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    Original article (Basic research)
    Expression of Versican V1/V2 in injured spinal cord of rats
    GU Wen-li, LV He-zuo, LU Pei-hua
    2010, 30 (4):  365. 
    Abstract ( 1565 )   PDF (7735KB) ( 1062 )  

    Objective To explore the expression patterns of Versican V1/V2 after injury of spinal cord in adult rats. Methods Thirty-nine adult rats were randomly divided into control group (sham-operation group, n=9) and experiment group (n=30), and rat models of spinal cord injury were established in experiment group using New York University impact injury device. The changes of Versican V1/V2 expression after spinal cord injury were observed by Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent technique. Results Real-time PCR revealed that compared to control group, the expression of Versican V1 mRNA in experiment group slightly increased 4 h after injury (P>0.05), reached the peak 1 d after injury (P<0.01) and remained at elevated levels up to 7 d after injury (P<0.01). While the expression of Versican V2 mRNA increased a little slowly, slightly increased 1 d after injury (P>0.05) and peaked 7 d after injury (P<0.01), then diminished quickly, and returned to the level of control group 14 d after injury (P>0.05). Immunohistochemistry detection demonstrated that the expression of Versican significantly increased in injured spinal cord parenchyma 3 d after injury, and its staining was observed throughout the entire length of a 10 mm-long cord segment containing the injury epicenter. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that colocalization of Versican was found in the neurons with positive βⅢ-tubulin, astrocytes with positive GFAP and oligodendrocytes with positive MBP. Conclusion The increased expression of Versican may be involved in forming the environment of inhibiting axonal regeneration following injury. Optimization of strategies to enhance regeneration may need to target different Versican isoforms over an extended period following injury.

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    In vitro assessment of mechanical properties of scaffolds for urethral reconstruction
    FENG Chao, XU Yue-min, ZHU Wei-dong, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  370. 
    Abstract ( 1511 )   PDF (6757KB) ( 1599 )  

    Objective To determine and compare the mechanical properties of several biomaterials used for urethral reconstruction. Methods Materials for scaffolds such as bladder acellular matrix graft (BAMG), small intestinal submucosa (SIS), acellular corpus spongiosum matrix (ACSM) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) were prepared, and gross observation, HE and Masson staining were performed. The Young's modulus, maximal load, tensile strength, elongation at break were tested and compared among SIS group, BAMG freeze-drying preservation group, BAMG liquid preservation group, ACSM group, PGA group, normal rabbit urethra group and 4SIS group (4-layer SIS). Results The thickness of ACSM was different from the other materials, and richer and denser collagen was observed in ACSM by HE and Masson staining. The results of mechanical property tests were: ACSM group>PGA group>4SIS group>BAMG liquid preservation group>BAMG freeze-drying preservation group>normal rabbit urethra group>SIS group for Young's modulus; ACSM group>4SIS group>PGA group>BAMG liquid preservation group>BAMG freeze-drying preservation group>normal rabbit urethra group>SIS group for maximal load; ACSM group>4SIS group>PGA group>BAMG liquid preservation group>BAMG freeze-drying preservation group>normal rabbit urethra group >SIS group for tensile strength; normal rabbit urethra group>SIS group>BAMG freeze-drying preservation group>4SIS group>BAMG liquid preservation group>ACSM group>PGA group for elongation at break. The properties of Young's modulus, maximal load and tensile strength in ACSM group were significantly better than those of the other groups (P<0.01). Conclusion ACSM enjoys excellent mechanical properties, and may perform better than SIS, BAMG and PGA in urethral reconstruction.

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    Effects of Rapamycin on nephropathy and expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors in PAN nephritic mice
    WANG Li-hua, GU Le-yi, LIANG Xin-yue, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  375. 
    Abstract ( 1972 )   PDF (8290KB) ( 1137 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of Rapamycin on nephropathy and expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR) of glomeruli in puromycin amino nuclear glucoside (PAN) nephritic mice models. Methods Twenty-four BALB/c mice were randomly divided into PAN group (model establishment by single injection of PAN via tail vein, n=8), Rapamycin intervention group (model establishment by single injection of PAN via tail vein+Rapamycin intervention, n=8) and control group (single injection of PBS via tail vein, n=8). Twenty-four-hour urine was obtained from each group, and urinary protein excretion was determined by BCA protein assay. Mice were sacrificed 10 days after model establishment, and renal tissue samples were prepared. The structural changes of foot process of glomeruli in each group was observed by transmission electron microscope, and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 mRNA and VEGF and VEGFR2 protein was detected by Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results There were significant differences in 24-h urinary protein excretion among groups (P<0.05), with PAN group>Rapamycin intervention group>control group. Foot process infusion in glomeruli was observed by electron microscopy. The expression of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 mRNA and protein in PAN group was the highest, and that in control group was the lowest, with significant differences among groups (P<0.05). The expression of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 mRNA and protein was significantly correlated with 24-h urinary protein excretion in each group (P<0.05). Conclusion Rapamycin can reduce the proteinuria of PAN nephritic mice, and the mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of expression of VEGF and VEGFR of glomeruli.

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    Comparative study of hepatic oval cell proliferation models from different rat strains
    ZHAO Li-juan, YU Jiao, LI Ying, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  381. 
    Abstract ( 1890 )   PDF (8129KB) ( 1240 )  

    Objective To select the rat strain relatively more suitable for model establishment by comparison of hepatic oval cell proliferation models from different rat strains. Methods Ten F344 rats, 10 Wistar rats and 10 SD rats were selected, hepatic oval cell proliferation models were established respectively by intragastric administration of 2-acetylaminofluorene and intraperitoneally injection of carbon tetrachloride, and were identified by histological examination and immunohistochemical examination. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was employed to separate and purify the hepatic oval cells from different rat strains, percentages of Thy-1.1+ cells were analysed, and culture results of Thy-1.1+ cells were observed. Results Hepatic oval cell proliferation models from three rat strains were successfully established. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that the percentages of Thy-1.1+ cells in F344 rats, Wistar Rats and SD rats were (9.46±0.99)%, (2.46±0.37)% and (1.46±0.12)%, respectively, and there were significant differences in percentages of Thy-1.1+cells among different rat strains (P<0.05). Observation of cell culture indicated that compared with Wistar rats and SD rats, hepatic oval cells separated from F344 rats were in better growth state and higher purifity. Conclusion Among the three rat strains most commonly used for hepatic oval cell proliferation models, hepatic oval cells from F344 rats have the highest activation efficiency.

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    Proliferation inhibiting effects of folate on ovarian cancer cells
    LAI Dong-mei, LIU Te, ZHANG Jian, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  386. 
    Abstract ( 2192 )   PDF (5105KB) ( 1768 )  

    Objective To investigate the antiproliferative effects of folate on ovarian cancer cells. Methods Ovarian cancer cells H0-8910 were cultured in vitro, and cell inhibition rates were detected by MTT assay after treatment of ovarian cancer cells with 0 to 160 nmol/L folate for 48 h. Ovarian cancer cells in folate group were treated with 120 nmol/L (50% inhibiting concentration, IC50) folate for 48 h, cells with routine culture were served as control group, and cells in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group were treated with DMSO. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to observe the mRNA and protein expression of folate receptor (FR-α), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in the ovarian cancer cells, and flow cytometry was employed to observe the changes of cell cycles. The effects of folate combined with Cisplatin, Paclitaxol or Epirubicin on ovarian cancer cells were detected by MTT. Results The cell inhibition rates increased with the concentrations of folate, and IC50 was 120 nmol/L. The mRNA and protein expression of FR-α, DHFR and MTHFR was lower than that of control group and DMSO group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with control group, the cell percentage of G2/M phase in folate group decreased (P<0.05), the cell percentage of S phase increased (P<0.05), and there was no significant change in G0/G1 phase (P>0.05). The inhibition rates on ovarian cancer cells of Cisplatin (40 μmol/L), Paclitaxo (10 μmol/L) and Epirubicin (15 μmol/L) combined with 120 nmol/L folate was significantly higher than that of chemotherapeutics lonely (P<0.05). Conclusion The antiproliferative effects of folate on ovarian cancer cells may be achieved by influencing folate metabolism. Folic acid may increase the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy drugs on ovarian cancer, and increase the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer.

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    Regulation of rosiglitazone on expression of angiotension Ⅱ receptor genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes under high glucose concentrations
    XU Qian, ZHANG Zhi-guo, JIN Li-na, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  390. 
    Abstract ( 1612 )   PDF (4801KB) ( 1210 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of different glucose concentrations and rosiglitazone intervention on expression of angiotension Ⅱ receptor 1 (AT1R) and angiotension Ⅱ receptor 2 (AT2R) genes in differentiated mature adipocytes. Methods Differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured in media with different concentrations of glucose (blank control, 5.6 mmol/L, 11.2 mmol/L and 25.0 mmol/L) and media with different concentrations of glucose and 10 nmol/L rosiglitazone for 24 h. Real-time PCR was employed to detect the expression of AT1R and AT2R genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results The expression of AT1R gene was significantly lower in 5.6 mmol/L glucose treatment group than that in blank control group, 11.2 mmol/L glucose treatment group and 25.0 mmol/L glucose treatment group (P<0.05), and the expression of AT2R gene significantly increased with the increase of glucose concentrations (P<0.05). The expression of AT1R and AT2R genes in rosiglitazone intervention group decreased with the increase of glucose concentrations. Compared with corresponding glucose treatment groups, the expression of AT1R gene in rosiglitazone intervention groups was significantly up-regulated (P<0.05), with the effect decreasing gradually with the increase of glucose concentrations, and the expression of AT2R gene was significantly down-regulated (P<0.05), with the effect increasing with the increase of glucose concentrations. Conclusion Rosiglitazone plays a regulatory role in the expression of AT1R and AT2R genes in adipocytes under high concentrations of glucose.

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    Expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1, 4, 7 in CA1 region of hippocampus in pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy
    LU Qin-chi, CAI Guo-en, CHEN Sheng-di
    2010, 30 (4):  394. 
    Abstract ( 1670 )   PDF (6745KB) ( 1079 )  

    Objective To observe the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1, 4, 7 in CA1 region of hippocampus in rats with pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods Fifty-six SD rats were randomly divided into control group, status epilepticus (SE) 2 h group, SE 12 h group, SE 24 h group, SE 72 h group, SE 7 d group and SE 14 d group, with 8 rats in each group. Temporal lobe epilepsy models were established in SE 2 h group, SE 12 h group, SE 24 h group, SE 72 h group, SE 7 d group and SE 14 d group by intraperitoneal injection of 325 mg/kg pilocarpine, and rats in control group were injected with same amount of normal saline. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to detect the expression of mGluR1, 4, 7 mRNA and mGluR1 protein in CA1 region of hippocampus in each group. Results It was revealed by RT-PCR that the expression of mGluR1 mRNA was significantly lower in SE 24 h group than that in control group, while the expression of mGluR1 mRNA was significantly higher in SE 7 d group than that in control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the expression of mGluR4 mRNA among groups (P>0.05). The expression of mGluR7 mRNA in SE 12 h group, SE 24 h group, SE 72 h group and SE 14 d group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that mGluR1 protein mainly existed on cell membrane, and the changes of expression of mGluR1 protein were in line with those of mGluR1 mRNA. Conclusion mGluR 1, 4, 7 may be involved in the pathogenesis of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Screening of differentially expressed serum proteins of lung cancer by DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS/MS
    SHA Hui-fang, SUN Qiang-ling, YANG Xiao-hua, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  399. 
    Abstract ( 1968 )   PDF (6041KB) ( 1514 )  

    Objective To establish plasma protein spectrum from healthy people, patients with pneumonia and patients with lung cancer, and seek differentially expressed proteins related to early development of lung cancer. Methods Differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were employed to screen differentially expressed plasma proteins among healthy people, patients with pneumonia and patients with stage Ⅰ lung cancer. Results Two dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins with high-resolution and reproducibility were successfully obtained using DIGE. Seventy-two significantly differentially expressed protein spots were screened with DeCyder 6.5 software. Twelve proteins were successfully identified via peptide mass print using MALDI-TOF-MS, among which seven proteins were reported to be related to cancer, such as acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3, platelet membrane glycoprotein Ⅰb specific antibody, serum amyloid A4, gelsolin, complement factor H, fibrinogen gamma chain and apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ. Conclusion Twelve proteins can be identified by DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS, and 7 proteins highly expressed in plasma of patients with lung cancer can be screened.

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    Methylation of p16INK4a gene and its expression in thyroid proliferative diseases
    LI Xiao-fang, ZHANG Fan, WU Ping-ping, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  404. 
    Abstract ( 1504 )   PDF (5371KB) ( 1392 )  

    Objective To investigate the methylation status of p16INK4a gene and its expression in throid proliferative diseases. Methods The expression of p16INK4a protein in 45 cases of throid proliferative diseases (15 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 17 cases of throid adenoma, 13 cases of nodular goiter)was detected by immunohistochemistry. Methylation status of p16INK4a gene was detected by methylation specific PCR. The expression of p16INK4a mRNA in 10 cases of thyroid proliferative diseases (3 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 5 cases of throid adenoma, 2 cases of nodular goiter)was detected by RT-PCR. Results In 45 cases of thyroid proliferative diseases, aberrant methylation of p16INK4a gene was detected in 8 cases, and positive expression of p16INK4a protein was found in 19 cases. The aberrant methylation of p16INK4a gene was negatively related to its expression of protein(r=-0.2934, P=0.0387). Among the 10 cases of thyroid proliferative diseases, gene transcripts was detected in 5 cases, and the aberrant methylation of p16INK4a gene was negatively related to its transcription (r=-0.6547, P=0.04). Conclusion The methylation of p16INK4a may lead to the loss of its expression, but they are not always concordant. The methylation of p16INK4a may play a role in the pathogenesis of thyroid proliferative diseases.

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    Modelling of partial structure of human cytomegalovirus PUL97 protein and drug-resistant analysis of new non-synonymous mutations
    FANG Feng-qin, XIE Qiong, ZHANG Yue, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  408. 
    Abstract ( 2004 )   PDF (9014KB) ( 1229 )  

    Objective To preliminarily explore the 3-dimensional modelling of partial structure (329-572aa) of cytomegalovirus PUL97 protein and elementarily analyse the possibility of drug-resistance of new non-synonymous mutations. Methods Nested PCR was employed to amplify 776 bp fragment of UL97 gene. And some non-synonymous mutations in it were found by sequencing. After that, the online server of SWISS-MODEL and other related softwares were used for modelling and optimizing the partial structure of wildtype PUL97 protein based on the alignment mode. Then, the modelled structures were evaluated and screened by various classical indicators or online servers. Finally, the best structure was obtained and employed for preliminarily analysis of potential drug-resistant possibility of non-synonymous mutations. Results The finally-screened model was Model A based upon the template of 1YDTE and the alignment file of L1.FASTA. The whole energy of the structure was the lowest, while the prediction result of ProQ was on the top compared with the rest. Using the method of molecular docking, the potential binding sites of ATP and GCV were found in it. And most important, the mutation analysis based upon the modelled structure and positive/negative drug-resistant mutations confirmed that this structure was reasonable. Finally, the newly-found mutations (namely, point mutation C518Y and combined mutation E517G/C518Y) showed some evidences of having the possibility of drug-resistance under the benefit of the above-established system. Such evidences were the significant differences in structural information before and after mutagenesis. Conclusion The above-described system of PUL97 structure modelling and mutation analysis is the valuable and alternative method for preliminarily predicting the possibility of drug-resistance of new mutations. It is more convenient and quick, and can be regarded as the screener before experimental verification. However, the accuracy of modelled structure itself is the big prerequisite for successful application of this system.

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    Inhibiting effect of Fosinoprilat on expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in lipopolysaccharide activated leucocythemia monocytic series cells
    LI Ruo-gu, FANG Wei-yi, QU Xin-kai, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  415. 
    Abstract ( 1751 )   PDF (4619KB) ( 1357 )  

    Objective To investigate the inhibiting effect of Fosinoprilat (Fos) on expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated human leucocythemia monocytic series cells (THP1). Methods THP1 cells were cultured, and the concentration was adjusted to 1×106/mL. Eight groups were divided: control group (normal THP1 cells), LPS stimulation group (THP1 cells+LPS), DMSO group (THP1 cells+LPS+DMSO) and Fos intervention groups (THP1 cells+LPS+Fos, with Fos concentrations of 10,5,1,0.5,0.25 μmol/L, respectively). Real-time PCR was employed to detect the expression of TLR4 mRNA in THP1 cells, Western blotting was used to detected the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB protein, and the expression of TLR4 protein was detected by flow cytometry. Results The expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein of THP1 cells in LPS stimulation group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). The expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein of THP1 cells in Fos intervention groups (especially for 1 μmol/L Fos and 0.5 μmol/L Fos) was lower than that in LPS stimulation group. The expression of NF-κB protein in LPS stimulation group was significantly higher than that in Fos intervention groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Fos can downregulate the expression of TLR4 and inhibit the activity of NF-κB in LPS activated THP1 cells.

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    Expression of Th17 cell associated cytokines in pemphigus vulgaris lesions
    SU Wen-ting, WANG Hong-lin, FEI Ye, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  419. 
    Abstract ( 2017 )   PDF (5403KB) ( 1421 )  

    Objective To investigate the role of Th17 cell associated cytokines of IL-23 and IL-17 in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris. Methods Immunofluorescence staining was performed to analyse the distribution of CD163+ macrophages and expression of IL-23 and IL-17 in pemphigus vulgaris lesions and healthy human skin tissues. Results The staining of IL-23+cells is overlapped with that of CD163+ macrophages. The mean numbers of IL23+CD163+ cells and IL-17+ cells were 80.17±5.42 and 48.17±8.03 in each field of view (×200) in dermis of pemphigus vulgaris, while those in healthy human dermis were 29.50±4.45 and 9.50±3.35, with significant differences between dermis of pemphigus vulgaris and healthy human dermis (P<0.01). The number of IL23+ cells was related to that of IL-17+ cells in dermis (r=0.945, P<0.001). Conclusion IL-23 is mainly secreted by CD163+ macrophages. IL-23 and IL-17 are overexpressed in pemphigus vulgaris lesions. IL-23/IL-17 cytokine axis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris.

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    Study on biomechanics of Kennedy class Ⅱ removable partial denture with polyacetal resin
    JIAO Ting, Tingling Chang, Angelo A.Caputo
    2010, 30 (4):  423. 
    Abstract ( 1577 )   PDF (9520KB) ( 1264 )  

    Objective To evaluate the biomechanics of Kennedy class Ⅱ removable partial denture with polyacetal resin as the major connector utilizing photoelastic model. Methods Mandible photoelastic model was established to simulate the partial edentulous (76-6 edentulous) situation of Kennedy class Ⅱ Removable partial dentures with three kinds of major connector designs (polyacetal resin, metal framework and hybrid of metal and polyacetal resin) were fabricated. Stress was loaded on the posterior teeth bilaterally and unilaterally for each of the design. Stress patterns of the roots and alveolar bone were pictured and evaluated. Results On both bilateral and unilateral load, the polyacetal removable partial denture exhibited the highest stress both on the abutment teeth and on the edentulous alveolar ridge. The traditional metal framework removable partial denture design exhibited the lowest and well-distributed stress both on the abutment teeth and on the alveolar ridge, and the stress transferred to the abutments though the long axel of teeth. Conclusion Among Kennedy class Ⅱ removable partial dentures, the removable partial denture design with polyacetal resin as major connector may injure the abutment and alveolar ridge, while the traditional metal framework design exhibits the best stress pattern and should be considered as the first choice.

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    Quantitative evaluation of rabbit renal ischemia reperfusion injury by contrast-enhanced ultrasound
    YAO Jie-jie, ZHAN Wei-wei, CHEN Man, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  428. 
    Abstract ( 2098 )   PDF (4518KB) ( 1438 )  

    Objective To evaluate rabbit renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and quantitative analysis techniques. Methods Ten New Zealand rabbits were performed left renal ultrasonography before surgery and were served as controls (R0 group, n=10), and then were randomly divided into R1 group (reperfusion for 30 min after ischemia for 30 min group, n=5) and R2 group (reperfusion for 60 min after ischemia for 30 min group, n=5) to establish the models of renal IRI. The pattern of renal perfusion was observed by CEUS, and time to peak (TP), amplitude of peak intensity(A), rising slope (β) of Qontraxt time-intensity curve and area under the curve (AUC) were analysed. Results With the increase of reperfusion injury, there was no significant change in renal cortex echo revealed by CEUS. TP and AUC increased, β values decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the change of AUC was even more significant (P<0.01). Besides, there was no significant change in A values among groups (P>0.05). Conclusion AUC is an effective index for evaluating rabbit renal IRI.

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    Proteomics analysis of neuron during aging
    ZHANG Yi, MIAO Ling, SU Min, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  432. 
    Abstract ( 1504 )   PDF (4756KB) ( 1467 )  

    Objective To investigate the changes of protein expression during neuronal aging. Methods The experimental models of neuronal aging were established using serum-free culture of mouse neuroblastoma cells and were divided into 12 d group (aging group) and 5 d group (control group). The protein levels which changed during aging were analysed and identified using two-dimensional electrophoresis with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results Compared with 5 d group, the expression of 19 proteins increased, and that of 21 proteins decreased in 12 d group. Twelve proteins were successfully identified. The expression of VIME, DLDH, FSCN1 and GSTA4 increased, and that of TPM4, STMN1, TERA, PSA5, HSP90B, SERB, SYG and PARK7 decreased in 12 d group. Conclusion The molecular mechanisms of neuronal aging are involved in regulation of proteins such as STMN1, PARK7 and DLDH.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Expression of Toll-like receptor and signal transduction pathway in tubal epithelial tissues with inflammatory hydrosalpinx
    CHEN Shu-fang, CHEN Yi, LI Yu-hong, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  436. 
    Abstract ( 1692 )   PDF (5406KB) ( 1545 )  

    Objective To analyse the expression pattern of Toll-like receptor (TLR) and main signal transduction factors in tubal epithelial tissues with inflammatory hydrosalpinx. Methods According the results of serum Chlamydia trachomatisIgG antibody testing (CAT), patients with inflammatory hydrosalpinx were divided into CAT positive group (n=20) and CAT negative group (n=8), and normal control group (n=13) was also established. Real-time PCR was employed to detect the expression of TLR1-10 as well as NF-κB, MyD88, TRAF and IRAK mRNA in the fallopian tube epithelial tissues. Results The expression of TLR2 mRNA in CAT positive group and CAT negative group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.001), while there was no significant difference between CAT positive group and CAT negative group (P>0.05). The expression of TLR4 mRNA in CAT positive group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.001) and CAT negative group (P<0.05), while there was no difference between CAT negative group and control group (P>0.05). The expression of MyD88 in control group was significantly higher than that in CAT positive group (P<0.01) and CAT negative group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between CAT positive group and CAT negative group (P>0.05). Conclusion Autoimmunological injury after infection and the reduction of TLR2 and TLR4 in tubal tissues that likely induce an immunological deficiency are associated with hydrosalpinx following a tubal infection.

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    Relationship between insulin resistance and renal tubulointerstitial lesion in IgA nephropathy
    ZHANG Li-ping, XING Ling-ling, PEI Hua-ying, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  441. 
    Abstract ( 2029 )   PDF (3804KB) ( 1334 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between renal tubulointerstitial lesion (TIL) and insulin resistance in IgA nephropathy. Methods Forty-six patients with IgA nephropathy diagnosed by renal biopsy were involved (IgA nephropathy group), and another 10 patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome were served as controls. The expression of WT1 of glomerular foot cells and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) of renal tubulointerstitium in renal tissue samples was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and TIL was classified by Katafuchi halfquantity criteria.The level of urinary β2-microglobulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated according to the levels of fasting blood glucose and insulin. The correlation between ISI and TIL classification, expression of TGF-β1 in renal tubulointerstitium and level of urinary β2-microglobulin was analysed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results Compared with control group, ISI and expression of WT1 of glomerular foot cells of IgA nephropathy group were lower, and expression of TGF-β1 in renal tubulointerstitium was higher (P<0.01 for all). Correlation analysis revealed that ISI was negatively related to TIL classification and expression of TGF-β1 in renal tubulointerstitium, and was positively related to expression of WT1 of glomerular foot cells. Conclusion TIL is positively related to insulin resistance of IgA nephropathy, indicating that improving insulin resistance may postpone the progression of IgA nephropathy.

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    Effects of fasting blood glucose on outcomes of patients with primary acute myocardial infarction
    DU Dong-mei, REN Ying, WEI Meng, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  444. 
    Abstract ( 1647 )   PDF (4343KB) ( 1181 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with primary acute myocardial infarction. Methods Six hundred and sixty-eight patients with primary acute myocardial infarction were divided into diabetes mellitus group (n=177), high FBG group (n=351) and normal FBG group (n=140) on the basis of history of diabetes mellitus and FBG level on the next day after admission.The incidences of short-term cardiovascular events and mortality during follow-up in each group were recorded, and the related factors were statistically analysed. Results Logistic and Cox regression analysis revealed that FBG was independent risk factor for long-term death (OR=1.043, P=0.004) and short-term events of malignant arrhythmia (OR=1.106, P=0.001), congestive heart failure (OR=1.060, P=0.037), cardiac shock (OR=1.084, P=0.018) and cardiac death (OR=1.068, P=0.028). Cox regression analysis indicated that the mortality risks of FBG>8.52 mmol/L in high FBG group and FBG>10.65 mmol/L in diabetes mellitus group were three times of that of normal FBG group (HR=3.087, P=0.007; HR=3.456, P=0.002). Conclusion FBG is independent risk factor for short-term cardiovascular events and long-term mortality in patients with primary acute myocardial infarction.

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    Application of Cytokeratin 19, HBME-1 and Galectin-3 in diagnosis of thyroid papillary carcinoma
    DU Guang-ye, LI Xiao-qiang, LIU Li-wei, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  448. 
    Abstract ( 5430 )   PDF (5702KB) ( 1487 )  

    Objective To investigate the value of Cytokeratin 19 (CK19), HBME-1 and Galectin-3 in differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma of thyroid and thyroid disease with papillary hyperplasia. Methods The specimens of 289 cases of thyroid lesions, including 144 cases of classic papillary carcinoma (CPC), 21 cases of follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC), 19 cases of papillary microcarcinoma (PM), 46 cases of nodular goiter with papillary hyperplasia (NGWPH) and 59 cases of follicular adenoma with papillary hyperplasia (FAWPH) were collected. The expression of CK19, HBME-1 and Galectin-3 was detected by EnVision system. Results CK19, HBME-1 and Galectin-3 expressed in 100%, 93.1% and 89.6% of CPC, in 100%, 76.2% and 76.2% of FVPC, in 100%, 73.7% and 78.9% of PM, in 5.1%, 2.2% and 4.3% of NGWPH, and in 4.3%, 1.7% and 5.1% of FAWPH, respectively. There were significant differences between thyroid papillary carcinoma and thyroid diseases with papillary hyperplasia in expression of CK19, HBME-1 and Galectin-3 (P<0.01). Conclusion CK19 is a sensitive marker for thyroid papillary carcinoma, and HBME-1 and Galectin-3 are better in specificity. This panel of markers is useful to differentiate papillary carcinoma of thyroid from thyroid papillary hyperplasia.

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    Expression of E2F-4 in middle or lower rectal cancer and its clinical significance
    LOU Xiao-lou, GU Yan
    2010, 30 (4):  452. 
    Abstract ( 1288 )   PDF (3040KB) ( 1187 )  

    Objective To detect the expression of transcription factor E2F-4 in middle or lower rectal cancer, and investigate its relationship with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Methods Sixty specimens of middle or lower rectal cancer were collected with complete clinical and pathological data, and all the patients were performed radical resection of rectal cancer. Besides, rectal mucosa of 30 patients with chronic colitis examined by enteroscopic biopsy were served as controls. The expression of E2F-4 of rectal cancer tissues, adjacent noncancerous tissues and control rectal mucosa was detected by immunohistochemical method, and its relationship with prognosis and clinicopathological parameters such as gender, age, tumor size, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging, post-operative metastasis and recurrence was explored. Results The expression of E2F-4 in rectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues and control rectal mucosa (P<0.05). The expression of E2F-4 in rectal cancer tissues was significantly related to tumor differentiation, TNM staging, lymph node metastasis and post-operative metastasis and recurrence. The post-operative tumor-free survival time in patients with negative expression of E2F-4 in rectal cancer tissues was significantly longer than that in patients with positive expression of E2F-4 in rectal cancer tissues (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of transcription factor E2F-4 is closely related to the biological behavior of rectal cancer, and E2F-4 may be involved in the carcinogenesis and development of middle or lower rectal cancer as oncogene.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Anxiety status and stress sources of doctors in different classes of public hospitals in Yangpu District of Shanghai
    HAN Yi-peng, WANG Shen-qi, WU Jia-jun, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  455. 
    Abstract ( 1862 )   PDF (4415KB) ( 1388 )  

    Objective To investigate the anxiety status and professional stress of doctors, and explore their relationship with hospitals and departments. Methods A quantitative self-reporting questionnaire composed with Stressors Scale for Doctors and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) was performed to evaluate the anxiety status and professional stress of doctors randomly selected from public hospitals in Yangpu District of Shanghai. The sample numbers of each class of hospitals were determined by the staff allocation standard enacted by the Ministry of Health. Results The average score of anxiety state by SAS of 332 participants (effective rate, 96%) was 36.62±7.01, significantly higher than the Chinese norm (P<0.01), while there was no significant difference by marriage status, gender, education degree, hospital classes and departments (P>0.05). The general average score of stress was 2.39±1.09 (mild to moderate level), and the main stressors were medical risks, salary load and understanding and support from patients. There were significant differences in stress levels among doctors in various classes of hospitals (P=0.000), with those in the community hospitals being the lowest and those of the municipal hospitals being the highest. Besides, surgeons experienced greater stress than doctors of the other departments. Conclusion The anxiety status of doctors in Yangpu District of Shanghai is similar in different classes of hospitals and in different departments, and is more severe than that of the general population. Medical risk is the major source of stress in each class of hospitals. Doctors in community hospitals experience the least stress due to beneficial policies, those in districtal hospitals have an ambiguous functional authority, and those in municipal hospitals suffer the greatest professional pressure. The status of anxiety and stress of doctors is related to the contradiction between patients and doctors.

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    Influence of effort-reward imbalance on turnover intention in nurses
    WANG Xiao-lei, ZHOU Ping, REN Wei-hong, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  459. 
    Abstract ( 1974 )   PDF (4749KB) ( 1638 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and job burnout and turnover intention. Methods Six hundred and eighty nurses in three municipal comprehensive hospitals in Hangzhou were surveyed utilizing Questionnaires on general conditions, Effort-Reward Imbalance Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Turnover Intention Inventory, and 470 effective questionnaires were obtained (69.1%). Results Among the nurses surveyed, 31.9% of the nurses were in the state of effort-rewards imbalance, and 82.3% of nurses were overloaded in job. Effort-reward imbalance was significantly related to job burnout and turnover intention (P<0.01), and effort-reward imbalance and job burnout had directly impact on turnover intention (P<0.05). Conclusion To decrease the turnover intention of nurses and improve the nursing development, the measures of salary increase and job promotion optimization should be adopted to inverse the state of effort-reward imbalance and prevent nurses from job burnout. In addition, more attention should be paid to young nurses and contract nurses to decrease the turnover intention.

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    Review
    Notch signaling pathway in cardiomyogenesis and regeneration
    CHEN Hao
    2010, 30 (4):  463. 
    Abstract ( 1857 )   PDF (3917KB) ( 2054 )  

    Notch signaling pathway participates in extensive cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Notch plays a crucial role in cardiovascular development. Furthermore, Notch could be important for cardiac homeostasis regulation and tissue renewal by protecting the heart from an excessive and detrimental hypertrophic response and controlling the maintenance of stem cell pools. The paper emphatically reviews the current knowledge of the versartility of Notch signaling in fetal and postnatal development and finally, discusses the impact on maintenance of cardiac integrity and the potential for regenerative therapies.

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    Research progress on chronic hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury
    ZHANG Qian
    2010, 30 (4):  467. 
    Abstract ( 1384 )   PDF (4490KB) ( 1303 )  

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury has been significantly increasing. Up till now, routine neuroendocrine assessments have not been conducted for patients with traumatic brain injury in common clinical practice, and a lot of patients have not been treated in time. The research progress of prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis methods of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury in recent years is reviewed in this paper.

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    Research development of cardiac remodeling in pregnancy
    LIU Hua
    2010, 30 (4):  471. 
    Abstract ( 1562 )   PDF (3331KB) ( 1083 )  

    Cardiac remodeling in pregnancy is mainly characterized by cardiac hypertrophy which is the physiological adaption of the heart to the hemodynamic changes in pregnancy. Understanding the mechanism is of great significance to ensure the maternal and fetal safety during pregnancy. This article reviews the main hemodynamic changes, cardiac changes and molecular mechanism of cardiac remodeling in pregnancy.

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    Research progress of viral microRNA
    CAO Guo-jun
    2010, 30 (4):  474. 
    Abstract ( 2126 )   PDF (4310KB) ( 1410 )  

    microRNA (miRNA) has approximately 22 nucleotides that can mediate the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNA can regulate cellular processes such as development, differentiation, cell cycling, apoptosis and immune responses. More and more viral miRNA has been unveiled. The research progress of viral miRNA is reviewed in this paper.

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    Brief original article
    Distribution and antibacterial resistance of pathogens in surgical intensive care unit
    YIN Na, YOU Xin-min
    2010, 30 (4):  478. 
    Abstract ( 1671 )   PDF (4529KB) ( 1468 )  

    Objective To analyse the distribution and antibacterial resistance of pathogens in Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) of Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University. Methods The pathogenic specimens of 123 patients hospitalized in SICU were collected, and all the specimens were analysed for pathogen distribution and resistance to antibiotics.ResultsA total of 497 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated, and Gram-negative bacteria were the most popular pathogens (58.1%), whereas Gram-positive bacteria and fungi accounted for 19.7% and 22.1%, respectively. The most common fungus was Candida albicans (15.1%). Most pathogens were separated from lower respiratory tract (278 strains). The four most common pathogens in all the specimens were Acinetobacter baumannii (20.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.5%), Candida albicans (15.8%) and Escherichia Coli (7.9%). Acinetobacter baumannii showed the lowest resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam (21.0%).The positive rates of the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 49.3% and 40.9%, and there was high sensitivity to imipenem. Gram-positive bacteria were most sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. Conclusion Epidemiological investigation of pathogens in SICU is of great importance to the rational use of antibiotics and may help to reduce the emergence of resistant strains.

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    Clinical experience
    Surgical treatment of giant cell tumors on distal radius and ulna
    WAN Rong, ZHANG Wei-bing, XU Jian-qiang, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  482. 
    Abstract ( 2106 )   PDF (4400KB) ( 1809 )  

    Objective To investigate the outcomes of surgical treatment of giant cell tumors on distal radius and ulna. Methods Eighteen patients with giant cell tumors on distal radius (n=15) or distal ulna (n=3) who were followed up for at least 24 months were selected. Three patients with giant cell tumors on distal radius were treated with intralesional excision, and the other 12 were managed with en bloc resection and reconstruction with autogenous fibular head graft. Two patients with giant cell tumors on distal ulna were treated with en bloc resection without reconstruction of osseous defects, and the other one was managed with en bloc resection with wrist joint fusion. Patients were followed up for recurrence and joint function. Results Patients were followed up for an average of 45 months. No patient experienced local recurrence or complications of infection and peripheral nerve injury. Bone nonunion was found in two patients after reconstruction with fibular head graft, and bone union was achieved after autogenous ilium graft. Enneking scoring of limb function after operation was 74%, and limb function scoring was not associated with gender, tumor location and Campanacci giant cell tumor staging, while was associated with surgical approaches. Conclusion En bloc resection for treatment of patients with giant cell tumors on distal radius or ulna can decrease the local recurrence rate. Autogenous fibular head graft can be used for reconstruction of wrist joint.

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    Case report
    One case report of huge trachea adenoid cystic carcinoma with nodular goiter
    WANG Lei, ZHONG Hong, ZHANG Fu-xian, et al
    2010, 30 (4):  485. 
    Abstract ( 1678 )   PDF (3130KB) ( 1305 )  

    Trachea adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a kind of rare malignant tumour which originates from mucous gland epithelia and often occurs in trachea or bronchus. It is easily misdiagnosed as asthma due to its initial symptoms such as hemoptysis, nonproductive cough and chest pain. Early detection and proper treatment are very important for trachea ACC.

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