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    Editorial
    Research status of various bearing in total hip arthroplasty
    CAO Yun
    2012, 32 (12):  1529. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.001

    Abstract ( 798 )   PDF (216KB) ( 945 )  

    The bearing-related issues in total hip arthroplasty have drawn extensive attention, and the selection of bearing plays an important role in the planning of surgery and clinical outcomes. With the update of concept of hip arthroplasty and research progress of material science and biomechanism, more attention has been paid to the individualized treatment of different primary hip diseases.

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    Monographic report (Osteoarticular disease)
    Effects of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres loaded with chemokine CXCL13 on migration of mesenchymal stem cells
    YI Cheng-qing, YAO Ai-hua, MA Chun-hui, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1532. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.002

    Abstract ( 805 )   PDF (529KB) ( 1029 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres loaded with chemokine CXCL13 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods Recombinant human CXCL13 (rhCXCL13) was loaded in the HA microspheres, and the in vitro release behavior of rhCXCL13 was observed. MSCs treated with CXCL13 were served as experiment group, and those treated with DMEM were used as control group. Modified Boyden's chamber method and cell station were employed to determine the migration rate, migration velocity and migration efficiency of MSCs in two groups. Furthermore, the expression of CXCR5, the specific receptor of CXCL13, was detected in MSCs by flow cytometry. Results It was found that rhCXCL13 could be gradually released from the hollow HA microspheres for an extended period of time up to 30 d, with a cumulative release rate of 80%. The migration rate, migration velocity and migration efficiency of MSCs in experiment group were significantly higher than those in control group. In addition, the expression of CXCR5 in MSCs increased significantly in experiment group. Conclusion The delivery system of hollow HA microspheres is an effective controlled release scaffold for CXCL13, and the released CXCL13 has a favorable chemotaxis to MSCs, which may be related to the up-regulation of CXCR5.

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    Expression characteristics of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in osteogenic microenvironmentof bone defect model
    YI Cheng-qing, MA Chun-hui, ZHANG Guo-qiao, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1536. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.003

    Abstract ( 996 )   PDF (498KB) ( 1152 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression characteristics of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in osteogenic microenvironment of bone defect model, and provide evidence for their regulation effects on behavior of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Twenty New Zealand rabbits were used for establishment of bone defect model, and restoration was conducted with deproteinized bone implantation. Samples were obtained 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after operation, and immunohistochemical SP method, Western blotting and Real-Time PCR were employed to determine the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 protein and mRNA. Results Immunohistochemical staining revealed that there was high expression of CXCL13 in the interface between scaffold and host bone, whereas there was high expression of CXCR5 in the interface, bone marrow and core of scaffold. Real-Time PCR indicated that the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 mRNA 4 weeks after operation was significantly different from that of the other time points (P<0.05). Western blotting demonstrated that the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 protein reached the peak 4 weeks after operation. Conclusion CXCL13 and CXCR5 are related to the level of osteogenic behavior, with typical characteristics of expression timing and location.

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    Influence of trabecular metal acetabular component on bone mineral density around acetabular component after total hip arthroplasty
    ZHU Jin-hong, YI Cheng-qing, MA Chun-hui, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1540. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.004

    Abstract ( 760 )   PDF (307KB) ( 958 )  

    Objective To compare the short-term clinical outcomes and bone mineral density (BMD) around acetabular component between total hip arthroplasty with trabecular metal (TM) and that with Titanium alloy metal (Ti), and investigate the influence of TM acetabular component on BMD around acetabular component after total hip arthroplasty. Methods Fifteen patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty with TM (TM group) and 13 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty with Ti (Ti group) were followed up. Harris hip scores after operation were compared between groups. Hodgkinson grading was performed according to the findings of X-ray plain film.  BMD around acetabular component was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) based on the regions of interest (ROI) Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ. Results There was no significant difference in the Harris hip scores after operation between two groups (P>0.05). Hodgkinson grade 0 was identified in all patients, and there was no component loose or displacement after operation. DEXA measurement indicated that BMD values in all ROI around acetabular component of the operational side were significantly lower than those of the nonoperational side in Ti group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference between BMD values in all ROI around acetabular component of the operational side and those of the nonoperational side in TM group (P>0.05). The difference between BMD values in ROI Ⅰand ROI Ⅱ before operation and those after operation in TM group was significantly different from that in Ti group (P<0.05), while the difference between BMD value in ROI Ⅲ before operation and that after operation in TM group was not significantly different from that in Ti group (P>0.05). Conclusion TM acetabular component has favorable influence on BMD around acetabular component after total hip arthroplasty.

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    Application of medial protrusion technique in total hip arthroplasty for developmental dysplasia hips
    YI Cheng-qing, MA Chun-hui, LI Xia, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1544. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.005

    Abstract ( 957 )   PDF (497KB) ( 1039 )  

    Objective To investigate the application of medial protrusion technique in total hip arthroplasty (THA) for developmental dysplasia hips (DDH). Methods The clinical data of 31 patients (38 hips) with DDH of Crowe typeⅡ-Ⅳundergoing THA were retrospectively analysed, and all patients were treated with medial protrusion technique in THA. The incidence of complications early after operation was observed, and Harris scores and radiological measurements were used for function evaluation after operation. Results Three cases of acetabular fractures were identified during operation. One case of posterior dislocation (3 months after operation), three cases of impingement syndrome and one case of cup displacement were found after operation. The mean distance of medial placement was 12 mm (5 to 20 mm), with a mean acetabular coverage of 85% (70% to 100%). The average inclination angle was 47.5°(42°to 65°), and valgus placement of acetabular components was found in 4 cases with inclination angle over 60°. The mean Harris score was 46.6 (38-77) before operation and 83.0 (65-92) after operation, and there were significant differences between them (P<0.05). Conclusion The medial protrusion technique is effective in reconstruction of the hip rotator center in THA for DDH. However, precise preoperative planning and controllable operative techniques are required to decrease the incidence of complications early after operation.

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    Surgical strategy in total hip arthroplasty for reconstruction of proximal femur with severe deformity
    YI Cheng-qing, MA Chun-hui, ZHOU Xiao-kai, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1549. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.006

    Abstract ( 807 )   PDF (726KB) ( 1217 )  

    Objective To investigate the optimal surgical strategy in total hip arthroplasty (THA) for reconstruction of proximal femur with severe deformity. Methods The clinical data of 39 patients with severe proximal femur deformity undergoing THA were retrospectively analysed. Imaging examinations were performed to assess the proximal femoral configuration before operation, short-term and mid-term complications were followed up after operation, leg length discrepancy and restoration of hip rotator center were evaluated, and fracture union and fixation stability were analysed in the site of osteotomy. Results Imaging examinations demonstrated complicated configuration change in the proximal femur, and mal-position or abnormal configuration of greater trochanter was found in 28 patients. Harris score significantly increased from (45.80±7.84) points before operation to (82.00±2.57) points after operation (P<0.01). The rotator center was restored in the level of true acetabulum in all the 39 patients according to Linde-Jensen classification. Complications included periprosthetic fracture, hip dislocation and impingement. In spite of remaining 0.5-1.5 cm leg length discrepancy in 2 patients, bony healing was achieved in all osteotomy sites. Conclusion Location and configuration of the greater trochanter are considered as the most critical pathological parameters for establishing personalized THA strategy for severe deformity in proximal femur. Among the procedures, soft tissue release, osteotomy and prosthesis selection are the key techniques.

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    Treatment of old femoral neck fracture in the elderly with total hip arthroplasty
    MA Chun-hui, YI Cheng-qing, LI Xia, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1554. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.007

    Abstract ( 944 )   PDF (426KB) ( 1215 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect and safety of total hip arthroplasty in the treatment of old femoral neck fracture in the elderly. Methods Thirty-six elderly patients with old femoral neck fracture were treated with total hip arthroplasty. The average age of patients was 81.2 years, and the mean disease duration of bone fracture was 9.4 months. The perioperative complications were retrospectively analysed, and the function of hip joint was evaluated after operation. Results The walking ability was recovered in all patients. The Harris hip score increased from 35.6±8.4 before operation to 86.7±6.2 six months after operation, with the overall excellent rate of 91.7% (33/36). Postoperative complications included lung infection, urinary tract infection, transient disturbance of consciousness, water electrolyte disorder and low protein edema. There was no perioperative death. Conclusion Total hip arthroplasty is an effective treatment for old femoral neck fracture in the elderly. Perfect preoperative and perioperative management are important for favorable outcomes.

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    Preliminary construction of pelvic trauma professional whole flow database
    WANG Qian, WANG Fang, HU Xiao-feng, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1558. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.008

    Abstract ( 880 )   PDF (336KB) ( 1123 )  

    Objective To construct a professional whole flow database on diagnosis and treatment of pelvic trauma. Methods Based on pelvic trauma data, with investigation of treatment process and clinical information composition and analysis of data of accessory examinations and metadata of diagnosis and treatment, the pelvic trauma whole flow information was gathered. SQL server 2005 database, hospital information system (HIS), laboratory information system (LIS) and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) were utilized to establish the pelvic trauma professional whole flow database. Results The complex procedure of emergency rescue in pelvic trauma was described structurally. Massive amount of historical data were integrated, and professional pelvic trauma database was successfully established. The results of laboratory examinations and parameters achieved visual representation, and the clinical parameters achieved structured classification management. The data management module was composed of four parts: basic information, early treatment and perioperative management, surgical treatment, and prognosis and follow-up. Conclusion The preliminary development and application of pelvic trauma database may be helpful in data management, data mining, and optimization of clinical diagnosis and treatment.

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    One case report of pulmonary embolism after arthroscopic meniscus angioplasty
    ZHOU Xiao-kai, YI Cheng-qing, MA Chun-hui, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1561. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.009

    Abstract ( 888 )   PDF (249KB) ( 1133 )  

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the dysfunction of pulmonary ventilation caused by all sorts of endogenous and exogenous emboli that clog pulmonary artery and its branches. With its hidden onset and rapid progress, the mortality of PE is higher. It is not rare that deep vein thrombosis occurs after orthopaedic operations, while the incidence of PE after arthroscopy operation is seldom reported, which may be ignored and cause serious consequence. This paper reports one case of PE after arthroscopic meniscus angioplasty. The rescue measures taken for the patient are described, and the related literatures are reviewed. It is considered that the occurrence of PE after arthroscopic meniscus angioplasty may be associated with baseline internal medicine diseases, intraoperative popliteal fossa vascular injury, long time use of tourniquet, operation stress and application of clotting drugs after operation. Therefore, careful preoperative assessment, skilled intraoperative management and close monitoring of lower limbs and general systemic condition after operation are needed.

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    Two cases report of hip arthroplasty for patients with femoral neck fracture aged more than 100
    ZHOU Xiao-kai, YI Cheng-qing, MA Chun-hui, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1564. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.010

    Abstract ( 761 )   PDF (327KB) ( 1107 )  

    With the aging of population, more and more attention has been paid to  osteoporosis. With the increase of life expectancy, development of vehicles and expansion of social activity, femoral neck fracture has become a common disease for elder people. As one of the common fractures in elder people, the incidence of femoral neck fracture is about 10%, which accounts for more than 56% of the fractures in the elderly aged more than 80. Up till now, hip arthroplasty has been seldom performed in patients with femoral neck fracture aged more than 100. The clinical data of 2 patients with femoral neck fracture aged more than 100 undergoing hip arthroplasty are reported in this paper, of whom favorable outcomes are achieved.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Effects of injured meninges fibroblasts on viability and expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein of astrocytes
    LI Yi, CHEN Xue, CHEN Ying, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1567. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.011

    Abstract ( 859 )   PDF (547KB) ( 1374 )  

    Objective To investigate the in vitro effects of injured meninges fibroblasts on viability and expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of astrocytes. Methods Astrocytes from cerebra cortices and fibroblasts from meninges of SD rats were cultured respectively, and were identified by GFAP and fibronectin(FN) immunofluorescence staining. According to the terms of scratch injury of fibroblasts, astrocytes co-cultured with fibroblasts derived conditional medium were divided into normal control group (group A), 4-h injury group (group B), 24-h injury group (group C) and 72-h injury group (group D). The viability of astrocytes was determined by CCK8 assay, and the expression of GFAP of astrocytes was detected by GFAP immunofluorescence staining. At the same time, contact co-culture was conducted in injured fibroblasts and astrocytes for 72 h. The astrocytes were divided into short distance group (group J) and long distance group (group Y) according to the distance from fibroblasts, and the expression of GFAP was detected with FN and GFAP double immunofluorescence cytochemical staining. Results The viability of astrocytes in group B was significantly lower than that in group A, group C and group D (P<0.05). The expression of GFAP of astrocytes in group C was significantly higher than that in group B and group D (P<0.05). The expression of GFAP of astrocytes in group J was significantly higher than that in group Y (P<0.05). Conclusion Injured meninges fibroblasts are able to trigger reactive astrogliosis.

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    Effect of eplerenone on expression of MMP-2 in cardiac fibroblasts stimulated by high glucose and IL-1β
    CHI Ju-fang, GUO Hang-yuan, TANG Wei-liang, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1571. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.012

    Abstract ( 956 )   PDF (482KB) ( 977 )  

    Objective To investigate the effect of eplerenone on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in cardiac fibroblasts stimulated by high glucose and interleukin (IL)-1β. Methods Human cardiac fibroblasts were cultured in fluid with normal glucose (normal control group), high glucose (high glucose group) and iso-osmotic mannitol (hyperosmotic control group) in the absence or presence of IL-1β and/or eplerenone. The activity of MMP-2 in the supernatant was assessed by gel zymography, and the expression of MMP-2 mRNA and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) mRNA was determined by RT-PCR. Results The activity of MMP-2 and MMP-2 mRNA in high glucose group and hyperosmotic control group were significantly higher than those in normal control group (P<0.01, P<0.05), while the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-2 mRNA in hyperosmotic control group were significantly lower than those in high glucose group (P<0.05). There was a twofold increase in the activity of MMP-2 and expression of MMP-2 mRNA in high glucose+IL-1β group as compared with high glucose group. The activity of MMP-2 and expression of MMP-2 mRNA in high glucose+eplerenone group and normal control+IL-1β+eplerenone group were significantly lower than those in high glucose group and normal control+IL-1β group (P<0.05). Conclusion High glucose may increase the activity of MMP-2 and expression of MMP-2 mRNA in human cardiac fibroblasts through osmotic and non-osmotic pathways, which may be enhanced by IL-1β and inhibited by eplerenone.

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    Effects of lipopolysaccharide on viability and insulin secretion of INS-1 cells
    DU Shi-chun, LIN Ning, GE Qin-min, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1577. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.013

    Abstract ( 990 )   PDF (324KB) ( 1323 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on INS-1 cells, and explore the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on viability and insulin secretion of INS-1 cells and expression of TLR4 on INS-1 cells. Methods The expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein in INS-1 cells with or without treatment with 1 mg/L LPS was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. After treatment with different mass concentrations of LPS (0.01 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L), the viability of INS-1 cells was detected by CCK8 method, and the insulin secretion of INS-1 cells was determined by GSIS. Results RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that the expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein in INS-1 cells was significantly increased after treatment with LPS (P<0.05). The viability of INS-1 cells was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner after treatment with 0.1 to 10 mg/L LPS (P<0.05). The insulin secretion of INS-1 cells was significantly decreased after treatment with 1 mg/L LPS (P<0.05). Conclusion The viability of INS-1 cells is inhibited, and the insulin secretion function of INS-1 cells is decreased after treatment with LPS of certain concentrations. The expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein in INS-1 cells is increased after treatment with LPS. Pancreatic β cells may be damaged by endotoxin in a direct manner.

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    Effects of miRNA765 overexpression on drug resistance of resistant gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823/CDDP
    HUO Zhong-hua, CHU Zhu-ling, HU Jun, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1581. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.014

    Abstract ( 1058 )   PDF (457KB) ( 1002 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of miRNA overexpression on drug resistance of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) resistant gastric cancer cell line BGC-823/CDDP. Methods Human genomic DNA was extracted, PCR primers targeting human miRNA765 were designed, and gene sequence containing miRNA765 precursor was amplified by PCR and cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector to construct a recombinant miRNA expression vector. BGC823/CDDP cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid using cationic liposome. Forty-eight hours after transfection, the relative contents of miRNA765 and cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) protein in cells were determined by Real-Time PCR and Western blotting. Forty-eight hours after transfection, the cells were treated with different concentrations of CDDP. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, cell viability was detected using MTT assay, and 50% concentration of inhibition (IC50) of the cells to CDDP was calculated. BGC-823/CDDP cells of gene intervention were treated with CDDP at a final concentration of 1 μg/mL, and double staining method was used to detect the cell apoptosis rate. Results The relative expression of miRNA765 in BGC-823/CDDP cells was significantly lower than that in parental cell line BGC-823 (P<0.01), and the relative expression of CIAPIN1 protein in BGC823/CDDP cells was significantly higher than that of parental cell line (P<0.01). The overexpression of miRNA765 significantly inhibited the expression of CIAPIN1 protein in BGC-823/CDDP cells. Forty-eight hours after transfection, the expression of CIAPIN1 protein was significantly lower than that of the untransfected group (P<0.01). The overexpression of miRNA765 significantly reduced the drug resistance of BGC-823/CDDP cells, and 48-hour IC50 value was reduced from (18.27±3.92) μg/mL to (1.50±0.43) μg/mL (P<0.05). Forty-eight hours after transfection, the apoptosis rate of BGC-823/CDDP cells was significantly increased from (10.1±1.7)% to (53.4±7.9)%(P<0.01). Conclusion The overexpression of miRNA765 may significantly reduce the drug resistance of resistant gastric carcinoma BGC-823/CDDP cells.

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    Effects of acrylamide on reproductive toxicity and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in male rats
    YUAN Ling-yan, ZHAN Ping
    2012, 32 (12):  1587. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.015

    Abstract ( 964 )   PDF (870KB) ( 1144 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of acrylamide (AA) on reproductive toxicity and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in male rats. Methods Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (double distilled water), 4 mg/kg AA treatment group, 12 mg/kg AA treatment group and 36 mg/kg AA treatment group. Thirty days after intragastric administration, testes of rats were obtained, and the histological changes of testicular tissues were observed with HE staining. The apoptosis of testicular cells was detected by TUNEL assay. The serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol were measured by chemiluminescent method. The expression of PCNA mRNA in testicular tissues was determined by RT-PCR, and the expression of PCNA protein in testicular tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results The body weight of rats in 12 mg/kg AA treatment group or 36 mg/kg AA treatment group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). For 12 mg/kg AA treatment group and 36 mg/kg AA treatment group, the numbers of spermatogenic cells in testicular tissues were smaller, and there were atrophy of spermatogenic epithelia, vacuoles in lumina, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells. The serum concentration of testosterone in each treatment group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05), and the serum concentrations of estradiol in 12 mg/kg AA treatment group and 36 mg/kg AA treatment group were significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). The expression of PCNA mRNA and protein in testicular tissues in 12 mg/kg AA treatment group and 36 mg/kg AA treatment group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Exposure to AA may result in the decrease of sex hormone secretion, pathological changes of testicular tissues, increase of apoptotic cells and decrease of expression of PCNA protein, which may interrupt the balance between proliferation and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and lead to the functional impairment of reproductive system.

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    Expression of transforming growth factor-&beta|and hypoxia inducible factor-1&alpha|in lung tissues of mice with paraquat poisoning
    HANG Ying, QIAN Jie, ZHU Chang-qing, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1594. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.016

    Abstract ( 799 )   PDF (864KB) ( 1145 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in mice with paraquat poisoning. Methods Thirty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group (n=10) and paraquat group (n=20). Paraquat (20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to mice in paraquat group, while the same volume of normal saline was intraperitoneally administered to those in control group. Ten mice in paraquat group were sacrificed on the 7th day after treatment with paraquat, and the rest of mice were killed on the 28th day. The pathological examinations of lung tissues were performed with HE staining and Masson staining, and the expression of TGF-β and HIF-1α protein in lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of expression of TGF-β protein with expression of HIF-1α protein was explored by Pearson correlation analysis. Results HE staining and Masson staining indicated that there were presentations of lung fibrosis in paraquat group on the 7th day, and the severity of lung fibrosis increased on the 28th day. The expression of TGF-β protein in lung tissues in paraquat group was significantly higher than that in control group on the 7th day (P<0.05), and the expression of TGF-β protein in lung tissues on the 28th day was significantly higher than that on the 7th day in paraquat group (P<0.05). The expression of HIF-1α protein in lung tissues in paraquat group was significantly higher than that in control group on the 7th day and 28th day (P<0.05). The expression of HIF-1α protein in lung tissues on the 28th day was higher than that on the 7th day in paraquat group, while there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). There was no correlation of expression of TGF-β protein with expression of HIF-1α protein on the 7th day and 28th day in paraquat group (r=0.295, P=0.630; r=0.218, P=0.725). Conclusion Paraquat poisoning can up-regulate TGF-β and HIF-1α protein in lung tissues of mice, and TGF-β and HIF-1α may be involved in the formation of lung fibrosis through different pathways.

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    Effects of pretreatment with acanthopanax senticousus saponins on learning and memory ability following fimbrial transection in rats
    CHEN Xiang, GU Yong-jian
    2012, 32 (12):  1600. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.017

    Abstract ( 784 )   PDF (852KB) ( 1091 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of pretreatment with acanthopanax senticousus saponins (ASS) on learning and memory ability and cholinergic neurons following fimbrial transection in rats. Methods Twenty-seven SD rats were randomly divided into ASS pretreatment group, ASS treatment group and control group, with 9 rats in each group. After right-side hippocampal fimbrial transection, 0.5 mL/100 g normal saline and 100 mg/kg ASS were intraperitoneally injected per day in control group and ASS treatment group respectively for 6 weeks. In ASS pretreatment group, rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg ASS per day for 2 weeks before right-side hippocampal fimbrial transaction and for 4 weeks after operation. Seven weeks and eight weeks after fimbrial transection, dark avoidance test and passive and active avoidance test were conducted respectively in all groups. Nine weeks after fimbrial transection, septal area brain sections were obtained, immunohistochemical staining of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was performed, and the numbers, areas and circumferences of nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and ChAT positive neurons were analysed. Results The acquisition frequency and retention time in dark avoidance test and the positive rates of active and total avoidance reaction in passive and active avoidance test in ASS pretreatment group were superior to those in ASS treatment group and control group (P<0.05). The retention time in dark avoidance test in ASS treatment group was significantly longer than that in control group (P<0.05). The numbers, areas and circumferences of NOS and ChAT positive neurons on the side of fimbrial transection in ASS pretreatment group were significantly greater than those in ASS treatment group and control group (P<0.05). The areas and circumferences of NOS and ChAT positive neurons on the side of fimbrial transection in ASS treatment group were significantly greater than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Pretreatment with ASS may improve the learning and memory ability following fimbrial transection in rats, which may be associated with the protection of cholinergic neurons in septal area.

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    Influence of pH and amlodipine on transmembrane uptake transport of telmisartan in Caco-2 cell model
    HUANG Xia, JIANG Tao, ZHAI Qing
    2012, 32 (12):  1605. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.018

    Abstract ( 1010 )   PDF (400KB) ( 1017 )  

    Objective To investigate the influence of pH and commonly coadministered amlodipine on the transmembrane uptake transport of telmisartan. Methods Human colorectal cancer Caco-2 cells were cultured in vitro, and its monolayer integrity was confirmed by cell morphology, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and lucifer yellow permeability test. ATPase activity measurement and bidirection permeability experiment were performed to analyse whether telmisartan was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The influence of pH and amlodipine on the transmembrane uptake transport of telmisartan was assessed. Results The cultured Caco-2 cell monolayer exhibited tight junction, which was applicable for transport study. The ratio of ATPase activity of telmisartan to that of blank control was 1.73, and the efflux rate was 4.53 in the bidirection permeability experiment. With the decrease of pH from 8.0 to 5.0, the transmembrane uptake transport of telmisartan gradually increased in a pH-dependent manner. The transmembrane uptake was significantly enhanced at pH of 7.4 with coadministration of amlodipine. Conclusion The transmembrane transport of telmisartan may be mediated via P-gp, and its uptake transport is influenced by both pH and coadministration of amlodipine.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Relationship between effect of antiviral therapy and CD4+ CD25high regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C
    LIU Long-gen, SHEN Hong-yu, YE Chun-yan, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1610. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.019

    Abstract ( 789 )   PDF (557KB) ( 1430 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the effect of antiviral therapy and CD4+ CD25high regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods Eighty-three patients with chronic hepatitis C who completed antiviral therapy and received follow-up were enrolled (chronic hepatitis C group). Flow cytometry was employed to determine the percentages of CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in peripheral blood at the time points of before treatment, treatment for 12 weeks, treatment for 48 weeks and followup for 24 weeks, and serum hepatitis C-RNA (HCV-RNA),  alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were quantified meanwhile. Besides, normal control group was established (n=32). Results The percentage of CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in peripheral blood and serum ALT and AST in chronic hepatitis C group were significantly higher than those in normal control group before treatment (P<0.05). At 12 weeks of treatment, the percentage of CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in peripheral blood and HCV-RNA quantity in 32 patients with early virology response (EVR) were significantly different from those of these patients before treatment and from patients without EVR (P<0.01), while such difference was not found in serum ALT. At 48 weeks of treatment, the percentage of CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in peripheral blood, HCV-RNA quantity and serum ALT in chronic hepatitis C virology response group (HCV-RNA quantity below lowest detectable limit)(n=51) were significantly lower than those of these patients before treatment and patients in chronic hepatitis C no-virology response group (n=32)(P<0.01), and there was no significant difference between the parameters before treatment and those after treatment in chronic hepatitis C no-virology response group (P>0.05). At 24 weeks of follow-up, the percentage of CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in peripheral blood, HCV-RNA quantity and serum ALT in 39 patients with sustained viral response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C virology response group were significantly lower than those of these patients before treatment and patients without SVR (P<0.01), and the parameters of patients without SVR were significantly higher than those at the end of treatment (at the end of 48 weeks)(P<0.05). Conclusion The percentages of CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in peripheral blood during antiviral therapy and follow-up have definite value in prediction of therapeutic effect and recurrence.

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    Expression of IQGAP1 in mammary ductal carcinoma and its effect on cancer cell migration
    JIN Yu-biao, TIAN Dan, Lü Xiu-hong, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1615. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.020

    Abstract ( 744 )   PDF (608KB) ( 1093 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of IQ domain GTPase-activating protein (IQGAP1) in mammary ductal carcinoma, and explore the effect of IQGAP1 silencing on cancer cell migration. Methods The expression of IQGAP1 protein in mammary ductal carcinoma tissues, adjacent tissues of mammary ductal carcinoma and benign mammary lesion tissues was detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. The relationship between expression of IQGAP1 protein in mammary ductal carcinoma tissues and clinicopathological parameters was analysed. The lentivirus vector carrying shRNA-IQGAP1 was constructed, and the human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB-435 cells with high metastasis potential were stably transfected. MDA-MB-435 cells with stable silencing of the expression of IQGAP1 (IQGAP1-shRNA group), blank vector cells (Vector group) and blank control cells (Blank group) were obtained. The influence of IQGAP1 silencing on cancer cell migration was examined through in vitro cell migration test with Transwell system. Results There were significant differences between the positive expression rate of IQGAP1 protein in mammary ductal carcinoma tissues (83.44%, 136/163) and that in benign mammary lesion tissues (32.14%, 9/28)(P<0.01), while there was no significant difference between the positive expression rate of IQGAP1 protein in mammary ductal carcinoma tissues and that in adjacent tissues of mammary ductal carcinoma (77.78%,63/81)(P>0.05). In 163 cases of mammary ductal carcinoma, the numbers of cases with negative expression of IQGAP1 protein, positive expression of IQGAP1 protein in cytoplasm and positive expression of IQGAP1 protein in membrane were 1, 3 and 22 respectively in those with grade 3 mammary ductal carcinoma; the numbers of cases were 21, 40 and 61 respectively in those with grade 2 mammary ductal carcinoma; the numbers of cases were 5, 9 and 1 respectively in those with grade 1 mammary ductal carcinoma; and there were significant differences among them (P<0.01). The expression of IQGAP1 protein was related to the size of tumor (P<0.01), but was no related to the lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). The mean numbers of cells penetrating Transwell chamber in Blank group, Vector group and IQGAP1-shRNA group were 294.3±16.3, 287.7±16.9 and 93.5±7.6 respectively, and the number in IQGAP1-shRNA group was significantly lower than those in the other two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion The expression of IQGAP1 protein in mammary ductal carcinoma tissues is significantly higher than that in benign mammary lesion tissues, the location of IQGAP1 protein in mammary ductal carcinoma is associated with tumor differentiation, and IQGAP1 protein participates in tumor metastasis cascade.

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    Meta-analysis of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor combined with photodynamic therapy in treatment of age-related macular degeneration
    ZHOU Jia, LU Qiong
    2012, 32 (12):  1621. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.021

    Abstract ( 981 )   PDF (652KB) ( 1125 )  

    Objective To investigate and systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) combined with photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Methods Randomised controlled trials (RCT) of anti-VEGF combined with PDT in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration between January 2001 and August 2011 were searched in Medline, Elservier and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, with the language limitation in English and Chinese. RCTs were included in accordance with the Cochrane review's methodology, the valid data were extracted, and the systematic analysis was conducted. Results Seven RCTs were enrolled, including 496 eyes with agerelated macular degeneration. Compared with monotherapy group, combination therapy group had advantage in the times of retreatment, but not in the best-corrected visual acuity. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of complications between two groups. Conclusion Anti-VEGF combined with PDT is effective and safe in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration.

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    Curative effects of different LEEP in treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical erosion
    ZHANG Xiao-qing, XU Hui-qun
    2012, 32 (12):  1628. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.022

    Abstract ( 796 )   PDF (298KB) ( 1223 )  

    Objective To investigate the curative effects of high-frequency loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical erosion. Methods The clinical data of 192 patients with CIN and cervical erosion undergoing LEEP were retrospectively analysed. According to different conditions in patients, shallow cervical ring excision (SRE),deep ring excision (DRE) or LEEP conization (LEEPC) were performed. The curative effects of LEEP in treatment of CIN and cervical erosion were evaluated, the effect of cervical regeneration was assessed, and the prevalence of complications was observed. Results There were 84, 68 and 40 patients undergoing SRE, DRE and LEEPC respectively. Six months after operation, the cure rate of CIN was 95.59% (65/68), there was lesion residue after operation in 2 patients with CINⅡ and 1 patient with CINⅢ, and there was relapse in 1 patient with CINⅡ and 1 patient with CINⅢ. Three months after operation, the cure rate of cervical erosion was 94.35%(117/124), and the cure rates of SRE, DRE and LEEPC were 96.43% (54/56), 91.11% (41/45) and 95.65% (22/23) respectively. Three months after operation,the satisfaction rate of cervical regeneration from patients undergoing LEEP was 93.75% (180/192), and the satisfaction rates of cervical regeneration from patients undergoing SRE, DRE and LEEPC were 92.86% (78/84), 95.66% (65/68) and 92.5% (37/40) respectively. Three months after operation, the prevalence of cervical mucous eversion was 4.17% (8/192), among which SRE accounted for 7.14% (8/84), and DRE accounted for 2.94% (2/68).Carotid stenosis occurred in 7.5%(3/40) of patients undergoing LEEPC. Conclusion Corresponding LEEP should be adopted according to different cervical diseases, which may yield higher cure rate and better cervical regeneration. Individualized procedure should be carried out for the treatment of CIN and cervical erosion.

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    Original article (Public health administration)
    Methodological research on evaluation of schools of public health in China
    ZHANG Zhe, MA Si-yu, TAO Jing-jing, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1631. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.023

    Abstract ( 960 )   PDF (331KB) ( 976 )  

    Objective To establish a scientific and feasible indicator system for evaluation of schools of public health in China. Methods Literature review was conducted to initially explore the indicators of evaluation of schools of public health in China. Delphi method was employed to carry out two rounds of expert consultations. In the first round, experts were selected from higher education institutes of public health in China as objects for consultation (n=83), and questionnaires on evaluation indicators and weights were sent to them by E-mail. In the second round, new questionnaires on evaluation indicators and weights based on the results of the first-round consultation were sent to experts with response to the first-round consultation. Then, the evaluation indicators and weights were ultimately established. The concept of results chain (including input, process and output) was employed to set the framework of the indicator system. Results Fifteen copies of effective questionnaires were recovered in the first-round consultation, and the effective response rate was 18.1%. In the second-round consultation, 10 copies of effective questionnaires were received, and the effective response rate was 66.7%. The average response time of the second-round consultation was 2.30 d, 1.57 d shorter than the first-round consultation (3.87 d). The average age of experts involved was more than 48 years old, with the average related working time over 23 years. Through Kendall-W test, the score given by the experts in the second-round consultation to each indicator of each grade was of concordance with statistical significance (P=0.000). The evaluation indicator system of schools of public health in China was finally set up by 3 levels (input, process, output), which was made up of 7 first-grade indicators (human input, property input, management mode, school culture, human output, scientific output and social services), 40 second-grade indicators and their related weights. Conclusion “Superior's funds and subsidy”, “percentage of faculties with doctor's degree”, “introduction of advanced talents”, “scientific research funding input” and “number of publications of international journals (cited by SCI)” are the 5 second-grade indicators with largest weight in evaluation indicator system of schools of public health in China. Qualitative evaluation or layered assessment by choosing standards can be applied to such indicators which are hard to quantify. Schools of public health should lay more emphasis on indicators of social work and increase the overall levels as well.

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    Review
    Roles of serum microRNA in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of lung cancer
    WANG Lin, XUE Jian, LOU Jia-tao
    2012, 32 (12):  1636. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.024

    Abstract ( 1148 )   PDF (369KB) ( 1100 )  

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the world. Developing minimally invasive techniques that can detect lung cancer, particularly at an early stage, as well as predict metastasis and prognosis, is an important strategy to improve the outcome. MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNA species that play important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development by binding to their target mRNAs and inducing translation inhibition and/or mRNA degradation. Dysregulation of miRNAs is frequently found in malignancies, including lung cancer. Recent studies have revealed that miRNA are not only stable in paraffin-embedded tissues and body fluids, but also in plasma and serum, which makes circulating miRNA a new kind of ideal biomarker that opens a new field for early molecular diagnosis of lung cancer, as well as for prediction of lung cancer metastasis and survival.

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    Roles of histone deacetylase inhibitors in treatment of diabetes mellitus
    CHEN Xuan, LI Hua-ping
    2012, 32 (12):  1641. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.025

    Abstract ( 1254 )   PDF (380KB) ( 1169 )  

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing year by year, and there is an imperative need for more safe, inexpensive and effective drugs for diabetes mellitus. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) exhibit promising properties, which can promote pancreatic islet β cell function, prevent β cells from inflammatory damage, improve insulin resistance, regulate immune system balance, improve the metabolism, and positively affect diabetic complications. HDACi may become novel drugs for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus, even for gestational diabetes mellitus. The roles of HDACi in the treatment of diabetes mellitus are reviewed in this paper.

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    Research progress of microRNA in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    ZHANG Jun-feng, HUA Rong
    2012, 32 (12):  1646. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.026

    Abstract ( 970 )   PDF (480KB) ( 1102 )  

    MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of short noncoding RNAs, with 17-25 nucleotides in length, which play a role in the regulation of gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Recent studies have revealed that miRNA may be associated with pathogenesis, progression, invasion and metastasis of tumors. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal cancer which is characterized by the absence of biomarkers for early diagnosis and effective strategies for therapeutic intervention. The current status of miRNA in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation for PDAC is introduced in this paper.

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    Role of TrkB signal transduction pathway in tumors
    BAO Wei, YU Xiao-hui, WAN Xiao-ping
    2012, 32 (12):  1652. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.027

    Abstract ( 1192 )   PDF (290KB) ( 1282 )  

    Neurotrophin-tyrosine kinase receptor (NT-Trk) signaling pathway plays an important role in the neural regulation of development. Now it has been recently revealed that Trk may also participate in the pathogenesis of many malignant tumors. It is demonstrated that the expression of TrkB is related to oncogenesis. The activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB signal transduction pathway stimulates tumor cell survival and angiogenesis, and contributes to the resistance to cytotoxic drugs and anoikis. The role of TrkB signal transduction pathway in tumors is reviewed in this paper.

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    Brief original article
    Improvement in procedures of varicocelectomy
    HUANG Wen-qiang, FAN Yu-ping, TENG Xiao-ming, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1656. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.028

    Abstract ( 1041 )   PDF (222KB) ( 1201 )  

    Objective To investigate the improvement in procedures of varicocelectomy for varicocele (VC), and observe the incidences of complications after modified operation. Methods Seventy-eight patients with VC undergoing varicocelectomy were studied. Among them, 28 were treated with modified procedures of varicocelectomy, in which the spermatic vein and its main branches were separately ligated and the ilioinguinal nerve, iliohypogastric nerve and lymphatics were protected (modified varicocelectomy group). The other 50 patients were managed with traditional varicocelectomy (traditional varicocelectomy group). The incidences of complications and semen parameters (sperm concentration, percentage of mobile sperm and percentage of progressively mobile sperm) after operation were analysed. Results Spermatic vein was successfully ligated in all the 78 patients. The complications after operation in traditional varicocelectomy group were hydrocele (n=14, 28.0%), epididymitis (n=10, 20.0%) and numbness of left inner thigh within 1 month after operation (n=1, 0.5%). The complications after operation in modified varicocelectomy group were hydrocele (n=1, 3.6%) and epididymitis (n=1, 3.6%), and there was no other short-term complications. The prevalences of hydrocele and epididymitis after operation in modified varicocelectomy group were significantly lower than those in traditional varicocelectomy group (P<0.05). The semen parameters in both modified varicocelectomy group and traditional varicocelectomy group 3 to 6 months after operation were significantly improved (P<0.05 or P<0.01). No significant difference was demonstrated in the improvement of semen parameters between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Both the modified procedures of varicocelectomy and traditonal varicocelectomy for VC can improve the sperm quality, while the former can effectively reduce the incidence of complications after operation.

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    Technique and method
    Construction of recombinant vector pGL3/EGR1-Bax and its transfection into cells of non-small-cell lung carcinoma
    HUANG Jing, SHEN Qing, FENG Yu-lin, et al
    2012, 32 (12):  1659. 
    doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2012.12.029

    Abstract ( 1105 )   PDF (364KB) ( 1087 )  

    Objective To clone early growth response-1 (EGR1) gene and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) gene, construct their co-expression vector pGL3/EGR1-Bax, and transfect it into cells of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Methods Full-length coded sequence of EGR1 and Bax genes was amplified by PCR with the genome DNA isolated from mouse brain tissue as template respectively. PCR amplified fragment of EGR1 and Bax genes were first cloned into pTA2 vector, and then subcloned into pGL3-Basic vector to construct pGL3/EGR1-Bax recombinant vector after sequencing. EGR1 and Bax genes were transfected into non-small-cell lung carcinoma NCI-H460 cells with the technology of gene transfection. NCI-H460 cells without transfection and those transfected with blank pGL3-Basic were served as blank control group and negative control group respectively. RT-PCR and Western blotting were employed to detect the expression of EGR1 and Bax mRNA and protein in NCI-H460 cells. Results It was identified that the sequence of EGR1 and Bax in the constructed pGL3/EGR1-Bax was in line with that of the GenBank. The expression of EGR1 mRNA and Bax mRNA and protein in NCI-H460 cells in pGL3/EGR1-Bax transfection group was significantly higher than that in blank control group and negative control group. Conclusion Co-expression vector pGL3/EGR1-Bax has been successfully constructed, and the efficient expression of EGR1 and Bax genes in NCI-H460 cells has been realized.

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