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    Expert forum
    Clinical and pathogenesis researches on depressive disorder in China
    PENG Dai-hui, FANG Yi-ru
    2010, 30 (6):  609. 
    Abstract ( 1614 )   PDF (3463KB) ( 1707 )  

    The clinical researches of depressive disorder have indicated that the standardized guideline and practice for the prevention and treatment of depressive disorder are far from realization. Moreover, there is much room for improvement in the systematic studies of prognosis of depressive disorder. Researches of biological mechanism involve fields such as genetics, neurobiochemistry and endocrinology, neural electrophysiology and imaging. However, there have been less findings in specific biomarkers, and some results are even inconsistent. There is a long way to go for the studies of clinical and pathogenesis of depressive disorder. This paper hopes to arise more attention and collaboration on depressive disorder studies among the peers.

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    Monographic report (Depressive disorder)
    Association of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphisms with major depression disorder and antidepressant treatment response
    CAO Lan, FANG Yi-ru, YU Shun-ying, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  612. 
    Abstract ( 2191 )   PDF (4645KB) ( 1703 )  

    Objective To investigate the association of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH-2) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of loci rs4570625 and rs7305115 with major depression disorder (MDD) and antidepressant treatment response in Chinese Han populations. Methods A total of 346 Chinese Han patients with MDD (case group) and 347 healthy Chinese Han people (control group) were enrolled, and patients in case group were subdivided into treatment-resistant depression (TRD) group (n=72) and non-TRD (NTRD) group (n=274) according to treatment response. SNPs of rs4570625 and rs7305115 were selected for the genomic region of TPH-2 gene and genotyped through TaqMan SNP genotyping assay, and the distribution of gene type and allele in groups was analysed. Results There were significant differences in distribution of rs4570625 gene type and allele between case group and control group (P<0.05). There were significant differences in distribution of SNPs rs4570625 and rs7305115 gene type and allele between males of TRD group and males of NTRD group (P<0.05). Conclusion TPH-2 gene rs4570625 may be associated with depression disorder in Chinese Han populations, and SNPs of rs4570625 and rs7305115 may predict the antidepressant treatment response in male patients.

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    Association between MEK gene polymorphisms and depression
    HU Ying-yan, FANG Yi-ru, YU Shun-ying, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  616. 
    Abstract ( 1893 )   PDF (4445KB) ( 1540 )  

    Objective To investigate the association between mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) gene polymorphisms and depression. Methods Peripheral whole blood samples of 425 patients with major depressive disorder (depression group) and 404 healthy controls (control group) were collected, and DNA was extracted. Tagging SNPs rs1549854 and rs4255740 in MEK1 gene, rs7258366 and rs12459484 in MEK2 gene were selected and genotyped through TaqMan SNP genotyping assay to detect the genotypes of 4 SNPs in depression group and control group, and the association between MEK gene polymorphisms and depression was analysed. Results There were significant differences in genotype and allelic distribution of rs1549854 between depression group and control group (P<0.05). There also existed significant differences between females of two groups (P<0.01). The combinative genotype analysis of rs1549854 and rs4255740 and that of rs7258366 and rs12459484 revealed that the combinative genotype distribution of rs1549854 AA-rs4255740 CC and rs7258366 AA-rs12459484 GG was significantly higher in depression group than that in control group, with the highest risk of the latter (OR=2.175, P<0.01), while the combinative genotype distribution of rs1549854 CC-rs4255740 CT and rs7258366 GG-rs12459484 GG was significantly lower in depression group than that in control group, with the lowest risk of the latter  (OR=0.132, P<0.01). Conclusion Polymorphism of rs1549854 in MEK1 gene may relate to major depressive disorder, especially for female patients. The combinative genotype of rs1549854 AA-rs4255740 CC and rs7258366 AA-rs12459484 GG may be risk factors for depression, while that of rs1549854 CC-rs4255740 CT and rs7258366 GG-rs12459484 GG may be associated with lower risk for major depressive disorder.

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    Association analysis between tyrosine kinase receptor B gene polymorphisms and major depressive disorder
    HONG Wu, JIANG Kai-da, QIU Jian-ying, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  620. 
    Abstract ( 1772 )   PDF (4084KB) ( 1572 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) gene polymorphisms and major depressive disorder. Methods The samples of peripheral venous blood of 237 patients with major depressive disorder and 312 healthy controls were collected, and DNA was extracted. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of TrkB gene were genotyped by TaqMan SNP genotyping assays, and the relationship between gene polymorphisms and major depressive disorder was explored. Results There was no significant difference in genotypes and alleles distribution of TrkB rs1187272 and rs993315 between patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls (P>0.05). The joint analysis of rs1187272 and rs993315 revealed no significant difference between patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Conclusion TrkB rs1187272 and rs993315 and their haplotypes are not significantly related to major depressive disorder, indicating that TrkB gene polymorphisms may not play important roles in the etiology of major depressive disorder.

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    Association of MTHFR gene C677T polymorphisms and depression in Han populations
    LI Ze-zhi, YU Shun-ying, ZHANG Chen, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  624. 
    Abstract ( 1896 )   PDF (4246KB) ( 1383 )  

    Objective To investigate the relationship between N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphisms and depression in Han populations. Methods Four hundred and two patients with major depressive disorder diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (major depressive disorder group) and six hundred healthy controls (control group) were included. All subjects were Han nationality. Patients in major depressive disorder group were assessed with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD)-17, and MTHFR gene C677T polymorphisms were determined with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Results There were significant differences in genotype (CC, CT, TT) frequencies between major depressive disorder group and control group (P<0.05). The genotype frequency of TT in major depressive disorder group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). The HAMD-17 scores of patients with CT and TT genotypes were significantly higher than that of patients with CC genotype in major depressive disorder group (P<0.05). Conclusion MTHFR gene C677T polymorphisms are associated with depression, and genotype TT is related to the severity of depression.

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    Correlation analysis of early trauma experience and depression and suicidal tendency of patients with depression
    YUAN Cheng-mei, HUANG Jia, WANG Zhen, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  628. 
    Abstract ( 2087 )   PDF (2991KB) ( 1434 )  

    Objective To investigate the association between early trauma experience and depression and suicidal tendency of patients with depression. Methods Four hundred and forty-one patients with depression (depression group) and 154 healthy controls (control group) were enrolled. Early Trauma Inventory-Short Form was adopted to assess the early trauma experience, and Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) was employed to evaluate the suicidal tendency of patients with depression. Mann-Whitney nonparametric test and Binary Logistic regression analysis were performed to explore the association between early trauma and depression and suicidal tendency of patients with depression. Results There was significant difference in the score of emotional abuse between depression group and control group (P<0.001). Score of emotional abuse (β=0.410,P<0.001) and total scores of BDI (β=0.134,P<0.001)were included in the ultimate regression equation, and the predictive efficiency of the equation was 81.1%. Conclusion Patients with depression have more early emotional abuse experience. Early emotional abuse experience is associated with suicidal tendency of patients with depression, and can increase the risk of suicide.

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    Comparison study of cognitive function between treatment resistant depression and fist episode depression
    CHEN Jun, WU Zhi-guo, WANG Yong, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  631. 
    Abstract ( 2506 )   PDF (5562KB) ( 2097 )  

    Objective To investigate and compare the characteristics of cognitive function between treatment resistant depression (TRD) and first episode depression (FED). Methods Fifty-three patients with TRD (TRD group) and 21 patients with FED (FED group) were enrolled, and another 20 healthy volunteers were served as normal controls (control group). The disease severity was evaluated with Hamilton Depression Scale-17 (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Index (CGI-SI), the cognitive function was assessed with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Schedule (WAIS), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Number Cancellation Test (NCT), and comparison was conducted among groups. Results The evaluation of disease severity revealed that the score of somatic anxiety factor of HAMD-17 in TRD group was significantly higher than that in FED group, while there was no significant difference in the scores of the other factors between these two groups. The assessment of cognitive function demonstrated that performance intelligence quotient, WMS memory quotient, long and short term memory, WCST number of categories completed, response administered, percent conceptual level responses, NCT correct number and score in TRD group and FED group were significantly lower than those in control group. However, WCST total time, error response time, number of perseverative errors and percent of perseverative errors in TRD group and FED group were significantly higher than those in control group. The scores of picture puzzle, space orientation, number order and vision regeneration in TRD group were significantly lower than those in FED group. Compared with the differences between FED group and control group, the differences between TRD group and control group in WCST error response time, number of perseverative errors, percent of perseverative errors, percent conceptual level responses, NCT correct number and score were more significant. Conclusion Clinical evaluation of disease severity can not reflect the characteristics of TRD. The impairment of imagination, ability to grasp the clues and hand-eye coordination, and working impairment on memory and attention are characterised in TRD.

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    Serum thyroid hormone levels before and after treatment in patients with treatment-resistant depression
    HUANG Jia, YUAN Cheng-mei, HONG Wu, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  636. 
    Abstract ( 2178 )   PDF (3816KB) ( 1492 )  

    Objective To observe the changes of serum thyroid hormone levels before and after treatment in patients with treatment-resistant depression, and investigate the relationship between serum thyroid hormone levels and response to treatment. Methods Forty-four patients with treatment-resistant depression were enrolled, and were assessed with Hamilton Depression (HAMD)-24 scale at the beginning of medicine treatment (before treatment) and at the end of the eighth week after treatment (after treatment). The serum thyroid hormone levels were detected by microparticle enzyme immunoassay, including triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), free T3, free T4 and sensitive thyroidstimulating hormone (s-TSH). Patients were divided into effective group and ineffective group according to the score reducing rate before and after treatment (>50% for effective group and ≤50% for ineffective group), and serum thyroid hormone levels were compared and analysed. The related factors associated with clinical outcomes were analysed by Logistic regression analysis. Results Serum thyroid hormone levels were in the normal ranges before and after treatment in all patients. Serum T3 levels after treatment in both groups were significantly higher than those before treatment (P<0.05). Compared with that before treatment, serum s-TSH level in ineffective group exhibited a decreased tendency (P>0.05). Serum FT3 levels in effective group were significantly higher than those in ineffective group before and after treatment (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that serum FT3 level was an independent factor influencing the clinical outcomes (P<0.05). Conclusion Thyroid function of patiens with treatmentresistant depression might affect the clinical outcomes. Patients with poor prognosis have increased possibilities of thyroid dysfunction. Serum FT3 levels might be a parameter to assess the clinical outcomes of patients with treatment-resistant depression.

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    Efficacy of integrated-model management on chronic depression
    WANG Zuo-wei, FANG Fang, LU Zhi-ping, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  639. 
    Abstract ( 2024 )   PDF (4533KB) ( 2255 )  

    Objective To evaluate the short-term efficacy of integrated-model management on chronic depression. Methods Outpatients with depression and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HAMD-17)≥3 and without acute episode openly entered management group (n=30) and control group (n=30). Patients in management group received regular clinical care, group therapy intervention, self-help group and self-management, while those in control group only received regular clinical care. The primary outcomes was changes of HAMD-17 scores from baseline to endpoint (the end of the sixth month), and the secondary outcomes included remission rate, recurrence rate and changes of Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS) scores from baseline to endpoint. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that there were significant differences in the changes of HAMD-17 scores and SDSS scores from baseline to endpoint between management group and control group (F=46.80, P=0.00; F=49.29, P=0.00). However, Fisher's exact test indicated that there was no significant difference in the rates of remission and recurrence between management group and control group (P>0.05). Conclusion The integrated-model management may significantly relieve residual symptoms and improve social function of patients with chronic depression.

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    Control study of life events and personality characteristics of minor depressive disorder and major depressive disorder
    YI Zheng-hui, FANG Yi-ru, YUAN Cheng-mei, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  643. 
    Abstract ( 1921 )   PDF (4267KB) ( 1476 )  

    Objective To analyse and compare the clinical symptoms, life events, social support, coping style and personality characteristics of minor depressive disorder (MinD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Two hundred and eighty-eight patients with MDD (MDD group) and 222 patients with MinD (MinD group) were enrolled. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HAMD-17), Life Event Scale (LES), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) were employed to analyse and compare the clinical symptoms, psychological stress, social support, coping style and personality characteristics between these two groups. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms and HAMD-17 score in MinD group were significantly lower than those in MDD group (P<0.01, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the prevalences of life events between these two groups, while patients in MinD group had less negative life events stress than those in MDD group (P<0.01). Compared with patients in MDD group, those in MinD group had lower scores on friend support factor of PSSS, higher scores on positive coping factor of TCSQ, and higher scores on extraversion/introversion factor and lower scores on neuroticism/stability factor of EPQ (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion Compared with MDD, there are lower prevalence of depression, less psychological stress, better coping strategy and personality characteristics for MinD.

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    Research progress of roles of CREB in pathogenesis and treatment of depression
    WANG Ling-xiao
    2010, 30 (6):  647. 
    Abstract ( 1745 )   PDF (4037KB) ( 1176 )  

    The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been implicated in relevant for pathogenesis and therapy of depression in many studies. CREB is involved in the molecular and cellular mechanism of chronic antidepressant treatment, and serves as a convergence point for multiple classes of antidepressant drugs. CREB is upregulated and activated in the hippocampus by treatment with chronic antidepressants. Increasing CREB levels in the hippocampus of rodent models results in antidepressive effects. However, increasing CREB levels in some other brain regions leads to depression-like behaviors. In this article, the roles of CREB in the pathogenesis of depression and in mediating effects of antidepressant treatment are reviewed.

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    Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in pathological mechanism of major depressive disorder episode
    LI Ze-zhi
    2010, 30 (6):  651. 
    Abstract ( 1957 )   PDF (5012KB) ( 1582 )  

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) hypothesis of depression postulates that the decrease of BDNF plays a major role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder, and its restoration may be associated with the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. This theory has been confirmed by increasingly more evidences. BDNF plays a critical role in neurogenesis, neuronal survival, development, differentiation and regeneration, and directly involves in synaptic plasticity and reconstruction, which is probably the important molecular mechanism responsible for the onset and antidepressant action of depression. The research advance on relationship between BDNF and major depressive disorder is reviewed in this paper.

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    Original article (Basic research)
    Effects of different levels of short-term intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on antioxidants of blood and cardiovascular tissues in rats
    YANG Wen-Jun, ZHONG Mei-fang, ZHANG Ning, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  656. 
    Abstract ( 1718 )   PDF (4334KB) ( 1325 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of different levels of short-term intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) on the antioxidant activity of blood and cardiovascular tissues in rats. Methods A total of 30 SD rats were assigned to control group, IHH 3 500 m group and IHH 5 000 m group (n=10 in each group). Rats in IHH 3 500 m group and IHH 5 000 m group were treated with IHH mimicking 3 500 m and 5 000 m altitude in a hypobaric chamber for a consecutive of 8 d, with 4 h each day. Rats of control group were treated under the same condition except for hypoxia intervention. After IHH treatment, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, myocardium and aorta were measured, and the contents of plasma uric acid were detected. Results Compared with control group, the activity of plasma CuZn-SOD and myocardial total SOD and Mn-SOD increased in IHH 5 000 m group, while that of plasma Mn-SOD decreased (P<0.05). The activity of CAT and contents of MDA in plasma and myocardium increased in IHH 5 000 m group, and the contents of plasma uric acid increased as well (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the activity of SOD and CAT and contents of MDA in aorta between IHH 5 0 00 m group and control group (P>0.05). The activity of plasma Mn-SOD in IHH 3 500 m group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the contents of plasma uric acid, activity of CAT and contents of MDA in myocardium and aorta between these two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Moderate level of short-term IHH may enhance the endogenous antioxidants activity in plasma and myocardium in rats.

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    Effects of menin on related genes of early development of mouse embryos
    ZHANG Cui-ping, ZHU Ya-xin, ZHANG Hong-li, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  660. 
    Abstract ( 2079 )   PDF (6631KB) ( 1425 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of menin, product of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (Men1) gene, on related genes of early development of mouse embryos, and explore its possible mechanism. Methods Undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells were maintained on a feeder layer of Mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and embryoid bodies (EBs) were formed after initiating differentiation. The expression of marker gene in embryonic development period of EBs was identified by RT-PCR. Chromosome immunoprecipitation and DNA microarray were conducted to detect the downstream genes regulated by menin in mouse EBs, and the results were identified by Real-Time PCR. Results It was revealed by RT-PCR that EBs corresponded to the early organogenesis stage of mouse embryonic development. In the microarray containing 8 640 oligonucleotides representing about 8 000 genes in the genome, 784 genes were identified as downstream. These genes were then classified into cellular signaling pathways and were identified, including Wnt signaling pathways (1500003O03Rik, Prkca, Fosl1, Nfatc3 and Dvl1), MAPK signaling pathways (Casp6, Arrb2, Fgf15, 1500003O03Rik, Map3k4, Map2k1ip1, Tgfb3, Prkca, Traf2, Dusp7 and Atf2), TGF-β signaling pathways (Thbs1, Tgfb3, Bmp4 and Smurf2) and apoptosis signaling pathways (Casp6, 1500003O03Rik, Prkar1a, Ripk1, Traf2, Capn5, Endog and Myd88). Conclusion Menin may affect mouse embryonic development by several cellular signaling pathways, including Wnt, MAPK, TGF-β and apoptosis signaling pathways.

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    Effects of Rosiglitazone on vascular structure and expression of phospholipase A2 in rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus
    YU Jiao, WANG Ning-jian, ZHAO Li-juan, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  665. 
    Abstract ( 1832 )   PDF (7453KB) ( 1055 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of rosiglitazone on vascular lesions in rats with diabetes mellitus, and explore its possible mechanism. Methods Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, diabetes mellitus group and diabetes mellitus rosiglitazone treatment group. Rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus were established in diabetes mellitus group and diabetes mellitus rosiglitazone treatment group by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozocin (STZ), and intragastric administration of rosiglitazone (1mg/kg) was conducted in diabetes mellitus rosiglitazone treatment group for 8 weeks from the second week after glucostasis. At the end of the eighth week, heart blood samples were collected from each group of rats, and ELISA was employed to detect the levels of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Besides, thoracoabdominal aorta were obtained, histomorphology and ultrastructure changes of vessel wall were observed, and expression of PLA2 protein of vessel wall was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with normal control group, the vascular structure of rats in diabetes mellitus group was damaged severely, both local PLA2 protein expression and serum PLA2 level increased. The vascular lesions in diabetes mellitus rosiglitazone treatment group were less severe than those in diabetes mellitus group. The expression of PLA2 protein of vessel wall and serum PLA2 level in diabetes mellitus rosiglitazone treatment group were significantly higher than those in control group, and significantly lower than those in diabetes mellitus group (P<0.05). Conclusion Rosiglitazone has protective effects on vascular structure of rats with diabetes mellitus, and the mechanism may relate to the inhibition of PLA2 expression and reduction of inflammation.

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    Effects of human recombinant growth hormone on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC-97H and underlying mechanism
    ZHU Chen-fang, ZHONG Qiang, GU Yan
    2010, 30 (6):  669. 
    Abstract ( 1939 )   PDF (6477KB) ( 1357 )  

    Objective To investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC-97H, and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods Apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC-97H was induced by serum free culture fluid, and MHCC-97H cells were then cultured with 0 μg/L rhGH (GH0 group), 5 μg/L rhGH (GH5 group), 25 μg/L rhGH (GH25 group), 50 μg/L rhGH (GH50 group), 100 μg/L rhGH (GH100 group) and 500 μg/L rhGH (GH500 group), respectively. The growth of MHCC-97H cells was observed by MTT method, cell apoptosis rate, cell cycle and cell proliferation index were determined by flow cytometry, and RT-PCR and Western blotting were employed to detect the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein, respectively. Results Compared with GH0 group, the proliferation of MHCC-97H cells, the percentages of cells in S phase and proliferation indexes significantly increased in GH25 group, GH50 group, GH100 group and GH500 group (P<0.05). Cell apoptosis rates in GH25 group, GH50 group and GH100 group significantly decreased (P<0.05), the expression of Bax mRNA and protein significantly decreased and that of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion rhGH can stimulate the in vitro proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC-97H, the mechanism of which is closely related to the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 genes.

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    Effects of microinjection of estrogen into rostral ventromedial medulla on visceromotor responses in rats
    NIE Pei-he, DONG Li, ZHI Jian-ming, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  674. 
    Abstract ( 1966 )   PDF (6011KB) ( 1404 )  

    Objective To examine the potential roles of estrogen in rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) on visceral nociception. Methods The visceromotor responses (VMR) evoked by repeated colorectal distention (CRD) were monitored in lightly anesthetized adult female rats. Various doses of estrogen or morphine were applied by microinjection into RVM or cerebellomedullary cistern, and the changes of VMR were observed. Results Local administration of estrogen in RVM (0.01-1 μmol/L, 0.5 μL) resulted in dose-dependent increments in VMR evoked by CRD, with <2 min for the latency of this effect. Moreover, estrogen (0.1-1 μmol/L, 50 μL)applied intracisternally dose-dependently blocked the analgesia induced by microinjection of morphine into RVM. Conclusion Estrogen acting in RVM may not only enhance VMR, but also antagonize the analgesic action of morphine.

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    In vitro thrombolysis study of magnetic nano-mesoporous materials carrying urokinase
    YANG Wen-zhi, WU Qiang, SONG Bei-wen, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  679. 
    Abstract ( 1714 )   PDF (4410KB) ( 1536 )  

    Objective To evaluate the thrombolytic effects of magnetic nano-mesoporous materials carrying urokinase in flow conditions. Methods Thrombosis was prepared and linked to flow model in vitro. Four groups were divided, and were treated with normal saline (blank control group), urokinase (urokinase control group), magnetic urokinase (magnetic urokinase group) and magnetic urokinase plus external magnetic field (magnetic urokinase plus external magnetic field group), respectively. The weight of thrombus before and after thrombolysis was obtained, the rates of thrombolysis were calculated, and the amount of liquid recanalization was recorded. Results Magnetic urokinase aggregation in the target position was clearly observed in magnetic urokinase plus external magnetic field group. There was no significant difference in the rates of thrombolysis between urokinase control group (76.89%±0.048%) and magnetic urokinase group (75.42%±0.094%) (P>0.05), while the rate of thrombolysis in magnetic urokinase plus external magnetic field group (90.45%±0.076%) was significantly higher than those in urokinase control group and magnetic urokinase group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the amount of liquid recanalization between urokinase control group [(42.47±1.834) mL)] and magnetic urokinase group [(39.70±5.028) mL] (P>0.05), while the amount of liquid recanalization in magnetic urokinase plus external magnetic field group [(60.29±3.216)mL] was significantly higher than that in urokinase control group and magnetic urokinase group (P<0.05). Conclusion The magnetic nano-mesoporous material as a carrier of thrombolytic drugs can enhance the targeting of urokinase, and improve the rate of thrombosis in flow conditions.

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    Oridonin induces apoptosis and senescence of colorectal cancer SW-1116 cells in vitro and in vivo
    GAO Feng-hou, GUO Zhu-ying, XU Mang-hua, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  683. 
    Abstract ( 1821 )   PDF (9072KB) ( 1438 )  

    Objective To explore the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of oridonin (Ori) on colorectal cancer and the related mechanisms. Methods Colorectal cancer cell line SW-1116 and established Xenograft models in nude mice were treated with different concentrations of Ori (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μmol/L). The antiproliferative effect of Ori on SW-1116 cells was assessed using CCK-8, the changes of cell cycle and cell apoptosis after treatment of SW-1116 cells with Ori were evaluated with flow cytometry, the senescence-associated expression of β-galactosidase activity was detected with a senescence detection kit, the effect of Ori on colony formation of SW-1116 cells was determined by soft agar cell clone formation test, and the effect and mechanism of Ori on the growth of Xenografts in nude mice were observed. Results Ori induced growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and suppressed colony-forming efficiency in colorectal cancer SW-1116 cells. Ori also significantly inhibited the in vivo growth of SW-1116 cells in xenografts in nude mice, and the apoptosis and senescence increased with Ori dosage. Conclusion Ori possesses in vitro and in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activities, and may represent a novel therapeutic option in treatment of colorectal cancer.

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    Experimental observation on treatment of coronary microcirculatory disturbance by anisodamine
    CHEN Liang, JIANG Jin-qi, ZHANG Dao-liang, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  689. 
    Abstract ( 1640 )   PDF (4620KB) ( 1612 )  

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects and explore the mechanism of anisodamine on coronary microcirculatory disturbance by establishing coronary microthrombosis models in New Zealand white rabbits. Methods A total of 24 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, model group and treatment group, with 8 rabbits in each group. In model group, coronary microthrombosis models were established by injection of sodium laurate into aortic root at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg (40 mg/mL) with aortic clamping for 10 s. In treatment group, 10 mg of anisodamine was administered by intramuscular injection after injection of sodium laurate. In control group, no treatment was performed. Then, 2 mL blood samples were obtained from ear artery before operation and 3 h after operation in model group and treatment group, while the blood samples in control group were obtained at randomized time points with the interval of 3 h. The serum concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1(ET-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cardiac troponinⅠ (cTnⅠ) were measured. Animals were sacrificed, pathological sections of heart were prepared, the formation of microthrombus was observed, and the rates of microthrombus formation  were calculated. Results Three hours after injection of sodium laurate in model group, the serum concentration of NO was lower than that before operation, and the concentrations of ET-1, VEGF and cTn I were higher. However, the tendency of changes of NO, ET-1, VEGF and cTnⅠ in treatment group was in line with model group, and  were more moderate. There were significant differences between treatment group and model group in the changes of each parameter before operation and after operation (P<0.01). Three hours after injection of sodium laurate, NO/ET-1 ratio of treatment group was significantly higher than that of model group (P<0.05). There were no thromboses in coronary arteries in each group and no thromboses in arterioles in control group, while there were typical thromboses in arterioles in model group and treatment group. The rate of microthrombus formation in treatment group was lower than that in model group (P<0.05). Conclusion Anisodamine can effectively improve microcirculations, reduce the damage of endothelial cells, correct the imbalance of NO/ET-1, thereby reduce microthrombus induced by sodium laurate, and ultimately, effectively remedy coronary microcirculatory disturbance.

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    Expression of JARID1B in bladder cancer tissues and construction and function of lentiviral expression vector
    HUANG Sheng-song, ZHU Zi-qi, SUN Li, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  693. 
    Abstract ( 1864 )   PDF (6547KB) ( 1249 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of histone demethyltransferases JARID1B in bladder cancer tissues and human bladder cancer cell line T24, construct JARID1B lentiviral expression vector and perform identification, and investigate the expression of JARID1B infected by packed lentivirus. Methods The expression of JARID1B protein in 6 cases of bladder cancer tissues, tissues adjacent to cancer, and human bladder cancer cell line T24 was detected by Western blotting. With eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(-)-JARID1B, JARID1B gene sequence was incorporated into lentiviral vectors pLv-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) which contained EGFP, and recombinant lentivirus expression vector pLv-EGFP-JARID1B was constructed. After DNA sequence analysis, pLv-JARID1B plasmid was transfected into T24 by Lipofectamine, the expression of GFP was observed by fluorescence microscopy, and the expression of JARID1B mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Lentivirus was packed and T24 was infected, and the expression of JARID1B protein wes determined by Western blotting. Results The positive expression rates of JARID1B protein in bladder cancer tissues and tissues adjacent to cancer were 16.7% and 66.7%, respectively, and the expression was weaker for the former. The expression of JARID1B protein in T24 was negative. JARID1B sequence was verified to be inserted into lentiviral vectors pLv-EGFP. After transfection of T24 with pLv-EGFP-JARID1B, the expression of GFP was observed by fluorescence microscope, and the expression of JARID1B mRNA in T24 was detected by RT-PCR. After infection of T24 by packed lentivirus, Western blotting analysis revealed that the expression of JARID1B protein was detected.ConclusionThe expression of JARID1B is down-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. JARID1B lentiviral expression plasmid can be successfully constructed, and there is overexpression of JARID1B in T24 infected with packed lentivirus.

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    Analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene mutations: a novel missense mutation
    WANG Ye-fei, XIA Wen-quan, NI Pei-hua, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  698. 
    Abstract ( 2889 )   PDF (6121KB) ( 1454 )  

    Objective To analyse the types of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations in patients with G6PD deficiency. Methods The blood samples of 49 patients with G6PD deficiency and 100 normal subjects confirmed by G6PD activity detection were collected. Sequence analysis was performed on 12 exons from 2 to 13 by PCR and DNA sequencing. Results Twelve different missense G6PD mutations were detected, and the three most common mutations were G6PD G1388A (26.5%), G1376T (28.6%) and A95G (14.3%). The G6PD activity of these individuals was 5% to 18% of that of normal subjects. The clinical manifestations of these subjects were acute hemolytic anemia trigged by ingestion of fava bean and neonatal jaundice. The other mutations included C1024T (4.1%), C1225T (2.0%), C1159T (2.0%), G487A (4.1%), G392T (4.1%), G1160A (6.1%), G871A / C1311T (4.1%) and C 406T/C1311T (2.0%). A novel missense mutation (G691 C) in exon 7 of the G6PD gene predicting a single amino acid substitution, Ala231Pro was identified. The same gene mutations were not detected in samples of normal subjects. Conclusion G6PD gene G1388A, G1376T and A95G are the three most common types of G6PD gene mutations in patients with G6PD deficiency. A novel missense mutation G691C is found, which produces an Ala231Pro substitution and leads to significantly decreased G6PD activity in red blood cells.

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    Original article (Clinical research)
    Expression of single-stranded DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
    ZHAO Bao-jing, HUANG Xin-fang, SHEN Nan, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  703. 
    Abstract ( 1652 )   PDF (4707KB) ( 1304 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Flow cytometry was employed to detect the percentages of PBMC with positive ssDNA expression in 26 patients with SLE (SLE group), and normal control group (n=17) and the other connective tissue diseases (CTD) control group (n=7) were established. Results The ssDNA positive rates in peripheral B lymph cells in SLE group, normal control group and CTD control group were (0.906±0.838)%, (0.216±0.371)% and (0.270±0.311)%, respectively. The ssDNA positive rate in peripheral B lymph cells in SLE group was significantly higher than those in normal control group and CTD control group (P<0.01, P<0.05). There were significant differences in the ssDNA positive rates in peripheral B lymph cells between patients with lupus nephritis in SLE group and those without lupus nephritis in SLE group [(1.228±0.259)% vs (0.510±0.436)%, P<0.05]. Conclusion The development of SLE and lupus nephritis may be related to the increase of peripheral B lymph cells with ssDNA expression.

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    Selection of short tandem repeats and their application in linkage analysis for prenatal diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy
    SUN Wei, SHEN Jia-wei, LONG Fei, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  707. 
    Abstract ( 1848 )   PDF (6735KB) ( 1387 )  

    Objective To establish a solid prenatal genetic diagnosis system for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in Chinese Han populations. Methods Gene polymorphism analysis was conducted with peripheral blood samples of 30 Chinese Han normal people, and polymorphic informative content of short tandem repeats (STR) loci linking to survival motor neuron gene 1(SMN1) was assessed. Appropriate STR loci were selected by linkage analysis of prenatal diagnosis of 6 Chinese SMA families, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was employed to evaluate the linkage between STR loci and SMN1. Results Four out of the 7 STR loci, D5S435, D5S629, D5S610 and D5S351 were selected for linkage analysis, and 2 affected fetuses and 4 carriers were detected in 6 SMA families with PCR-RFLP assay. Conclusion A solid and reliable SMA prenatal diagnosis system is established, which combines PCR-RFLP assay with linkage analysis using 4 selected STR loci suitable for Chinese Han populations.

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    Changes of related serum hormone levels after operation or withdrawal of drug substitution treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma
    WU Zhen-yu, CHEN Su-yun, DU Xue-liang, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  713. 
    Abstract ( 2138 )   PDF (5595KB) ( 1383 )  

    Objective To observe and analyse the changes of related hormone levels after operation or withdrawal of drug (levothyroxine) substitution treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods One hundred and two patients with DTC were divided into initial treatment without 131I ablation therapy group (n=33) and multiple treatment with 131I ablation therapy group (n=69) according to the application of 131I ablation therapy and substitution treatment. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) levels were detected after operation or 2, 3 and 4 weeks after drug withdrawl. The hormone levels were compared between these two groups at corresponding time points. With serum TSH>30 mIU/L as cutoff point, the attainment rates were compared between these two groups. The relationship between serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 in multiple treatment with 131I ablation therapy group was analysed, and serum TSH levels and attainment rates were compared among patients with different genders, ages, histological types and clinical stages of tumor. Results Serum TSH levels and attainment rates in initial treatment without 131I ablation therapy group were lower than those in multiple treatment with 131I ablation therapy group at each corresponding time point, with significant differences at the time points of the third and fourth week (P<0.05). Serum FT3 and FT4 levels were significantly negatively related to FSH level in multiple treatment with 131I ablation therapy group (r=-0.285, r=-0.345, P<0.05). Serum TSH levels and attainment rates of females were significantly lower than those of males (P<0.05), and those of patients >45 years old were significantly lower than those of patients ≤45 years old (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in serum TSH levels and attainment rates among patients with different histological types and clinical stages (P>0.05). Conclusion Serum TSH levels and attainment rates after DTC are lower than those after 131I ablation therapy. With the continuation of drug withdrawl, serum FSH levels in patients with 131I ablation therapy increase, and FT3 and FT4 levels decrease. Serum FSH levels and attainment rates relate to age and gender of patients.

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    Correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms of DCK and outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia treated by cytarabine
    YANG Guan-qun, CHEN Fang-yuan, WAN Hai-xia, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  717. 
    Abstract ( 1987 )   PDF (5254KB) ( 1426 )  

    Objective To explore the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) and outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated by cytarabine (Ara-C). Methods Ligase detection reaction technique was employed to detect the genotype of 7 SNPs (SNP1-SNP7) from 126 patients with AML treated by Ara-C (AML group) and 100 healthy people (normal control group), and the genotype distribution and outcomes of patients with AML treated by Ara-C were analysed. Results There were significant differences in the allele distribution of SNP1 (rs2306744) and genotype distribution of SNP2 (rs12648166) of DCK between normal control group and AML group and between normal control group and Ara-C ineffective group (n=35) (P<0.05). In AML group, the CC genotype of SNP1, polymorphism genotype (AG+GG)of SNP2 and wild type  genotype of SNP3 (rs4694362) displayed a favorable response to chemotherapy. Conclusion SNPs of DCK gene may be one of the molecular markers to predict the outcomes of patients with AML treated by Ara-C.

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    Immunohistochemical detection of epithelioid angiomyolipoma of kidney
    WANG Zhao-liang, ZHU Jian-shan, CHEN Yi-ming, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  722. 
    Abstract ( 2173 )   PDF (6024KB) ( 1301 )  

    Objective To investigate the expression of a panel of immunohistochemical markers in epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) of the kidney, and explore its roles in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis. Methods The expression of  vimentin, HMB45, Melan-A, AE1/AE3, EMA, SMA, ER, PR, CD68, CD10, CD34, CD117, S-100 protein, P53 and Ki-67 was detected in 13 cases of renal EAMLs by immunochemical EnVision method. Results All the 13 cases of tumor cells were positive for vimentin, SMA, HMB45, Melan-A and CD68, while negative for AE1/AE3, EMA, CD10, CD34, CD117, ER and PR. Three cases of tumor cells were positive for Ki-67 and P53, and 2 were positive for S-100 protein. Conclusion Immunohistochemical markers of SMA, HMB45, Melan-A, AE1/AE3 and EMA can be used as primary antibodies for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of EAML of the kidney. Ki-67 and P53 might be valuable indexes in prognosis prediction.

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    Appearance of anterior talofibular ligament injury on ultrasound
    CAI Ye-hua, YANG Yong-ming, QIN Qian-miao, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  726. 
    Abstract ( 2431 )   PDF (3566KB) ( 1694 )  

    Objective To analyse the appearance of anterior talofibular ligament injury on ultrasound, and evaluate its clinical diagnostic value. Methods Ninety patients suspected of ankle ligament injury were examined with 5-17 MHz liner prober, and the appearance of anterior talofibular ligament injury on ultrasound was observed. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was compared with surgical findings in 31 patients undergoing operations. Results In these 90 patients, 32 experienced GradeⅠ sprains (contusions) with enlargement and low echo of the ligament on ultrasound, 15 suffered from Grade Ⅱ sprains (partial rupture) with interruption of partial ligamnent's continuity on ultrasound, and 34 had Grade Ⅲ sprains (complete rupture) with interruption of whole ligament and contraction of the broken end on ultrasound. Among the 31 patients with operations, the ultrasonographic diagnosis of 28 was in line with surgical findings. Conclusion High frequency ultrasonography is a simple and effective method for detecting injuries of anterior talofibular ligament.

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    Surgical treatment for giant primary chest wall tumors
    LI Guo-qing, MEI Ju, ZHONG Hong, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  729. 
    Abstract ( 1602 )   PDF (3557KB) ( 1096 )  

    Objective To summarize the experience in the treatment of giant primary chest wall tumors. Methods Twenty-three patients with giant primary chest wall tumors undergoing surgical treatment were selected, and different operative incisions were determined according to lesion locations. Subcapsular tumors were isolated under the envelope, while tumors without envelope or tumors extending into mediastinum and chest wall were separated by sharp and blunt dissection according to anatomical structures before complete excision. Involved tissues such as pericardium and lung were cut off, while the unaffected soft tissues of chest wall were reserved as much as possible. The materials for chest wall repair included thigh fascia lata, Dacron patch and mesh-like titanium alloy plate. Results The resected tumors ranged between 10 cm to 26 cm in diameter, with an average of (15.43±4.83) cm. There were 18 cases of malignant tumors and 5 cases of benign tumors, and all were treated by complete tumor excision, with chest wall repair performed in 12 cases. No postoperative complications occurred. The mean length of hospital stay was (9.91±2.56) d. Conclusion Good knowledge of pulmonary function and relationship between tumors and adjacent organs before operation, optimal surgical approach, and proper materials for repair are the keys to successful surgical treatment for giant primary chest wall tumors.

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    Review
    Application of curcumin in treatment of neurological diseases
    CHEN Si-yan
    2010, 30 (6):  732. 
    Abstract ( 1759 )   PDF (4309KB) ( 1520 )  

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenol. Recently, the antiinflammatory, antioxidant, immunoregulatory and proapoptotic properties of curcumin have been revealed. The role of curcumin on genes and cell-signaling pathways at multiple levels has become a hotspot of biomedical research. In this paper, the biological properties of curcumin and its effect on some neurological diseases are reviewed.

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    Application of mental scales in identification of psychological disorder in general hospitals
    ZHUANG Qi
    2010, 30 (6):  735. 
    Abstract ( 1538 )   PDF (4171KB) ( 1300 )  

    Psychological disorder has become a common disease in general hospitals, with low visit rate and diagnosis rate. As a quantitative tool, mental scales help doctors to identify psychological disorder. Three hundred and seventy-seven literatures from 1989 to 2010 are obtained through screening after searching with title and key words of  psychological and scale” from database. The application of commonly used mental scales such as Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Symptom Check-list 90, Self-rating Anxiety & Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety & Depression Scale and Center for Epidemiological Survey-Depression Scale in identification of psychological disorder in general hospitals is analysed in this paper.

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    Brief original article
    Analysis of 66 patients with cardiac tumors undergoing surgical treatment
    MAO Jian-qiang, ZHOU Li-jin, YUAN Zhong-xiang, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  739. 
    Abstract ( 1832 )   PDF (3007KB) ( 1198 )  

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of surgical treatment of cardiac tumors. Methods The clinical data of 66 patients with cardiac tumors undergoing surgical treatment were retrospectively analysed, including clinical manifestations, pathological types, treatment procedures and treatment outcomes. Results There were 57 patients with benign cardiac tumors among the 66 patients, and all the tumors were myxomas. One patient died during perioperation, and another one underwent a second operation due to recurrence 3 years after first operation. Six patients experienced metastatic malignant cardiac tumors and 3 had primary malignant cardiac tumors, and all these 9 patients died 1 to 10 months after operation. Conclusion Surgical treatment may be optimal to manage cardiac tumors, with favourable outcomes in benign cardiac tumors and poor prognosis in malignant ones.

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    Value of CT and MRI in early diagnosis of acute type I Herpes simplex encephalitis
    WANG Cheng-wei, BAI Jun, HU Xing-zhen, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  742. 
    Abstract ( 1745 )   PDF (4009KB) ( 1198 )  

    Objective To explore the value of CT and MRI in the early diagnosis of acute type I Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Methods The clinical data of eleven patients with HSE in early stage were collected, and the manifestations in CT and MRI were analysed. Results The imaging findings of HSE in early stage were divided into two types. The lesions involved basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem were characterised by “basal ganglia standing out” sign, while those in frontal and temporal lobe were presented as “knife-cutting” sign. Conclusion MRI and CT play an important role in the early diagnosis of HSE.

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    Clinical experience
    Diagnosis of primary lung cancer by color Doppler sonography
    WANG Lei, CHEN Ming, XIE Xiao-yi, et al
    2010, 30 (6):  745. 
    Abstract ( 1852 )   PDF (3705KB) ( 1284 )  

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of color Doppler sonography in diagnosis of primary lung cancer, and explore the relationship between color Doppler sonography findings and histopathological types. Methods One hundred and twenty-six patients with primary lung cancer were examined by color Doppler sonography, and blood flow parameters of peak systolic velocity (Vp) and resistive index (RI) were measured. Comparison analysis was performed between those with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, between those with small cell carcinoma and non-small cell carcinoma, and between those with tumor diameter ≤50 mm and tumor diameter>50 mm. Results There was no significant difference in Vp and RI between patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in Vp between patients with nonsmall cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma (P>0.05), while there were significant differences in RI between patients with non-small cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma (0.66±0.23 vs 0.83±0.21, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in Vp between patients with tumor diameter ≤50 mm and tumor diameter >50 mm (P>0.05), while RI in patients with tumor diameter >50 mm was significantly lower than that in patients with tumor diameter ≤50 mm (0.63±0.21 vs 0.74±0.24, P<0.05). Conclusion There exists clinical value of Doppler sonography in differential diagnosis of small cell carcinoma and non-small cell carcinoma.

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