration of GFP expression was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The infection efficiency of Bac-GFP and the GFP expression intensity in the presence of different concentrations of sodium butyrate were determined by flow cytometry. FTC-133 cell survival after infection by Bac-GFP with different MOI was detected by MTT assay. Results Baculovirus vector Bac-GFP was successfully constructed, and FTC-133 cells were infected. The infection efficiency increased with MOI, and reached as high as 71.3% at MOI of 100. Sodium butyrate increased both the infection efficiency and GFP expression intensity, while there was no significant difference in the infection efficiency between the presence and absence of sodium butyrate. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the expression of GFP in FTC-133 cells infected by Bac-GFP lasted two weeks. MTT assay indicated that there was no significant difference in cell survival among FTC-133 cells infected by Bac-GFP with different MOI (P>0.05). Conclusion Recombinant baculovirus Bac-GFP has a high infection efficiency in FTC-133 cells, and the expression of report gene lasts longer, with no obvious cytotoxicity, which makes it a favourable vector for gene therapy of thyroid carcinoma.

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    Regulation effects of Nocodazole with different concentrations on Hela cell synchronization in G2/M phase
    XU Qiu-fang, YU Ke-hua, YI Ting, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  284. 
    Abstract ( 2960 )   PDF (5035KB) ( 1961 )  

    Objective To investigate the regulation effects of Nocodazole with different concentrations on Hela cell synchronization in G2/M phase and spindle morphology. Methods Hela cells were treated with 3.0, 1.0 and 0.3 μmol/L Nocodazole, respectively for 18 h (Nocodazole 3.0, 1.0, 0.3 μmol/L group, respectively). Cells were harvested 0 h, 3 h, 6 h and 9 h after removal of Nocodazole, and the percentage of cells in G2/M phase was detected by flow cytometry. Besides, the arrangement of α-tubulin of cells was observed by confocal microscopy with indirect immunofluorescence staining. Hela cells without treatment with Nocodazole were served as controls. Results After treatment with Nocodazole for 18 h, the percentages of Hela cells in G2/M phase in Nocodazole 3.0, 1.0, 0.3 μmol/L group were 55.95%, 51.09% and 47.81%, respectively, and were significantly higher than that in control group (9.54%)(P<0.05). There was no significant change in the percentages of Hela cells in G2/M phase in Nocodazole 3.0 and 1.0 μmol/L group 3, 6 and 9 h after removal of Nocodazole, while that in Nocodazole 0.3 μmol/L group decreased significantly (30.43%, 12.91% and 10.23%), and there had been no significant difference in the percentage of Hela cells in G2/M phase with control group 6 h after removal of Nocodazole (P>0.05). After removal of Nocodazole, microtubules of cells in G2/M phase in Nocodazole 0.3 μmol/L group reaggregated, and two-pole spindles were formed, with clear spindle fibers. Conclusion Nocodazole can regulate Hela cell synchronization in G2/M phase. After removal of Nocodazole, those treated with 0.3 μmol/L Nocodazole may recover better in cell cycle and spindle morphology.

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    Expression of CypB in colorectal cancer tissues and its effects on |metastasis and invasion of cancer cells
    YUE Fei, ZHENG Min-hua, LU Ai-guo, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  288. 
    Abstract ( 4120 )   PDF (4317KB) ( 1538 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of cyclophilin B (CypB) in colorectal cancer tissues with or without lymph node metastasis, and explore the effects of CypB plasmids knockdown on metastasis and invasion of cancer cells. Methods The expression of CypB in 59 colorectal cancer tissue microarray, including 31 without lymph node metastasis and 28 with lymph node metastasis, were evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Colorectal cancer cell line SW1116 was transfected with shRNA plasmids targeting CypB(SW1116-siCypB) and negative control plasmids(SW1116-NC). CypB knockdown effects were analysed with Western blotting. Wound healing assay and transwell cell invasion assay were performed to observe the effects of CypB knockdown on metastasis and invasion of SW1116 cells. Results The expression of CypB in colorectal cancer tissues with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in colorectal cancer tissues without lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Compared with SW1116-NC, the expression of CypB of SW1116-siCypB significantly reduced (P<0.01), and the performance of metastasis and invasion significantly decreased (P<0.01). Conclusion CypB plays an important role in lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer, which makes it a potential target for the prevention and treatment of lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer.

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    Inhibition effects of valsartan on cell proliferation, expression of inflammatory factors and reactive oxygen species production of macrophages
    JI Yan, QIANG Wei-guo
    2010, 30 (3):  292. 
    Abstract ( 2067 )   PDF (4135KB) ( 1588 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of valsartan, an angiotensinⅡ(AngⅡ)receptor blocker, on expression of inflammatory factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell proliferation of macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 macrophages cultured in vitro were randomly divided into control group (10-6 mol/L AngⅡ) and valsartan group (10-6 mol/L AngⅡ+ valsartan). Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), fluorescence probe was employed to determine the ROS production, and CCK-8 was applied to evaluate the cell proliferation of macrophages. Results The expression of TNF-α, IP-10, IL-6 and MIP-2 mRNA in valsartan group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). ROS production of macrophages could be inhibited by valsartan, especially by 10-5 mol/L valsartan (P<0.05). Various concentrations of valsartan could decrease proliferation of macrophages in a dose-dependent manner  (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion The inflammation suppression roles of valsartan may be related with its effects on expression of inflammatory factors, ROS production and proliferation of macrophages.

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    Analysis of expression of NELL2 and GnRH mRNA in hypothalamus of female SD rats at different sex development stages
    DUAN Wen-feng, LI Pin
    2010, 30 (3):  296. 
    Abstract ( 1478 )   PDF (4084KB) ( 1258 )  

    Objective To investigate the changes of expression of NELL2 and GnRH mRNA in hypothalamus of female SD rats at different sex development stages. Methods SD rats were assigned to juvenile group (20 days old), prepubertal group (30 days old), early pubertal group (35 days old) and adult stage group (45 days old), with ten rats in each group. Real-time PCR was employed to detect the expression of NELL2 and GnRH mRNA in hypothalamus of rats in each group, and comparison was made among groups. Results The relative expression of NELL2 mRNA in hypothalamus of rats in juvenile group, prepubertal group, early pubertal group and adult stage group was -1.01±0.09, -0.78±0.16, -1.09±0.10 and -1.14±0.12, respectively, and that of GnRH mRNA was -2.92±0.15, -2.44±0.10, -1.66±0.13 and -2.13±0.19, respectively. Statistic analysis revealed that the expression of NELL2 mRNA was the highest in prepubertal group, followed by juvenile group, early pubertal group and adult stage group, with significant differences among groups (P<0.05). The expression of GnRH mRNA was the highest in early pubertal group, followed by adult stage group, prepubertal group and juvenile group, with significant differences among groups (P<0.05). Conclusion There were significant differences in expression of NELL2 and GnRH mRNA in hypothalamus of female SD rats at different sex development stages. The higher expression of NELL2 mRNA comes earlier than that of GnRH mRNA. In prepubertal stage, NELL2 may participate in the puberty onset via up-regulating the expression of GnRH mRNA.

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    Effects of ATRA on adipogenic differentiation and leptin production of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
    WANG Yun, LIANG Hui, TAO Rong
    2010, 30 (3):  299. 
    Abstract ( 1803 )   PDF (8799KB) ( 1206 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the adipogenic differentiation and leptin (Lp)production of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods Human BMSCs were isolated, incubated and identified. ATRA at various concentrations was added to the adipogenic induction medium. Adipogenic differentiation was quantified by microscopic examination with oil red O staining. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ  (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) was analysed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the level of Lp was quantified by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results At the concentration of ATRA (0.1—1.0 μmol/L), adipogenic differentiation rates decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ and FABP4 decreased concordantly. The mRNA expression and protein production of Lp significantly decreased after induction. Conclusion ATRA (0.1—1.0 μmol/L) can inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSC by down-regulating the expression of PPARγ and FABP4.

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    Expression of SDF-1α/CXCR4 in human endometria of peri-implantation phase
    MA Jue, LI Lu, GAO Xiao-hong, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  305. 
    Abstract ( 1820 )   PDF (7063KB) ( 1291 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and CXCR4 under different ovarian responses in human endometria of peri-implantation phase. Methods Endometria of peri-implantation phase (n=17) were collected, and were divided into moderate ovarian response group (n=6), high ovarian response group (n=6) and normal control group (n=5). The expression of SDF-1α/CXCR4 mRNA and protein in endometria of peri-implantation phase was detected and analysed by RT-PCR, Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results It was revealed by immunohistochemistry that CXCR4 was highly expressed in endometrial tissues, whereas SDF-1α was confined to glandular and celomic epithelial cells instead of stromal cells. There was no significant difference in the expression of SDF-1α/CXCR4 mRNA and protein in human endometria among each group (P>0.05). Conclusion High levels of steroid hormone do not affect expression of SDF-1α/CXCR4 in human endometria of peri-implantation phase, indicating that SDF-1α/CXCR4 may not participate in the recruitment of CD56brightCD16-NK cells to endometria by steroid hormone.

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    Effects of Hesperidin on cardiac electrophysiology of diabetic rats
    WANG Wei, CAO Jiu-mei, YANG Zhi-fang, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  310. 
    Abstract ( 1837 )   PDF (4633KB) ( 1144 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of Hesperidin on cardiac electrophysiology of diabetic rats. Methods Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups. Diabetic model group (n=12): diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of large amount of streptozotocin (STZ); Hesperidin intervention group (n=12): diabetic model was established, and were intragastrically administrated with 10 mg/kg Hesperidin daily; control group (n=6): without model establishment and intervention. After treatment for 4 weeks, in vivo and in vitro ECG and characteristics of action potentials of ventricular muscles were recorded and compared. Papillary muscles of ventricle of diabetic model group were perfused with 1×10-6 mol/L or 5×10-6 mol/L Hesperidin, and changes of action potentials were continuously recorded. Results In vivo ECG analysis revealed that the heart rates of diabetic model group and Hesperidin intervention group were much faster than that of control group (P<0.01, P<0.05), QT interval of diabetic model group significantly prolonged (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in QT interval between control group and Hesperidin intervention group (P>0.05). In vitro ECG analysis indicated that the prevalence of tachyarrhythmia in diabetic model group was 75.0%, significantly higher than that of Hesperidin intervention group (16.7%)(P<0.05). Analysis of action potentials of ventricular muscles revealed that the resting membrane potential, amplitude of action potential and maximum upstroke velocity of phase 0 of diabetic model group were significantly lower than those of control group, while the action potential duration was longer than that of control group. Compared with diabetic model group, the parameters of action potentials in Hesperidin intervention group were more approximate with those of control group. Perfusion tests with two concentrations of Hesperidin demonstrated that 5×10-6 mol/L Hesperidin perfusion performed better than 1×10-6 mol/L Hesperidin perfusion in recovery of action potentials of papillary muscles of ventricle of diabetic rats. Conclusion Hesperidin may dose-dependently decrease the prevalence of arrhythmia by reversing the abnormal electrophysiological activities in diabetic rats.

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    Construction, identification and functional analysis of eucaryotic cell expression vector modulated by human heparanase gene promoter
    CHEN Xiao-peng, HU Liang-he, WANG Yong
    2010, 30 (3):  314. 
    Abstract ( 1981 )   PDF (5389KB) ( 1585 )  

    Objective To construct the tumor cell-specific expression vector modulated by heparanase (HPSE) gene promoter and analyse its activity. Methods The HPSE gene core promoter fragment was amplified by PCR using the total genomic as template, and was identified by sequencing. The transcription factor binding site (TFBS) was analysed. The amplified gene fragment was subsequently cloned into the multiple clone site of pEGFP-1 vector to construct eucaryotic cell expression vector pEGFP-Hp. The vector driven by HPSE core promoter was transfected into human umbilical vein endothelial cell (ECV) and tumor cell lines including hepatoma carcinoma cell line (HepG2), laryngocarcinoma cell line (Hep2) and chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line (K562) through lipofectamine, respectively, and the vectors pEGFP-1 and pEGFP-N1 were used as negative control and positive control, respectively. The activity of reporter gene GFP was detected using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry after transfection. Results The length of amplified HPSE promoter was 561 bp, and the sequence was accordant with the GeneBank data which included the TFBSs such as 3 SP1, 4 Ets-relevant element, 2 early growth response gene-1, 1 E47, N-myc and NGFI-p300. The enzyme digestion and sequencing identified the constructed vector pEGFP-Hp was consistent with the expectation. Fluorimetric analysis revealed there was no fluorescence expression in all transfected cells of the pEGFP-1 group, and there was hyperfluorescence in pEGFP-N1 group. As for the pEGFP-Hp group, less fluorescence was found in ECV cells, comparatively hyper fluorescence in HepG2 and Hep2 cells, and dim fluorescence in K562 cells. The average transfection efficiencies of pEGFP-Hp in ECV, HepG2, Hep2 and K562 cells were 3.9%, 21.3%, 10.8% and 6.5%,respectively, while those of pEGFP-Nl were 17.1%, 24.0%, 14.0% and 11.0%, respectively, with all the ratios of the two less than 1. Conclusion The eucaryotic cell expression vector modulated by HPSE gene core promoter could be successfully constructed, which could express specifically in tumor cell lines, and its activity should be further enhanced.

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    Effects of ethyl pyruvate on apoptosis of renal cells with ischemia-reperfusion in mice
    XU Xin-hui, CHEN Yi, ZHANG Xing-yu, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  318. 
    Abstract ( 1832 )   PDF (4648KB) ( 1100 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on expression of apoptosis related gene of renal tissues and apoptosis of renal cells with ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in mice. Methods Fifty-two male BABL/c mice of 8 weeks old were randomly divided into sham operation group (n=10), I/R group (I/R model was established, n=10) and EP treatment group (n=32). EP treatment group was subdivided into EP pretreatment group (administration of EP 30 min before model establishment, n=8) and 4 h, 6 h and 12 h post-I/R EP treatment groups (administration of EP 4 h, 6 h and 12 h after model establishment, respectively, n=8 in each group). Cell apoptosis of each group was analysed by TUNEL staining, and the expression of apoptosis related gene Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA was detected by Real-time PCR. Results TUNEL staining analysis indicated that the number of apoptotic cells in I/R group was much larger than that in sham operation group (P<0.05), and the number of apoptotic cells in EP pretreatment group was much smaller than that in I/R group (P<0.05). Real-time PCR revealed that the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA was significantly higher and the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA was significantly lower in I/R group than that in sham operation group (P<0.05), the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA was significantly higher in EP pretreatment group and 6 h post-I/R EP treatment group than that in I/R group (P<0.05), and the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA was significantly lower in EP pretreatment group and 4 h, 6 h and 12 h post-I/R EP treatment groups than that in I/R group (P<0.05). Conclusion EP can effectively inhibit apoptosis of renal cells with I/R in BABL/c mice, which may be related to the regulation of apoptosis related gene of renal tissues.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and coronary atherosclerosis in elderly patients with chest pain
    XIE Yun, DAI Yu-xiang, LI Qing
    2010, 30 (3):  322. 
    Abstract ( 1786 )   PDF (3459KB) ( 1418 )  

    Objective To explore the characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis and investigate its relationship with coronary atherosclerosis in elderly patients with chest pain. Methods One hundred and ninety-nine patients with chest pain underwent coronary angiography (CAG) and carotid ultrasonography, and were classified into acute coronary syndrome (ACS) group (n=95), stable angina pectoris (SAP) group (n=63) and non-coronary artery disease group (n=41) according to CAG findings. The carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery plaques scores were compared among groups, ACS related factors were analysed, and the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and coronary atherosclerosis was explored. Results Univariate Logistic regression analysis revealed that the occurrence of ACS in the elderly was related to diabetes mellitus, cIMT and carotid artery plaques scores (P<0.05). Non-condition multivariate Logistic regression analysis indicated that cIMT and carotid artery plaques scores had significant regression effects on ACS in the elderly (P<0.05). There were significant differences among the results of cIMT, carotid artery plaque scores and CAG (P<0.05). Carotid artery plaque scores were significantly related to coronary artery scores (r=0.75, P=0.000). Conclusion Carotid atherosclerosis is significantly related to coronary atherosclerosis. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis can be predicted by carotid ultrasonography.

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    Changes and clinical significance of serum leptin levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome
    MAO Xiu-ying, LIU Wei, TAO Tao, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  325. 
    Abstract ( 1701 )   PDF (4422KB) ( 1318 )  

    Objective To investigate the changes and clinical significance of serum leptin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods One hundred and seventy women initially diagnosed with PCOS were divided into normal body weight group (P1 group, n=69), overweight group (P2 group, n=44) and obesity group (P3 group, n=57) according to body mass index (BMI). Serum leptin levels were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and the relationship between serum leptin level and BMI, waist to hip ratio, blood glucose, blood insulin, blood lipid, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and pancreatic island B cell secretion function index (HOMA-IS) was explored. One hundred and forty-three age- and BMI-matched healthy volunteers were served as normal controls, and were also divided into normal body weight group (C1 group, n=102), overweight group (C2 group, n=20) and obesity group (C3 group, n=21). Results The detection and analysis of serum leptin levels indicated that there was no significant difference between P1 group and C1 group, while P2 group was significantly higher than C2 group (P<0.01), and P3 group was significantly higher than C3 group (P<0.01). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that serum leptin level was related to BMI, waist to hip ratio, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, fasting and 2 h post-prandial blood insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-IS. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that serum leptin was independently related to BMI and HOMA-IR. Conclusion The increase of serum leptin may lead to abnormal glucolipid metabolism, which may contribute to the development of PCOS.

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    Phase Ⅰclinical tolerability trial of faropenem sodium for injection
    SUN Li, YAO Xiao-dong, SU Ke-jian, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  329. 
    Abstract ( 1430 )   PDF (4289KB) ( 1313 )  

    Objective To evaluate the tolerability of healthy subjects to faropenem sodium injection. Methods Thirty-one healthy volunteers were randomly divided into single-dose group (n=24; 200, 400, 800, 1 000 and 1 200 mg faropenem sodium by intravenous drip) and multiple-dose group (n=7; 400mg faropenem sodium, Bid, 7 d). Vital signs, electrocardiogram and serum biochemical indicators were observed before and after faropenem sodium administration, and adverse effects were recorded. Results There were no abnormal findings in vital signs, electrocardiogram and serum biochemical indicators 1, 8 and 24 h after single-dose administration. One subject experienced mild drug-unrelated adverse effects of diarrhea and bellyache, and recovered 1 d later. There were no abnormal findings in vital signs, electrocardiogram and serum biochemical indicators 4 and 8 d after multiple-dose administration, and no adverse event occurred. Conclusion Faropenem sodium for injection is safe at a dose of 200 mg to 1 200 mg as single-dose administration or at a dose of 400 mg as multiple-dose administration.

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    Comparison of postoperative pain after vital pulp root canal preparation with nickel-titanium rotary instrument and hand-used instrument
    HUANG Yi-feng, DU Rong, HONG Jin
    2010, 30 (3):  333. 
    Abstract ( 1800 )   PDF (3337KB) ( 1133 )  

    Objective To compare the post-operative pain after vital pulp root canal preparation with K3 nickel-titanium rotary instrument and hand-used instrument. Methods One hundred and sixty-one vital teeth from 82 patients who received selected pulpectomy were enrolled, and root canal preparation was performed with K3 nickel-titanium rotary instrument (rotary instrument group, n=84) or stainless hand K-files (hand-used instrument group, n=77). Patients revisited one week later, the incidence and degree of post-operative pain after root canal preparation were recorded and compared between two groups. Results The incidences of post-operative pain after root canal preparation in rotary instrument group and hand-used instrument group were 29.76% and 55.84%, respectively, and the incidences of ⅡⅢ grade pain were 5.95% and 18.18%, respectively, with significant differences between two groups (P<0.01 and P<0.05). In hand-used instrument group, the incidence of Ⅱ-Ⅲ grade pain of molar teeth was significantly higher than those of anterior teeth and premolar teeth after root canal preparation (P<0.01). Conclusion Vital pulp root canal preparation with K3 nickel-titanium rotary instrument is efficient and safe, with low incidence and mild postoperative pain.

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    Changes of plasma NT-ProBNP and MMP-2 levels and relationship with left ventricular remodeling in patients treated by pravastatin with CHF after PCI therapy for AMI
    HUANG Yu, LEI Hai-fang, WEI Meng, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  336. 
    Abstract ( 1839 )   PDF (4325KB) ( 1343 )  

    Objective To observe the effects of pravastatin on plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and left ventricular remodeling in patients with stable chronic heart failure (CHF)after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and explore their relationship. Methods Ninety-six patients with CHF (Ⅱ/Ⅲ of NYHA Classification) after PCI therapy for AMI were randomly divided into pravastatin 20 mg group (treated by 20 mg pravastatin, n=52) and pravastatin 40 mg group (treated by 40 mg pravastatin, n=44). The general conditions before treatment by pravastatin, the changes of plasma NT-ProBNP and MMP-2 levels and parameters of left ventricular remodeling before treatment and 18 months after treatment by pravastatin were compared between two groups, and their relationship was explored. Results The plasma levels of NT-proBNP and MMP-2 after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment in both groups (P<0.05), and the plasma levels of NT-proBNP and MMP-2 after treatment in pravastatin 40 mg group were significantly lower than those in pravastatin 20 mg group (P<0.05). After treatment by pravastatin, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and end-diastolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) in both groups were significantly lower than those before treatment (P<0.01), and these parameters in pravastatin 40 mg group were significantly lower than those in pravastatin 20 mg group (P<0.01). After treatment by pravastatin, enddiastolic interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular shortening fraction (FS), mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening of left ventricle (MVCF) and E/A in both groups were significantly higher than those before treatment (P<0.01), and these parameters in pravastatin 40 mg group were significantly higher than those in pravastatin 20 mg group (P<0.01). The decrease of plasma NT-proBNP and MMP-2 after treatment in both groups was positively related to the decrease of LVMI, LVEDD and LVPWT, and was negatively related to the increase of IVST, FS, MVCF and E/A (P<0.05). The decrease of plasma NT-proBNP was positively related to the decrease of MMP-2 (P<0.05). Conclusion Provastatin has beneficial effects on cardiac function of stable CHF after PCI therapy for AMI, which may be related to the inhibition of MMP-2 and left ventricular remodeling.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Investigation on knowledge and willingness of dual referral in Songjiang District of Shanghai
    CHEN Min-sheng, LAI Wei, ZHANG Zhen-cheng, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  340. 
    Abstract ( 1927 )   PDF (3396KB) ( 1048 )  

    Objective To investigate the knowledge of dual referral in hospital employees and patients as well as referral willingness in patients in Songjiang District of Shanghai. Methods Four hundred hospital employees and 400 outpatients or inpatients in 21 public hospitals of Songjiang District of Shanghai (1 first-class hospital, 6 secondclass hospitals, and 14 third-class hospitals) were enrolled for dual referral questionnaires, and the investigation included knowledge of dual referral, channel to know dual referral and referral willingness. Three hundred and ninetytwo questionnaires were recovered from hospital employees, and 360 from patients. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and Pearson correlation analysis were employed to compare the the knowledge of dual referral and channel to know dual referral between hospital employees and patients, and analyse the referral willingness of patients. Results The knowledge of dual referral was 95.9% for hospital employees and 70.3% for patients. Most hospital employees (92.0%) and patients (64.8%) got to know dual referral through hospital propaganda, and their channels to get to know dual referral were highly related (r2=0.975, P<0.05). Investigation on referral willingness revealed that 85.3% patients accepted dual referral, while 9.7% did not, and 31.4% of those who did not accept dual referral were due to the concern of high medical cost. Conclusion Both hospital employees and patients have good knowledge of dual referral, and dual referral may be promoted by propaganda enhancement and procedure optimization.

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    Review
    Mechanisms in heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction caused by hypertension
    CAO Li-yuan, SHI Hao-ying
    2010, 30 (3):  343. 
    Abstract ( 1751 )   PDF (5294KB) ( 1144 )  

    Hypertension is a major contributor to the development of heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (HFNEF). Generally, hypertensive heart disease is a process of developing ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, which eventually leads to diastolic dysfunction and HFNEF. Now little is known about the process from hypertension to HFNEF, and this article explains the mechanisms from three factors of myocardial mechanisms, neuro-endocrinecytokine mechanisms and hemodynamic mechanisms.

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    Facial nerve injury and regeneration
    YANG Xiao-sheng
    2010, 30 (3):  348. 
    Abstract ( 1577 )   PDF (5204KB) ( 1331 )  

    The facial nerve is susceptible to be damaged by trauma, inflammation, neoplasms and surgical manipulation for its anatomical feature. Current techniques regarding the reparation and regeneration of the damaged nerve have produced suboptimal outcomes. With outlining the current experiments in vitro and in vivo, the paper reviews the progression of preclinical research on facial nerve injury and regeneration.

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    Research progress of nanoparticles-targeted therapy for breast cancer
    MA Jie
    2010, 30 (3):  353. 
    Abstract ( 1390 )   PDF (3674KB) ( 1145 )  

    Nanoparticles provide a new approach for antitumor drug delivery as a carrier for penetrating tumor vasculature and entering into tumor cells. After modification for nanoparticles, these particles target to tumor cell membranes, tumor microenvironment, cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors. Nanoparticles deliver high concentration of drug to the targeted tumor cells, with reduced toxicity to normal tissues. In this article, the mechanisms and latest researches on the application of nanoparticles in the treatment of breast cancer are reviewed.

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    Techniques of immunoassays for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone
    MA Dong-hong
    2010, 30 (3):  356. 
    Abstract ( 1588 )   PDF (4294KB) ( 1335 )  

    Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a most sensitive parameter for thyroid function. There are various techniques for detection of serum TSH, which has evolved from radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay to immunochemiluminometric assay, electro chemiluminescence immunoassay, time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay immunochemiluminometry and microfluidic chip technique, with the detection sensitivity significantly improved. The clinically commonly used techniques for detection of serum TSH are introduced in this paper.

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    Case report
    Two cases report of vasovagal syncope treated by rate drop response function pacemaker
    WU Zhi-jun, CHEN Ying, YAN Peng-yong, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  360. 
    Abstract ( 1745 )   PDF (3112KB) ( 1614 )  

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a neurocardiogenic syncope. Cardioinhibitory pattern VVS and mixed pattern VVS are complicated with heart rate drop, and may be treated by pacing intervention. The management of two patients with frequent VVS by rate drop response function pacemaker was reported in this paper. Patients experienced intermittent dizziness and palpitation at episode, followed by convulsion and urinary incontinence.There were no specific changes on routine electrocardiogram and 24 h ambulatory electrocardiogram, and tilt table tests were positive in one patient and negative in the other. Patients underwent implantation of dual chamber pacemaker (DDDR) with rate drop response function. There was frequent pacing intervention combating rate drop during follow up after implantation, and the symptoms were improved, with no incidence of syncope. Rate drop response function pacemaker enjoys significant advantages over drug therapy in management of VVS. However, programming and parameters of pacemaker need to be optimized individually and periodically according to clinical findings.

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    Two cases report of femoroacetabular impingement after internal fixation for femoral neck fracture
    YIN Ji-min, ZHANG Chang-qing, LI Guang-yi, et al
    2010, 30 (3):  363. 
    Abstract ( 1617 )   PDF (2844KB) ( 1056 )  

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a very important complication after operation for femoral neck fracture, which causes hip pain and osteoarthritis. In this article, two cases of femoroacetabular impingement after internal fixation for femoral neck fracture are reported, and the related diagnosis and therapy are discussed.

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